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Margaret Lawrence ’36, Who Was Rejected From Cornell’s Medical School Because She Was Black, Dies at 105 – Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun

When Margaret Lawrence 36 arrived in Ithaca in 1932, she was the only black student in her class. Denied on-campus housing due to her race, the future psychoanalyst and pediatrician once slept in an attic, working as a live-in maid to help pay for her Cornell degree.

Lawrence whose name was Margaret Cornelia Morgan at the time applied in her senior year to the medical school to continue her education at Cornell, but was denied, since twenty-five years ago there was a Negro man admitted, a dean explained, and it didnt work out. That student had died from tuberculosis.

The Cornell Daily Sun June 12, 1936

Of this roster of graduates published in 1936, Margaret Lawrence 36 was the only black student.

Columbia University did accept Lawrence, propelling the alumna to eventually direct the Therapeutic Developmental Nursery at Harlem Hospital and becoming chief of the Developmental Psychiatry Service for Infants and Children for 21 years.

When Lawrence who would be known for her empathy for children patients, according to The New York Times was in medical school, she continually faced the compounded difficulty of sexism and racism as one of 10 women, and the only black woman in her class.

At Cornell, Lawrence was a skilled archer, scoring in the top eight and snagging a spot on the archery team, according to archived editions of The Sun.

She would chronicle these challenges in a book titled Balm in Gilead: Journey of a Healer, written by her daughter, Prof. Sara Lawrence-Lightfoot, sociology, Harvard University. In one recollection, Lawrence described how when she turned 21 and went to register to vote, she was asked to take a literacy test.

The Cornell Daily Sun on May 22, 1934

During her time at Cornell, Lawrence was involved in archery, repeatedly scoring among the top.

Lawrences story resonated with former Cornell University President Frank H. T. Rhodes, who reportedly heard her struggles and penned a short apology letter for the discrimination in 2008.

He wrote her a short letter of sincere and serious apology for the assaults ofdiscrimination and racism she had suffered, Lawrence-Lightfoot said.

According to The New York Times, Lawrence-Lightfood said that her mother appreciated the respectful and heartfelt apology.

Lawrence died on Wednesday in Boston at an assisted living center at the age of 105.

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In new milestone, the majority of U.S. medical students are now women – FierceHealthcare

Female medical students have hit a milestone.

They now comprise the majority of enrolled U.S. medical studentsfor the first time, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC).

The 2019 data (PDF) released Tuesday build on the milestone reached in 2017 when women comprised the majority of first-year medical students, the AAMC said.

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Now, in 2019, women comprise 50.5% of all medical school students, the data showed. That number has been increasing in recent years from 46.9% in 2015 to 49.5% in 2018.

The data also showed modestgains by U.S. medical schools in attracting and enrolling more racially and ethnically diverse students, the AAMC said, although these groups are still underrepresented in the physician workforce.

The steady gains in the medical school enrollment of women are a very positive trend, and we are delighted to see this progress, said David Skorton, M.D., AAMC president and CEO, in an announcement.

However, the modest increases in enrollment among underrepresented groups are simply not enough. We cannot accept this as the status quo and must do more to educate and train a more diverse physician workforce to care for a more diverse America, he said.

While the statistics are encouraging for women,study after study shows female physicians still earn lesssometimes a lot lessthan their male counterparts. That salary gap extends to racial pay disparity in medicine.Studiesshow that a racial imbalance in wages has been a pervasive issue that exists among physicians in the same medical specialty.

RELATED: Salary negotiationsAdvice for female physicians who want equitable pay

This year also saw a record number of applicants to medical schools, which was up by 1.1% from 2018 to 2019. Some 53,371 people applied to medical school, and the number of new enrollees grew by 1.1% to 21,869. Across applicants and matriculants, the number of women increased while the number of men declined, the AAMC said.

Medical schools saw small increases in minority students. The AAMC released the following statistics:

The growth in the number of medical school applicants shows interest in a career in medicine remains high, important as the nation faces a shortage of physicians that the AAMC projects could reach 122,000 doctors by 2030.

To help address the shortage, medical schools have expanded class sizes, 20 new schools have opened in the past decade and the total number of enrolled medical students has grown by 33% since 2002, the AAMC said.

