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Category Archives: Anti-Aging Medicine

Solarea Bio Teams up with Hebrew SeniorLife Investigators on a Newly Awarded U.S. National Academy of Medicine Catalyst Grant – Yahoo Finance

Healthy Longevity Initiative Grant Awarded to Study the Mycobiome as a Novel Class of Probiotics to Target Inflammaging

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Nov. 4, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Solarea Bio, a biotechnology company in Cambridge, Mass., and leading researchers at Harvard Medical School affiliated Hebrew SeniorLife, New England's largest nonprofit provider of senior health care and living communities, are co-investigators on a competitive research grant from the U.S. National Academy of Medicine's Healthy Longevity Initiative.

(PRNewsfoto/Solarea Bio)

Solarea Bio, along with Douglas P. Kiel, M.D., M.P.H., Director, Musculoskeletal Research Center, Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, and Shivani Sahni, Ph.D., Director, Nutrition Program, Marcus Institute, received the grant.

According to the researchers, "An aging population has led to a significant global increase in age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's, and others. At the core of this is chronic low-grade inflammation known as inflammaging, and recent evidence describes the gut microbiome as a key regulator of the inflammaging process through direct impact on immune system development and function."

However, while the impact bacteria have on the immune system and human health is well described, fungi, a major component of the gut microbiome, have been largely overlooked due to multiple factors including fungi's large, complex genomes that require deep sequencing and a hybrid assembly, lack of fungal genome databases for functional gene prediction, and underdeveloped bioinformatic tools to identify fungal metabolites important to human health.

The researchers hypothesize that the "mycobiome" (the collection of fungi that are part of the overall microbiome) could offer a large, untapped reservoir of probiotic fungi with the ability to combat inflammaging. Based on this hypothesis, the team will be working to sequence a subset of a large fungal collection and develop bioinformatic tools to identify fungi with probiotic potential. Lead candidate fungi will be tested using in vitro cell culture systems to identify fungi with anti-inflammatory properties that may then be further tested clinically.

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About the Healthy Longevity InitiativeThe Healthy Longevity Initiative is designed to kick start innovation to support healthy longevity through a series of monetary awards and prizes. In the tradition of international races to fly across the Atlantic or walk on the moon, the initiative will rally the world's greatest minds to achieve what may at first seem an impossible goal.

About the Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging ResearchScientists at the Marcus Institute seek to transform the human experience of aging by conducting research that will ensure a life of health, dignity, and productivity into advanced age. The Marcus Institute carries out rigorous studies that discover the mechanisms of age-related disease and disability; lead to the prevention, treatment, and cure of disease; advance the standard of care for older people; and inform public decision-making.

About Hebrew SeniorLifeHebrew SeniorLife, an affiliate of Harvard Medical School, is a national senior services leader uniquely dedicated to rethinking, researching, and redefining the possibilities of aging. Hebrew SeniorLife cares for more than 3,000 seniors a day across six campuses throughout Greater Boston. Our locations include: Hebrew Rehabilitation Center-Boston and Hebrew Rehabilitation Center-NewBridge in Dedham; NewBridge on the Charles, Dedham; Orchard Cove, Canton; Simon C. Fireman Community, Randolph; Center Communities of Brookline, Brookline; and Jack Satter House, Revere. Founded in 1903, Hebrew SeniorLife also conducts influential research into aging at the Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research, which has a portfolio of more than $63 million, making it the largest gerontological research facility in the U.S. in a clinical setting. It also trains more than 1,000 geriatric care providers each year. For more information about Hebrew SeniorLife, visit https://www.hebrewseniorlife.org or follow us on our blog, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

About Solarea BioSolarea Bio is a biotechnology company based in Cambridge, Mass. developing new microbiome-based solutions to some of the world's largest health problems. Solarea was founded in 2017 by a group of scientists and entrepreneurs eager to radically alter our understanding of the human microbiome and utilize its power to improve human health. Solarea's breakthrough came from the combined efforts of the company's co-founders who established a link between the discovery of an untapped source of microorganisms with probiotic potential in healthy foods, and their applications in inflammatory processes including the gut-musculoskeletal axis.

