World Health Organization. Cancer. WHO. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs297/en/. February 1 2018; Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Stomach Cancer. National Cancer Institute. Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/stomach.html. Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Avital I, Stojadinovic A, Pisters PWT, Kelsen DP, Willett CG. Cancer of the Stomach. DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenbergs Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer; 2015. 613-42.
[Guideline] National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Gastric Cancer. Version 3.2016. NCCN. Available at http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/gastric.pdf. Version 1.2018 March 16, 2018;
Global Cancer Facts & Figures, 3rd ed. American Cancer Society. Available at https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/global-cancer-facts-and-figures/global-cancer-facts-and-figures-3rd-edition.pdf. Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Stemmermann GN, et al. Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. N Engl J Med. 2001 Sep 6. 345(10):725-30. [Medline].
Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 6. 355(1):11-20. [Medline].
Ooi CH, Ivanova T, Wu J, Lee M, Tan IB, Tao J, et al. Oncogenic pathway combinations predict clinical prognosis in gastric cancer. PLoS Genet. 2009 Oct. 5(10):e1000676. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Song H, Ekheden IG, Zheng Z, Ericsson J, Nyrn O, Ye W. Incidence of gastric cancer among patients with gastric precancerous lesions: observational cohort study in a low risk Western population. BMJ. 2015 Jul 27. 351:h3867. [Medline]. [Full Text].
American Cancer Society. Key statistics for stomach cancer. American Cancer Society. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/stomachcancer/detailedguide/stomach-cancer-key-statistics. January 5, 2018; Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Gunderson LL, Sosin H. Adenocarcinoma of the stomach: areas of failure in a re-operation series (second or symptomatic look) clinicopathologic correlation and implications for adjuvant therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1982 Jan. 8(1):1-11. [Medline].
Correa P. Diet modification and gastric cancer prevention. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1992. 75-8. [Medline].
Buiatti E, Palli D, Decarli A, Amadori D, Avellini C, Bianchi S, et al. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer. 1989 Oct 15. 44(4):611-6. [Medline].
Steevens J, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study. Gut. 2010 Jan. 59(1):39-48. [Medline].
Gonzlez CA, Pera G, Agudo A, Palli D, Krogh V, Vineis P, et al. Smoking and the risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer. 2003 Nov 20. 107(4):629-34. [Medline].
Wu X, Zeng Z, Chen B, Yu J, Xue L, Hao Y, et al. Association between polymorphisms in interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F genes and risks of gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009 Nov 10. [Medline].
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Schistosom. Vol 61 of IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1994. J Clin Oncol. 2004. 22:2069.
Cheung KS, Chan EW, Wong AYS, Chen L, Wong ICK, Leung WK. Long-term proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer development after treatment for Helicobacter pylori: a population-based study. Gut. Available at http://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2017/09/18/gutjnl-2017-314605. October 31, 2017; Accessed: November 1, 2017.
Neugut AI, Hayek M, Howe G. Epidemiology of gastric cancer. Semin Oncol. 1996 Jun. 23(3):281-91. [Medline].
Guilford P, Hopkins J, Harraway J, et al. E-cadherin germline mutations in familial gastric cancer. Nature. 1998. 392:402. [Medline].
Cardwell CR, Abnet CC, Cantwell MM, Murray LJ. Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and risk of esophageal cancer. JAMA. 2010 Aug 11. 304(6):657-63. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Filippi L, D'Arienzo M, Scopinaro F, Salvatori R, Bagni O. Usefulness of dual-time point imaging after carbonated water for the fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission imaging of peritoneal carcinomatosis in colon cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013 Jan. 28(1):29-33. [Medline].
Brooks M. A new gastric cancer subtype responds to 5-FU. Medscape Medical News. September 4, 2013. [Full Text].
Lei Z, Tan IB, Das K, et al. Identification of molecular subtypes of gastric cancer with different responses to PI3-kinase inhibitors and 5-fluorouracil. Gastroenterology. 2013 Sep. 145(3):554-65. [Medline].
Turner ES, Turner JR. Expanding the lauren classification: a new gastric cancer subtype? [editorial]. Gastroenterology. 2013 Sep. 145(3):505-8. [Medline].
Stomach. Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2002. 120.
Najam AA, Yao JC, Lenzi R, et al. Linitis plastica is common in women and in poorly differentiated and signet ring cell histologies: an analysis of 217 patients (abstract). Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2002. 21:166a.