RELATED:3 ways doctors say can help break the 'fiberglass ceiling' and close the startling gender pay gap

The organization once again called for Congress to increase the number of federally funded residency training positions to produce more doctors to meet the needs of a growing and aging population. The AAMCsupports bipartisan legislationthat would add 15,000 residency slots over five years toensure all patients have access to the care they need.

Enrollment in medical schools remained competitive. Medical school students in 2019 had an average undergraduate grade point average of 3.78. Enrollees range in age from 15 to 53, and 131 are military veterans. Additionally, this years entering class demonstrates a strong commitment to service, cumulatively performing more than 14 million community service hours.

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Your Future Doctors Will Start Seeing You Now, New Jersey – Seton Hall University News & Events

Erick Larios Bautista, left, and Benedict Cu, both of the inaugural class talk before the Student Clinican Humanism Ceremony on Nov. 26.

The patient explained their successes, hopes and desires and their struggles. The person explained how life, once driven with a successful career, had become more difficult with the setbacks in their own health, and that of a loved one. As the person talked, it became increasingly clear the patient started to feel vulnerable as those personal struggles intensified. The medical student just listened. At some point, tears came.

It just so happened that person was one of the first patients Candace Pallitto, an M.D. candidate at the Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University, met in a clinical setting at the beginning of Pallitto's second year of medical school.

The patient, recovering from multiple medical conditions, said they felt immediately better. Talking about their "old self," the inner strength which had driven their life to that point, had made them "feel like a person again."

Pallitto's experience was one of many for the inaugural class at the school, which has students wear white coats and practice the clinical side of medicine the "human factor" of things from the very first day. But this week, this first class of students will take a step farther out into the wide worldtoday. They begin the "Phase II" of their Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine education, as they begin their clerkships at more than a dozen sites across the health network.

Pallitto, a New Jersey native and one of the roughly 60 students in the inaugural class, said the conversation with the woman has inspired her as sheheadsinto this next stage of her educationand career.

It begins this week, for the school's first-ever group of students.

"During the next year with our clinical rotations, we are part of the clinical team and we have been told that we have to take ownership of our patients," said Pallitto, explaining how treating decisions will still be made by licensed doctors.

"The one thing we do not need permission for and should be really taking the time to do is to make all of our patients feel like a person," she added. "I think our first year and a half has helped prepare us to do just that."

The inaugual class at the Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University recites the "Physicians' Pledge" at the Nov. 26 "Humanism Ceremony." The students' clerkships mark a major milestone in their medical education.

A Unique Medical SchoolThe program to train the students as doctors includes an innovative three-year path to residency and partnerships in some underserved communities.

The school touts a "pedagogic approach" an experience which emphasizes team-building and cooperation. No distinction is made between the basic, clinical and epidemiologic sciences they take in the first year, and the clinical curriculum they learn throughout their years at the school.

The vision: to create a new generation of doctors who are humanistic, socially responsible and collaborative across the health care system professionals who are equally adept at the biomedical intricacies, as they are the behavioral, social and health system sciences in treating people.

The first year is packed with classes like anatomy, molecular and cellular principles, and neuroscience and behavior, among other required courses. But the basic science is always placed in its clinical context, from pathology to physiology, to pharmacology, according to the faculty.

The Human Dimension, a three-year course, is one of the key components of the program. An immersive community-based experience, it links pairs of students to families in the community, with a focus on four domains of health: social, environmental, psychological, and medical.

Along the months and years of the Human Dimension, the students follow the health trajectories of individuals and families, in locations including Hackensack, Garfield, Paterson, Passaic, Bloomfield, Clifton, Nutley, Union City, and West New York. Through longitudinal experiences in the family's home, community, and health care settings, students will come to understand the role of community and context in health and well-being, as well as the role of the physician in all elements that contribute to promoting health and preventing disease.

Embracing the HumanismApart from the Human Dimension program, which runs throughout the students' time at Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University, the clerkships starting this week will bring the students through different rotations, at different clinical sites, over the next year.

They include participating on the clinical team in inpatient and outpatient settings. The school has a focus not only on the inpatient setting, as most medical schools historically have, but also on the outpatient setting where the majority of medical care in the U.S. takes place. There will also be a core curriculum covering clinical skills, specialty-specific content, and clinical reasoning. These will occur utilizing case-based active learning, high-fidelity and task-based simulation, Standardized Patient sessions, procedure training, and other opportunities.

"The frame for the entire School of Medicine is the 'Determinants of Health' the different factors that we know drive health outcomes to be good or bad," said Miriam Hoffman, M.D., the associate dean of medical education. "All that our students have been learning and developing until now across all the sciences and all the Determinants will be integrated and applied in their patient care.

"Students will use the frame of the Determinants as they develop their differential diagnoses, trying to figure out what ailments their patients have," added Hoffman. "They will think about all the Determinants from the genetic to the social to the economic as they work with their patients and the clinical team to develop treatment and management plans for their patients."

The inaugural class of students themselves have embraced the coming clerkships out in the medical world with a mixture of nerves and excitement.

Just before Thanksgiving, as the class was completing its transitional clerkships, the school held its first annual "Student Clinician Humanism Ceremony" in the auditorium of the school. Students, including Alina Bazarian and Kristen Grotheer, and others recognized some of the faculty members who had made the biggest impact on the students. The student body once again recited the "Physicians' Pledge," as adopted by the World Medical Association in 1948 and 2017. Among its maxims: "The health and well-being of my patient will be my first consideration; I will respect the autonomy and dignity of my patient.""It is difficult to imagine a more fulfilling and exciting careerhelping others to feel better; understanding rich and exciting concepts in biology, psychology, chemistry, sociology, physics, and economics; conducting physically transformative activities that will impact an individual's lifethe medical profession offers you the opportunity to choose a career in which you can participate in many or all of these categories of human creativity," said Bonita Stanton, M.D., the founding dean of the school, and a pediatrician. "But as you focus in on your areas of interest, never lose sight of the patient. It is the patient or group of patients who will becomeand should remainat the center of all that you do in a medical career."

Earlier in the day, the students had heard from a panel of experts, including cancer survivors. The "life altering information" was intended to bring home the importance of treating patients with that dignity and the autonomy they are due as individuals, said Ofelia Martinez, M.D., director of clinical skills for the school.

"That was meant to frame what matters to patients," said Martinez. "We want them going out into their clerkships knowing what it means to be a patient on the other side of an exam, or a diagnosis."

The effort has been made to prepare for the toughest part of the career. Recently, the inaugural class had an entire series of lessons on breaking bad news to patients.

And already the students have been making rounds with their peers at various clinical sites for weeks as part of the transitional clerkship, said Joseph Torres, another M.D. candidate in the inaugural class just starting his clerkships.

All the training has been leading up to this next phase, said Torres, originally from Elizabeth, N.J. The most formative event so far that made an impression on him was the "White Coat Ceremony" held during the very first week of school last year.

"This day also motivated me. As I donned the white coat for the first time, I realized the amount of hard work and dedication it would take to finish medical school and eventually get the credentials 'M.D.' after my name," said Torres. "I still remember the day as if it was yesterday, and it was a great beginning to my journey of becoming the best physician I could be."

That experience, and the interactions since, have prepared him for what comes next, in the days and the years to come, Torres explained.

"I'm still nervous, but I'm also less nervous because of this," said Torres.

Certain patients in New Jersey will see Torres and Pallitto and their nearly 60 other peers throughout the state over the coming months. The M.D. candidates will be lending their ears, taking notes and preparing for a future in medicine.

"Seeing the patient as a whole person that's something we do every day," added Pallitto.

Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine at Seton Hall University, New Jersey's first private medical school in decades, announced its second class of 91 students over the summer. The class was selected from nearly 5,000 applicants. The school has drawn from a diverse community in the Garden State and beyond. The newest class is half female; 58 students are from New Jersey. Nine members of the class have prior degrees from Seton Hall University and nine have advanced degrees in law, public health, bioethics and other fields. The class also speaks 23 languages.

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Women Make Up the Majority of US Med Students for First Time – Medscape

This year, for the first time, more women than men are enrolled as US medical students, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC).

This progress builds on a milestone reached in 2017, when, for the first time, women comprised the majority of first-year medical students, as reported previously by Medscape Medical News.

Recent years have seen an increase in the number of female medical students from 46.9% in 2015 to 49.5% in 2018. In 2019, women comprise 50.5% of all medical school students, according to the AAMC.

"The steady gains in the medical school enrollment of women are a very positive trend, and we are delighted to see this progress," David Skorton, MD, AAMC president and chief executive officer, said in a news release.

According to the AAMC, the number of applicants to US medical schools rose by 1.1% from 2018 to 2019, to a record 53,371, and the number of matriculants (new enrollees) grew by 1.1%, to 21,869. Across applicants and matriculants, the number of women increased while the number of men declined.

As in previous years, medical school enrollees in 2019 have strong academic credentials, with an average undergraduate grade point average of 3.78. They range in age from 15 to 53, and 131 are military veterans. This year's entering class also has a strong commitment to service, cumulatively performing more than 14 million community service hours.

US medical schools continue to make "modest" gains in attracting and enrolling more racially and ethnically diverse classes, the AAMC said, although these groups remain "underrepresented" in the overall physician workforce.

Applicants who identify as Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin increased 5.1% to 5858 and matriculants from this group grew 6.3% to 2466.

The number of black or African American applicants rose 0.6% to 5193 and matriculants increased by 3.2% to 1916. Among black or African American men, applicants and matriculants increased 0.5% and the total enrollment of black or African American men rose 3.7% to 3189.

American Indian or Alaska Native applicants grew by 4.8% to 586 and matriculants rose 5.5% to 230.

Skorton said that the "modest increases in enrollment among underrepresented groups are simply not enough. We cannot accept this as the status quo and must do more to educate and train a more diverse physician workforce to care for a more diverse America."

Continued growth in the number of applicants to US medical schools shows that interest in a career in medicine remains high, the AAMC said, which is "crucial," given the projected shortage of up to 122,000 physicians by 2030.

To address the projected shortage, medical schools have expanded class sizes, 20 new schools have opened in the past decade, and the total number of enrolled medical students has grown by 33% since 2002, the organization said.

However, increasing the number of federally funded residency training positions will be required to boost the overall supply of physicians in the United States. The AAMC supports legislation that would add 15,000 residency slots over 5 years to ensure that all patients have access to the care they need, as reported by Medscape Medical News.

For more news, follow Medscape on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube.

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GWU Is Suing Its Hospital Partner, Which Could Mean Trouble For The East End Hospital Deal – DCist

GWU Is Suing Its Hospital Partner, Which Could Mean Trouble For The East End Hospital Deal  DCist

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Sentry gives $2 million to Medical College of Wisconsin’s Wausau campus as it trains rural doctors – Stevens Point Journal

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Dr. Lisa Dodson (left), dean of the Medical College of Wisconsin Central Wisconsin Campus, receives an endowment medal from Sentry chairman, president and CEO Peter McPartland on Monday, December 9, 2019, at SentryWorld in Stevens Point, Wis. Sentry has pledged $2 million to the MCW Central Wisconsin Campus to provide an endowment for the deanship and expanding training programs for local medical students.Tork Mason/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin(Photo: Tork Mason, Tork Mason/USA Today NETWORK-Wisconsin)

Editor's note: This story has been updated to clarify the number of students attending school at the medical college.

STEVENS POINT - The Medical College of Wisconsin has received a $2 million gift fromthe Sentry Insurance Foundation to help the school train more doctorsfor rural residents.

It's a gift Sentry hopes will inspire other local companies and leaders to support the work going on at the college's Wausau campus, whichistraining physicians and psychiatrists with a goal of keeping them in Wisconsin's less-urban areas where there'sa shortage of providers.

Leaders from Sentry and the college gathered at SentryWorld in Stevens Point on Monday to announce the gift,the largest ever given to the Medical College of Wisconsin-Central Wisconsin.The gift creates the Sentry Deanshipat the Medical College of Wisconsin's Wausau campus and aims to break down barriers in creating new physicians in non-urban areas.

The three-year-old medical campus graduated its first class of students earlier this year. The college admitted its first students in 2016 in Wausau, becoming the first medical school in the region.The 13 graduates have now been assignedtothree-year residencies, and seven of those doctors in training are from central Wisconsin.

Seventy-six students are now enrolled at the medical college's central Wisconsin campus. An additional nine people are training in the campus'psychiatry residency program at sitesthroughout central Wisconsin.

Ann Lucas, executive director of the Sentry Insurance Foundation, said the endowment signifies the start of a long-term partnership between the company and the college that may lay the groundwork for future joint efforts to address rural healthcare gaps.Lisa Dodson is the founding dean of the Medical College of WisconsinCentral Wisconsin campus and her deanship position was renamed after the insurance company.

"I think their whole model of integrating their medical students into the community is genius," Lucas said.

Dodson's endowed dean position is the institution's highest honor and is the first such position in the college's history, said Dr. John Raymond, Medical College of Wisconsin president and CEO.

The money will further the college's outreach efforts to recruit students in rural and underrepresented communities, especially in central Wisconsin, Dodson said. She said such work would involve more staff, time and resources dedicated to outreach and building community relationships.Her hope is to make access to the medical college easier andbreak down barriers for rural, first-generation college students, people of color and low-income students.

RELATED: Wausau med school's first class starts July

RELATED: Central Wisconsin's first medical students find out where they'll serve residencies

The college will also seek to help physicians overcome burnout, mental health struggles and other issues that threaten to end careers early by better connecting each step of a future doctor's education and making sure they have a support system, Dodson said.

The focus on training rural doctorscomes from the growing divide between urban and non-urban areas in the number of physicians practicing and the number of rural places available for them to train, she said. Where someone grows up and then where they trainto become a physician heavily influences where they will ultimately practice.

Anew article in Health Affairs, an academic journal, reports on a 15-year decline in rural medical students, withless than 5% of all incoming students in 2017 coming from rural areas. The phenomenon is worse among people of color with rural backgrounds.

"The closer to home you go to school, you maintain those community relationships, (and) the more likely you are to end up practicing in that community," Dodsonsaid.

The college's strategy translates to defining the career path for students early on while in high school or undergraduate studies and well after they're practicing in local communities, she said. The donation from Sentry will strengthen that plan.

"Part of this pipeline is setting people up with partnerships in rural areas, not throwing someone up in the Upper Peninsula (of Michigan) and saying, 'Good luck',"she said.

The structure of the endowment will allow the medical college creativity in bringing on community partners, health care systems and other partners in the future, Dodson said.

Sentry Insurance CEO Pete McPartland said in an interview with the Stevens Point Journal that the donation represents one of the best things the company's foundation hasdone because it invests in education, quality of life and workforce development in the Stevens Point and central Wisconsin area.

Dr. John Raymond (right), president and CEO of the Medical College of Wisconsin, shakes hands with Sentry chairman, president and CEO Peter McPartland on Monday, December 9, 2019, at SentryWorld in Stevens Point, Wis. Sentry has pledged $2 million to the MCW Central Campus to provide an endowment for the deanship and expanding training programs for local medical students.Tork Mason/USA TODAY NETWORK-Wisconsin(Photo: Tork Mason, Tork Mason/USA Today NETWORK-Wisconsin)

"We are extremely committed to this area," McPartland said. "This is where we have been for over 100 years and this is where well be."

Raymondsaid the donation emphasizes the importance of local communitiestaking ownership of the new medical school.

"The main purpose of the campus is our idea to use local talent and resources, which is in abundance. If we do that, and make medical education affordable, then we are going to deal with the severe maldistribution of physicians," Raymond said.

The donation, Dodson said, makes Stevens Point the first community outside of Wausau to embrace the Medical College of Wisconsin's central Wisconsin campus. Raymond said Sentry's stamp of approval on the school'swork is gratifying.

"To have an organization like Sentry back the efforts of the college is humbling and a sign that something is going well," Raymondsaid. "Its just been so gratifying tosee the community embrace this ideal and make it real."

Contact reporter Alan Hovorka at 715-345-2252 or ahovorka@gannett.com. Follow him on Twitter at @ajhovorka.

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