Media Contacts:Margaret BonillaHebrew SeniorLife617-363-8367margaretbonilla@hsl.harvard.edu

Rachel Raymond Solarea Biorraymond@solareabio.com

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Solarea Bio Teams up with Hebrew SeniorLife Investigators on a Newly Awarded U.S. National Academy of Medicine Catalyst Grant - Yahoo Finance

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At-Home Facial Tools Are Having a Major MomentSo 3 Well+Good Staffers Took This Buzzy One for a Test Spin – Well+Good

Whether youre at a three or an eight on the glow-mometer (you know, the scale for how youthful, firm, and radiant your skin looks), if you're an at-home beauty explorer you're always looking for that little extra boostwhich is why three members of team Well+Good were very down to try some buzzy new skin-care tech and share their thoughts on a hyped microcurrent facial device through this FOREO BEAR review.

But before we get to the fun part, let's talk trends: The popularity of skin-care tech (like microcurrent facial devices) is on the rise, and board-certified dermatologist Rachel Nazarian, MD, FAAD shared her expert take as to why. Skin care has evolved a lot in the past few years, and people expect more from their regimen than what topical products can offer, she says. Microcurrents can enhance your home regimen, and also target deeper layers of tissue than topicalsstimulating anti-aging and repairing pathways in new ways.

Enhancing the effects of your skin-care regimen is exactly what the FOREO BEAR aims to provide. The device uses microcurrent (tiny electrical currents that gently stimulate the muscles in your face) in order to provide spa-level results a la contouring and toning, reducing fine lines and wrinkles, and increasing radiance and smoothness in treatments you can easily do at home.

"The effects of a microcurrent facial device, like BEAR, are two-foldthe ones that you see instantly, and the ones that you see over time," says Anika Sekhri, product marketing manager at FOREO. "The top three effects are seeing an instant lift in the face, tightened skin that smoothes out fine lines, and a radiant glow to the complexion."

To find out whether those benefits were legit, three Well+Good staffers tried adding the BEAR to their usual skin-care routines for a few weeks. Keep reading to find out what happened.

With all the clay masks and face scrubs that wrap around my bathtub, you would think Ive cracked the code to amazing skin. The reality is actually the opposite, which is why I wanted to get in on the beauty-tech trend with the BEAR.

Mind you, I was on the fence about using a microcurrent at-home facial device at first because I was afraid of getting shocked, but Sekhri reassured me by cluing me into the BEAR's innovative Anti-Shock System. "[It] uses ultra-smart sensors to scan and measure your skins resistance to electricity at a rate of 100x per second," Sekhri says. "It then automatically adjusts the microcurrent (in just 0.002 seconds - quicker than you can even think of blinking!) to best suit your skin for an unwavering quality of treatment every time."

Assured that I would definitely not get shocked, plus the knowledge that microcurrent can help reduce fine lines, tone, and brighten your complexion over time, I was convinced to give it a chance, and I'm so glad I did.

After several weeks of using it, I've loved the ritual of applying a semi-generous amount of FOREO's SERUM SERUM SERUM (using a water-based serum like this one is essential for conducting the microcurrent to your muscles, and this one also contains moisturizing ingredients such as squalane and hyaluronic acid) before using the device, and moving it over my face for each spa-like treatment. And my skin has been loving it too, considering my complexion definitely looks tighter and more youthful than it did when I was just relying on all those products around my bathtub.

As someone who enjoys a good round of gua sha (which is a traditional Chinese medicine practice) before bed, I was looking forward to trying out the BEAR since I experience a lot of facial tension and have been on the hunt for another tool to add to my skin-care arsenal. This was my first experience with a microcurrent device and I was pleasantly surprised at how easy it was to use, and how relaxing the treatments using the adjustable T-Sonic pulsations felt.

I appreciate that youre able to manually adjust the settings, making it possible to cater to how my skin is reacting that daya lower microcurrent intensity for sensitive days and a higher one for the days when I want an extra boost. I used the product with my usual skin-care routine and found that it actually helped work the products into my skin betterallowing me to tap into more youth-boosting benefits all around. Immediately after use, my skin looks and feels tighter and smoother, which is nice. I think moving forward I will focus on worry areas, like my jawline and cheekbones, for some added lift and definition.

If I could sum up my FOREO BEAR review in one phrase, it would be "self care." As a wellness editor, I write about the term self care constantly, but I recently realized that proximity doesn't equal benefitaka, talking about self care all day doesn't give you the same perks of actually doing it. (Sounds like a no-brainer, but it was a bit of an a-ha moment for this over-stressed editor.)

My new search for a self-care practice that would dedicate some time just for myself each day led me to the BEAR, and it was exactly what I needed. The device connects to an app on your phone that allows you to queue up treatments named after workouts (since the microcurrent facials have been likened to a workout for your face thanks to their lifting and toning effect on the 65+ muscles in your face and neck), and it plays soothing music while you follow along.

Each treatment takes less than three minutes, which was short enough that it didn't feel like an overwhelming addition to my nightly routine, but just long enough that it made me feel more relaxed before getting into bed. After a few weeks of using it, my stress levels are more at bay, my complexion is loving the smoothing, firming effect of my regular microcurrent facials (my skin definitely looks plumper immediately after using the device), and I'm totally sold on the benefit of actually having a self-care routine.

Images: Well+Good Creative

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Best Supplements That Fight Aging, According to Experts – Eat This, Not That

Whether you've recently noticed a few new wrinkles on your face or are suddenly feeling significantly older than your chronological age, there are countless reasons you might be looking to turn back the clock. However, even if you haven't exactly found the fountain of youth, you can both look and feel younger with just a few small changes to your routine. Read on to discover the anti-aging supplements recommended by registered dietitians. And for more supplements you may want to add to your routine, check out The One Vitamin Doctors Are Urging Everyone to Take Right Now.

Curcumin, a yellow compound found in turmeric, is a great way to fight free radical damage that leads to aging.

"Aging happens over time as our cells are exposed to free radicals and inflammation. When this happens, the structures involved in cell replication and lifespantelomeresshorten, so anything that can reduce inflammation and free radicals is helpful," says Alicia Galvin, RD, resident dietitian to Sovereign Laboratories.

"Curcumin activates certain proteins, like AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which helps combat cellular damage and promotes longevity."

RELATED: Sign up for our newsletter to get daily recipes and food news in your inbox!

Want to lose weight and turn back the clock in one fell swoop? Then you might want to add some EGCG to your diet.

"Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a polyphenol concentrated in green tea," Galvin explains. "It induces autophagy, the process by which your body removes damaged cellular material."

What's more, in a small study of 73 overweight and obese women published in BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, EGCG was found to reduce LDL or "bad" cholesterol and increase levels of leptin, a hormone associated with satiety.

If you want to look and feel younger, CoQ10 supplementation might just do the trick.

"CoQ10 declines as you age, and CoQ10 supplements help reduce the accumulation of free radicals that accelerate the aging process," Galvin says.

And if you want to protect your health, These Popular Supplements Have Hidden Dangers, Warn Experts.

Adding some resveratrola compound found in a number of red wine, red fruits, and peanuts, among other foodsto your regular routine is a great way to fight aging from the inside out.

"Resveratrol may promote longevity by activating genes called sirtuins," Galvin says. "This doesn't mean you can drink red wine and not age, but as a supplement, resveratrol can be very effective."

If you do like to wind down with wine at the end of the day, check out the One Surprising Side Effect of Drinking Red Wine for Women, Says New Study.

Vitamin D, a vitamin naturally synthesized through the skin by exposure to sunlight, can have profound anti-aging benefits in supplement form.

"Vitamin D allows the body to absorb calcium, which fuels bone health and may reduce the risk for fracture," says Diana Gariglio-Clelland, RD, a dietitian with Next Luxury.

Citing 2015 research published in the Journal of Advanced Research, Gariglio-Clelland notes that vitamin D has also been linked to reduced UV damage.

If you're eager to keep your body and brain healthy as you age, fish oil supplements are an excellent addition to your wellbeing arsenal.

"Fish oil supplements contain omega-3 fatty acids, known to protect our heart health and cognition, both of which are essential as we age," says Michelle Darian, MS, MPH, RD, a nutrition scientist at InsideTracker.

And for more easy ways to boost your brainpower, check out the 30 Best & Worst Foods for Your Brain.

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Following a Nic’s Keto Diet may improve cardiovascular health and reduce body weight – SMEbulletin

Recent findings from a scientific study may just have discovered the holy grail of health. As confirmed by TRC Gen+, a recent study from Prof. Nikolaos Tzenios PH.D. has pinpointed the healthy diet plan which brings down bodyweight and boosts cardiovascular health markers. Head of the study, Prof Tzenios, is a respected industry professional and holds positions as Professor of Public Health, Fellow of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine and Fellow of The Royal Society for Public Health (UK), among other high-level roles.

An open-label clinical study conducted by the well-regarded KGK Science Canada organisation explored the impact of Nics Keto Diet on cardiovascular health. The study looked at healthy women and men who had slightly elevated LDL cholesterol measurements for a 140 day period. On completion of the clinical study, KGK Science found that participants had a 4.41% lowering in the percentage of body fat.

Results also showed that those who had taken part in the study had seen an 8.55kg reduction in body weight overall. In addition, participants also recorded a significant drop in LDL and total cholesterol readings, after following the diet for 5 months. There was also an increase in good HDL cholesterol levels and an impressive drop in blood sugar levels.

In summary, the study from KGK Science indicates that following Nics Keto Diet could help to lower body weight, boost cardiovascular health, lower bad cholesterol levels and reduce blood sugar levels. As a result, its findings are sure to make waves in the health and nutrition sector.

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Jenny has been reporting on small business issues since 2001 where she held a number of freelance positions across the leading SME publications in the UK. Specialist subjects included SME financing and tax.

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Eating a Nic’s Keto Healthy Fatty Diet Reduce Body Weight and Improve Cardiovascular Health Markers! – Yahoo Finance

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(Bloomberg) -- The cyber-attack that crippled the nations biggest fuel pipeline this week triggered spot shortages of gasoline and a gusher of political rhetoric, with groups from across the political spectrum offering myriad, and contradictory, solutions.The oil industry says the answer is to invest in more fossil-fuel infrastructure, including refineries. Environmental groups think the key is more electric vehicles on the road and solar panels on the grid. A conservative think tank called the outage a wake-up call for pipeline protesters to stop. Even a coal group got involved, noting that its product doesnt need to be piped anywhere.Wind and solar power networks are by their very nature more distributed, more sensibly scaled, and more resilient than fossil fuel systems, Wenonah Hauter, executive director of the environmental group Food and Water Watch, said in a statement.The stark divisions reflect the increasingly vocal energy debate. The oil and gas industry has found itself on the defensive against growing calls to fight climate change by reducing consumption of its products. While many fossil fuel advocates agree that curbing greenhouse gases is critical, they point to the Colonial shutdown as a sign of the potential risks of making the green transition too quickly.Colonial Pipeline Co. began to restart the line Wednesday evening, after a ransomware attack caused the company to shut it down May 7. The pipeline delivers about 45% of the gasoline, jet fuel and diesel used on the East Coast.Whew, crisis averted, that pipeline is back up, tweeted Chris Horner, an attorney and former senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. Now, back to our regularly scheduled agenda of shutting down pipelines.Conservatives have drawn links between the Colonial outage that transported refined fuels and President Joe Bidens opposition to the proposed Keystone XL oil pipeline that would have ferried tar sands crude from Alberta to Nebraska. Even a fully operational Keystone XL would have had no effect on fuel supplies during the Colonial outage, since it would carry minimally processed crude, not gasoline and other refined fuel.The Colonial Pipeline closure should serve as a wake-up call to pipeline protesters who pretend we dont need the energy transported by these pieces of critical infrastructure, opined the Center of the American Experiment, a Minnesota-based conservative think tank. We are as reliant upon oil and natural gas as we are water, and that reality isnt going to change anytime soon.Refining advocates also used the fuel shortages to highlight the decline in fuel-making capacity in the Northeast. Where the East Coast previously had 12 refineries, closures have dropped that number to four. By some estimates, the Atlantic Basin has lost a total of 1.5 million barrels per day of refining capacity since 2008, making the region more reliant on imports and fuel transported by Colonial.A New Jersey lawmaker pressed administration officials to address the decline during a briefing Wednesday. Each time a refinery closes, were losing the ability to fuel our defense, the unidentified lawmaker said, according to a person on the call.The coal industry, whose chief product is a rock that cant be carried by pipelines, used the incident to highlight the value of its fossil fuel. The National Mining Association, which represents companies such as Consol Energy Inc. and Peabody Energy Corp., promoted coal as a valuable insurance policy in an era of emerging and deceptively dangerous threats.Its becoming clear that pipelines and just-in-time fuel delivery are a particularly vulnerable link in the equation, the Washington-based trade group said in a statement Wednesday. The months of fuel stored on site at coal and nuclear power plants add a layer of security and resilience we have long taken for granted and continue to undervalue.Biden administration officials cited the crisis to highlight the presidents multi-trillion-dollar plans for investing in the nations highways, electric vehicle charging and the grid.This incident also reminds us that infrastructure is a national security issue, and the reality is that investing in world-class, modern and resilient infrastructure has always been central to ensuring our countrys economic security, our national security and, as were seeing right now, that includes cybersecurity, Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg said at a White House briefing.Energy Secretary Jennifer Granholm noted at least one group hasnt been affected by the pipeline outage and the fuel shortages it caused along the East Coast.If you drive an electric car this would not be affecting you, clearly, she said during a White House briefing Tuesday.For more articles like this, please visit us at bloomberg.comSubscribe now to stay ahead with the most trusted business news source.2021 Bloomberg L.P.

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Reawakened immune cells attack cells tied to diseases of aging – STAT – STAT

Scientists have started to test whether natural killer, or NK, cells can be trained to go after hard-to-cure blood cancers in human patients. But making these sentinels of the innate immune system a potential boon to human health spans might be simpler: Rather than needing to be genetically engineered or primed with synthetic antibodies, they just need to be turned on.

In mice, researchers reported on Monday in the journal Med, activating NKT cells can eliminate the senescent cells partly responsible for many diseases of aging. If the results hold up, they could offer a promising alternative to senolytics experimental drugs that destroy these zombified cells that pile up and pollute your tissues as you get older. Although dozens of such drugs have postponed or even reversed diseases of aging in mouse experiments, clinical trials have thus far underwhelmed.

Its an interesting approach that works in experimental animals with two different conditions, said geriatrician James Kirkland of the Mayo Clinic, whose discovery that giving old mice senescent cell-crushing compounds makes the animals live longer, healthier lives, helped take senolytics from backwater to boomtown. Were going to need multiple ways of getting at senescent cells, he said. Any step forward is important, and this is quite a nice step forward. But he cautioned that a single senolytic strategy is unlikely to work for all age-related conditions.

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For decades, scientists had largely ignored senescent cells old and arrested in a permanent state of suspended animation dismissing them as a quirk of evolution, a clever way for the body to keep damaged cells from proliferating into cancer. But more recently, Kirkland and other researchers established that senescence is actually a driver of the decrepitude that comes with old age. As cells stop dividing, they dont exactly go dormant. In their zombie-like state, they start spewing a cocktail of toxic molecules that cause inflammation, damage surrounding tissues, and contribute to diseases like osteoarthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimers.

That realization spurred the creation of at least two dozen companies developing ways to systematically purge the body of senescent cells. Senolytics attracted this wave of investment because it promises a scintillating and fundamental shift in medicine away from the one-drug-one-target-one-disease paradigm of the last century, toward correcting a root cause behind many of them with a single treatment.

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One of those researchers is the new studys senior author, Anil Bhushan of the University of California, San Francisco. In 2019, his lab traced the progression of type 1 diabetes in mice and human pancreatic cells. They discovered that signatures of senescence preceded the onset of disease. When his team removed the senescent pancreatic cells in mice, their metabolism stabilized and their diabetes symptoms went away.

What Bhushan took away from that study was that senescence didnt just happen when the bodys biological clocks wound down too far. It occurred in acute diseases too. Thered been talk in the field that an immune surveillance system maintained tissue homeostasis, said Bhushan. We postulated that that system was failing in the disease state and gradually failing in aging, so the only time wed see senescent cells is when this system fails.

To test that hypothesis, his team first went looking for clues as to the identity of their indolent immune cells. By comparing the transcriptional profile which genes were turned on and off in senescent pancreatic cells to healthy ones, they uncovered that the senescent ones boosted production of their antigen-presenting machinery. These are the proteins that, if a cell were infected with a pathogen, would shuttle little bits of the bacteria or virus to its surface, displaying them for immune cells to find. Then they cross-referenced those results with an analysis of senescent stem cells that accumulate in the fat tissues of obese mice who are fed a chronic, high-fat diet. Those cells also upregulated antigen-presenting molecules, and one in particular: CD1d. That was the lock, said Bhushan. And once wed found it, the key was then obvious.

Only one kind of immune cell binds to CD1d invariant natural killer T cells, or iNKTs. Comprising less than 1% of all peripheral blood immune cells, iNKTs are rare but critical components of the bodys surveillance system, scanning for infected and defective cells in need of removal. When they find them, iNKTs expel torrents of cytokines, which signal to other immune cells to do the dirty work. Bhushan figured that something was interfering with that process. And though he wasnt sure what it was, he knew there was a way to fix it.

In the early 1990s, Japanese scientists from Kirin Brewerys pharmaceutical research lab, looking for anticancer treatments in the porous bodies of marine sponges collected in the Okinawan sea, purified a lipid compound called -galactosylceramide. And they discovered that when CD1d grabs onto this -GalCer lipid, it turns on iNKTs like crazy in mice.

So Bhushans team shot up some of their diet-induced obese mice with -GalCer. Within days, the levels of senescent cells in the mouse fat tissues had dropped. So did their fasting glucose. Their insulin sensitivity also improved. Their metabolism started to look normal.

To see how generalizable the effect was, they repeated the experiment with mice whose lung tissues had been damaged by a chemotherapy drug a common model for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a serious and incurable human lung disease, and one of the nastier complications of Covid-19. In those mice, -GalCer successfully activated iNKTs, again resulting in the removal of senescent cells. The treated mice had fewer damaged cells, and they also lived longer than the control group.

Finally, Bhushan and his colleagues looked at how well activated iNKT cells could tell senescent human cells from healthy ones when cultured together. After 18 hours, 100% of the senescent cells had been destroyed; the vast majority of healthy cells went unscathed. That could give the iNKT approach a potential advantage over the senolytics drugs already in development.

Most of them are repackaged cancer drugs that work by flipping on senescent cells self-destruct buttons. But because zombie cells share a lot of molecular features with their fully animated counterparts, those drugs run the risk of creating lots of collateral damage. Clinical trials of one such drug, 17-DMAG, were abandoned due to toxic side effects in the kidney and brain. Other groups are trying to solve this by engineering a different kind of immune cell, the CAR-T cell, to become a better anti-aging treatment. But CAR-Ts come with their own dangerous side effects and are expensive to make.

Bhushan is optimistic that by returning the cells best trained to suss out senescent cells to the ranks of active immune duty, both these safety and cost concerns can be ameliorated. We have this built in specificity of the immune cells part of their job is telling senescent cells apart from healthy ones were just helping them do their job, he said.

Its still an open question. But clinical trials to answer it could be underway by the end of next year. Bhushans initial discoveries are now being developed by a biotech startup called Deciduous Therapeutics, which he co-founded in 2018. Deciduous is backed by 8VC, CRV, and Laura Demings Longevity Fund, and has until now, been operating in stealth. CEO and co-founder Robin Mansukhani told STAT that the company has been focusing on developing compounds that can best stimulate human iNKTs, whose receptors are structurally a bit different from those of a mouse. He expects Deciduous to file its first investigational new drug application to start human testing within the next 18 months, likely for a metabolic disease or fibrotic lung disorder.

Investors pumped the brakes on senolytics after one of the biggest and brightest stars of the nascent sector and another Longevity Fund portfolio company, Unity Biotechnology, announced last August that its lead drug candidate had failed to reduce knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. The experimental drug was immediately and unceremoniously dumped, along with nearly one-third of Unitys staff.

But despite the recent slowdown, Mansukhani remains optimistic. The issue in the field has always been what is the actual immune system process behind senescence clearing?he said. And I feel like weve uncovered that.

Mayos Kirkland cautions that deciphering one chapter of the immune system users manual isnt likely to be the whole story. Senescence can be caused by lots of things aging, yes, but also obesity, chemotherapy drugs, and radiation. There are about 40 to 50 different things that can push a cell into a death spiral, said Kirkland. That makes it really hard to define what a senescent cell is, because its molecular makeup depends on how its senescence was induced.

But the good news, according to Kirkland, is that all the fundamental aging processes mitochondria powering down, oxygen radicals disfiguring DNA, rampant inflammation, the spiral toward senescence appear to be tightly interlinked. Its looking increasingly like if you hit one part of this network of things going on, you affect all the rest, and usually in a positive way, he said.

Kirkland, together with his team at Mayo, have had some success with a cocktail of dasatinib and quercetin. In 2019, they reported positive results from a Phase 1 pilot study of nine diabetic kidney disease patients senescent cells were reduced. A Phase 2 study is now underway. And his team has several more trials for serious conditions, including osteoporosis and Alzheimers disease, in the pipeline. Kirkland serves as a scientific adviser to a new senolytics company called NRTK Biosciences that has yet to receive funding and anti-aging supplement company Elysium Health.

But the real question for the future, said Kirkland, is which interventions can you combine to get an additive, synergistic effect? Something that actually alleviates not just one disease of aging, but many, or even all of them? Figuring out how immune cells interplay with senescence is going to be the start of looking for those combinations.

Thats whats next for Bhushans lab a painstaking process of deleting different antigen-displaying peptides across dozens of types of immune cells, and mapping out the almost infinitely complex network of interactions brewing in the toxic stew surrounding senescent cells.

We know we only have part of the story, Bhushan said. We know we can fix whatever is going wrong with iNKTs, but we still dont know exactly what that is.

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