Shen KH, Wu CW, Lo SS, et al. Factors correlated with number of metastatic lymph nodes in gastric cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jan. 94(1):104-8. [Medline].
Lee SE, Ryu KW, Nam BH, Lee JH, Choi IJ, Kook MC, et al. Prognostic significance of intraoperatively estimated surgical stage in curatively resected gastric cancer patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2009 Oct. 209(4):461-7. [Medline].
Ozcan S, Barkauskas DA, Ruhaak LR, Javier Torres J, Cooke CL, An H, et al. Serum glycan signatures of gastric cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Dec 10. [Medline].
Waknine Y. Researchers Discover 'Glycan Fingerprint' for Gastric Cancer. Medscape [serial online]. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/818637. January 3, 2014; Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Bozzetti F, Marubini E, Bonfanti G, Miceli R, Piano C, Gennari L. Subtotal versus total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: five-year survival rates in a multicenter randomized Italian trial. Italian Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. Ann Surg. 1999 Aug. 230(2):170-8. [Medline].
Bonenkamp JJ, Hermans J, Sasako M, van de Velde CJ, Welvaart K, Songun I, et al. van de Velde, CJ. Extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 25. 340:908. [Medline].
Hartgrink HH, van de Velde CJ, Putter H, Bonenkamp JJ, Klein Kranenbarg E, Songun I, et al. Extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: who may benefit? Final results of the randomized Dutch gastric cancer group trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jun 1. 22(11):2069-77. [Medline].
Degiuli M, Sasako M, Ponti A. Morbidity and mortality in the Italian Gastric Cancer Study Group randomized clinical trial of D1 versus D2 resection for gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2010 May. 97(5):643-9. [Medline].
Memon MA, Subramanya MS, Khan S, et al. Meta-analysis of D1 versus D2 gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma. Ann Surg. 2011 May. 253(5):900-11. [Medline].
Sindelar WG, Kinsella TJ. Randomized trial of resection and intraoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancer. Proc Ann Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1987. 6:A357.
Moertel CG, Childs DS, Reitemeier RJ, et al. Combined 5-fluorouracil and supervoltage radiation therapy of locally unresectable gastrointestinal cancer. Lancet. 1969 Oct 25. 2(7626):865-7. [Medline].
Hallissey MT, Dunn JA, Ward LC, Allum WH. The second British Stomach Cancer Group trial of adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy in resectable gastric cancer: five-year follow-up. Lancet. 1994 May 28. 343(8909):1309-12. [Medline].
Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. The concept of locally advanced gastric cancer. Effect of treatment on outcome. The Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. Cancer. 1990 Dec 1. 66(11):2324-30. [Medline].
Moertel CG, Childs DS, O'Fallon JR, et al. Combined 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy as a surgical adjuvant for poor prognosis gastric carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1984 Nov. 2(11):1249-54. [Medline].
Smalley SR, Benedetti JK, Haller DG, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Ajani JA, et al. Updated Analysis of SWOG-Directed Intergroup Study 0116: A Phase III Trial of Adjuvant Radiochemotherapy Versus Observation After Curative Gastric Cancer Resection. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jul 1. 30(19):2327-33. [Medline].
Earle CC, Maroun JA. Adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection for gastric cancer in non-Asian patients: revisiting a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Eur J Cancer. 1999 Jul. 35(7):1059-64. [Medline].
Bang YJ, Kim YW, Yang HK, et al. Adjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin for gastric cancer after D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC): a phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2012 Jan 28. 379(9813):315-21. [Medline].
Narahara H, Koizumi T, Hara A, et al. Randomized phase III study of S-1 alone versus S-1+cisplatin in the treatment for advanced gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol. June 2007. 25:201s.
US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Cyramza for stomach cancer [press release]. April 21, 2014. Available at https://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20170112023840/http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm394107.htm. April 21, 2014; Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Fuchs CS, Doi T, Jang RW, Muro K, Satoh T, et al. Safety and Efficacy of Pembrolizumab Monotherapy in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Gastric and Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: Phase 2 Clinical KEYNOTE-059 Trial. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Mar 15. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Hartgrink HH, Jansen EP, van Grieken NC, van de Velde CJ. Gastric cancer. Lancet. 2009 Aug 8. 374(9688):477-90. [Medline].
Kim HK, Choi IJ, Kim CG, Oshima A, Green JE. Gene expression signatures to predict the response of gastric cancer to cisplatin and fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 2009/05. 27:[Full Text].
Ishido K, Azuma M, Koizumi W, Takeuchi A, Sakuramoto S, Watanabe M, et al. Evaluation of prognostic factors for the response to S-1 in patients with stage II or III advanced gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009 Nov 5. [Medline].
Van Cutsem E, Kang Y, Chung H, Shen L, Sawaki A, Lordick F, et al. Efficacy results from the ToGA trial: A phase III study of trastuzumab added to standard chemotherapy (CT) in first-line human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric cancer (GC). American Society of Clinical Oncology. Available at http://ascopubs.org/doi/abs/10.1200/jco.2009.27.18s.lba4509. Accessed: April 24, 2018.
Brooks M. Adjuvant Chemo Boosts Survival in Advanced Stomach Cancer. Medscape [serial online]. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/807504. Accessed: July 15, 2013.
Sung HN, Sook RP, Han-Kwang Y, et al. ESMO 15th World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, 36 July 2013, Barcelona, Spain. Abstract O-0007. Annals of Oncology. Available at http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/suppl_4/iv14.1.extract?sid=08ae0da9-b2b3-4059-8105-7d8ac1538f2d. Accessed: July 15, 2013.
Ohtsu A, Shah MA, Van Cutsem E, Rha SY, Sawaki A, Park SR, et al. Bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line therapy in advanced gastric cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Oct 20. 29(30):3968-76. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Van Cutsem E, de Haas S, Kang YK, Ohtsu A, Tebbutt NC, Ming Xu J, et al. Bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line therapy in advanced gastric cancer: a biomarker evaluation from the AVAGAST randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun 10. 30(17):2119-27. [Medline].
Rothwell PM, Fowkes GR, Belch JF, Ogawa H, Warlow CP, Meade TW. Effect of daily aspirin on long-term risk of death due to cancer: analysis of individual patient data from randomized trials. Lancet. Dec 7/2010; Early online publication. [Full Text].
National Cancer Institute: PDQ Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Available at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/gastric/HealthProfessional. April 6, 2018; Accessed: April 24, 2018.
National Cancer Institute: PDQ Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Available at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/gastric/HealthProfessional. March 7, 2018; Accessed: April 24, 2018.
[Guideline] Dinis-Ribeiro M, Areia M, de Vries AC, et al. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED). Endoscopy. 2012 Jan. 44 (1):74-94. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Chey WD, Wong BC, Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of Gastroenterology. American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Aug. 102 (8):1808-25. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Malfertheiner P, Megraud F, O'Morain CA, Atherton J, Axon AT, Bazzoli F, et al. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection--the Maastricht IV/ Florence Consensus Report. Gut. 2012 May. 61 (5):646-64. [Medline].
[Guideline] Fallone CA, Chiba N, van Zanten SV, Fischbach L, Gisbert JP, Hunt RH, et al. The Toronto Consensus for the Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Adults. Gastroenterology. 2016 Jul. 151 (1):51-69.e14. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Fitzgerald RC, Hardwick R, Huntsman D, Carneiro F, Guilford P, Blair V, et al. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated consensus guidelines for clinical management and directions for future research. J Med Genet. 2010 Jul. 47 (7):436-44. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] van der Post RS, Vogelaar IP, Carneiro F, et al. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: updated clinical guidelines with an emphasis on germline CDH1 mutation carriers. J Med Genet. 2015 Jun. 52 (6):361-74. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Waddell T, Verheij M, Allum W, Cunningham D, Cervantes A, Arnold D. Gastric cancer: ESMO-ESSO-ESTRO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2013 Oct. 24 Suppl 6:vi57-63. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Genetic/Familial High Risk Assessment: Colorectal. Version 1.2016. Available at https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/genetics_colon.pdf. Accessed: August 6, 2016.
[Guideline] Giardiello FM, Allen JI, Axilbund JE, Boland CR, Burke CA, Burt RW, et al. Guidelines on genetic evaluation and management of Lynch syndrome: a consensus statement by the US Multi-society Task Force on colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014 Aug. 109 (8):1159-79. [Medline].
[Guideline] Vasen HF, Blanco I, Aktan-Collan K, et al. Revised guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (HNPCC): recommendations by a group of European experts. Gut. 2013 Jun. 62 (6):812-23. [Medline].
Japanese Research Society for Gastric cancer. The general rules for the gastric cancer study in surgery and pathology. 12 ed. Tokyo: Kanahara Shuppan; 1993.
Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith