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Category Archives: Longevity

Im a Physical Therapist, and This Is the Longevity Exercise You Should Be Doing in Your 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, and Beyond – Well+Good

The human body changes over time: Certain muscles begin to lose their cells, bones diminish in density, and tissues no longer hold the same amount of water. No matter where you are in life, though, some workout moves prove perpetually beneficial for you and the muscles, bones, and joints youll call home from now until forever. When it comes to the best longevity exercise out there, physical therapist Joel Giffin, DPT, founder of Flex Physical Therapy, says one movesquatsare timeless.

An exercise thats good for all ages is a squat because there are infinite ways to modify, progress, change, and adjust it to accommodate the abilities of the individual, says Dr. Giffin. When done with optimal form, a squat is beneficial regardless of the level of difficulty because it is a functional exercise that represents a movement we need to do everyday: going from sitting to standing, or vice versa. If you can do this movement easily, researchers believe its a really good indication of longevity.

Thats not all squats have going for them, though. Additionally, squats activate the glutes. These muscles are relaxed and weakened when we are sitting, which most of us do way too much of. Squats strengthen the whole lower extremity, allow for the core to engage, and can be added to an upper-body workout at the same time, says Dr. Giffin. Their peachy reputation holds true, yesbut the exercise has a lot more to offer as well.

As Dr. Giffin mentioned, however, the classic squat wont be the best option for everyone. Some may experience knee or ankle pain when they stick with the hips width apart approach to the move. And if that sounds like you (or comesto sound like you in a decade or two), Dr. Giffin recommends grabbing onto a chair for assistance, bring your feet wide into a goblet squat to spare your lower back, or sitting back onto a box to limit your bodys range of motion. You could also add dumbbells or kettlebells to make the move harderif youre into that kind of thing.

2. Move downward like you are going to sit in a chair. Sit back into your glutes to allow them to lead the motion. Do not allow the knees to go in front of your toes.

3. Engage your glutes (along with your core). Think about the back of your legs working rather than the front of your legs.

4. Dont let your hips go below knee level. This should feel very comfortableoutside of some muscle burnand pain-free, says Dr. Giffin. There should not be sharp, shooting, or achy pain. You can move into a half or mini-squat if its not comfortable to go all the way down just yet.

5. On the way up push through the heels and work to activate the glutes.

6. Repetitions and sets will depend on your ability, but ost people can start with two sets of eight reps and work their way up.

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The Importance of Healthcare In Ensuring Longevity – Longevity LIVE

Good health is the most important part of our liveswithout it, nothing else matters. A decline in a specific aspect of a persons health can have a knock-on effect on other parts of their life. The fact is, people of all ages and genders can be affected by health issues. Diseases, disorders, and complications can pop up out of the blue and can also be inherited, or, someone could simply be born with health issues. Whatever it is, keeping people healthy is no easy feat.The cost of healthcare skyrockets every year, and with more and more people being born into the world and the elderly living longer, it is not surprising that costs have spiked and that illness is at an all-time high, just because the is population too!

That being said, it will also come as no surprise that healthcare is crucial to the wellbeing of citizens. This piece will discuss the importance of healthcare, what healthcare is used for, and why everyone needs access to it.

Health issues in America are prominent, with problems affecting sizable chunks of the population.

In all countries, health is important. However, with Americas large population, there are bound to be many issues. In 2018, the top 10 health issues in America included the following:

Commonly known as high blood pressure. It places extra stress on the heart and can cause heart attacks or strokes.

A mood disorder with characteristics of despair and hopelessness, which often goes untreated.

When fatty deposits build up within blood vessels and arteries, restricting blood flow around the body.

Where coronary arteries are damaged, putting those with the disease at risk of a heart attack.

Blood sugar levels that are higher than normal.

Where a persons overall health is negatively impacted due to their dependence on legal or illegal substances.

Chronic inflammation of the lungs.

Mental disorders such as schizophrenia, which make victims struggle to get a grip on reality.

The inflammation of the digestive tract. This includes the small intestine and the start of the large intestine.

These health issues are definitely a cause for concern, especially when some affect as much as 12% of the population.It is not difficult to imagine the strain this might put on healthcare services, or the absolute disaster it would be if health services did not exist.

The pursuit of optimal health has created a trillion-dollar industry

The pursuit of optimal health is nothing new, however, it has definitely been pushed to the forefront of societys priorities in recent years, as evidenced by the recentboom in the health industry. Everyone is looking for a quick fix, tips, and tricks or plans to allow themselves to become the healthiest yet. Furthermore, some will spare no expense to achieve it.

Juices, smoothies, fasting, low carb, low fat, HIIT training, superfoods, hot yogathe list is endless when it comes to new claims of what is best in the pursuit of good health. And with technology growing and expanding, it is predicted that the health and wellness sector will benefit from this too.

It is estimated that theglobal wellness market was worth $4.5 trillion in 2018, with a prediction that the market willcontinue to grow. There are no signs of the advancement of health technology slowing down. In fact, these developments will also be vital to the progression of professional healthcare.

The standard of technology that is on offer in the current market compared to what was on offer five years ago is outstanding in terms of innovation. There are many gizmos and gadgets that can be carried in person and used to assess and monitor medical issues; for example, ECG monitorsthat can be connected to smartphones in order to measure the status of the heart at any point. Information can also be shared with a doctor immediately.

Theres even a gadgetfor those who wish to check the purity of the air in order to monitor any lung conditions!

Thesetechnological advancements have certainly had a direct impact on healthcare. There is now more data that can be collected than ever before. This data can be used to advance healthcare, minimize costs, and help patients more efficiently.

Healthcare has a direct effect on societies and communities and is often a defining factor of each state

One of the reasons that healthcare is crucial is because of the impact it has on society. It is often noted that the quality of a healthcare system and the health services that are offered in a society are defining factors of the quality of life in a particular state. Due to the fact that healthcare services, policies, and laws differ from state to state, these have a direct impact on societies.

Access to a high-quality healthcare system is a fast and somewhat accurate way of assessing both the physical and mental wellbeing of people within a specific state. In fact, how accessible it is will also speak volumes about how many people are helped.

Health and happiness are paramount to a flourishing economy, which is also why the quality of healthcare can correlate with a countrys economic health.

There are so many sectors of healthcare and each one of them is just as important as the other

One size does not fit all with many aspects of life, and healthcare is no exception to this rule.

Within the healthcare industry, there are many sectors, and healthcare professionals are trained in order to be able to apply their skills and expertise to improve different aspects of our lives. Some areas of healthcare include the following:

Dentistrydentists, dental assistants, and dental hygienists all play an important role in helping keep gums and teeth healthy

Optometryoptometrists and optometrist assistants take care of eye health

General practitionerdoctors see to a variety of ailments, from mild to life-threatening issues

Nurse nurses provide essential support to patients and run important checks such as blood tests and check-ups

These are just a few of the roles that are carried out by professionals within their chosen healthcare sector, and realistically, the responsibilities are endless. That being said, the diversity of healthcare means that citizens can get the best advice from those at top of their field. This can make a significant difference in peoples lives.

Furthermore, there are many niche areas and subcategories within specific healthcare professions. For example, nurses can specialize in geriatric nursing, which is the care of the elderly. Here, the focus is on managing chronic age-related illnesses and creating care plans. It also includes helping to educate the families of patients with these conditions.

At the other end of the spectrum, a nurse can specialize in the medical care of newborn babies and children up to their adolescent years. While these roles are both nursing roles, the skillset and day-to-day responsibilities differ greatly.

Parents are often more comfortable with pediatric nurses treating children with special healthcare needs. This is because of their specific training and dedication to childrens health.

For those who are passionate about childrens health and are looking for a rewarding career,why not become a pediatric nurse practitioner?

Whichever area of healthcare piques your interest, they all offer a rewarding role.

The primary healthcare system serves several purposes. The main goal is being able to provide consistent and comprehensive healthcare to patients.

Primary healthcare is the face of the whole healthcare system. It is the first point of contact for those who are in need of healthcare. It provides a point of entry to the entire healthcare organization.

So what exactly is the role of a primary healthcare worker? You will see a primary healthcare worker with any non-life-threatening health issue. They will gain insight from the patient about a specific issue and open up a safe discussion. Following an assessment, they may be able to help the patient understand what it is that is happening. If further investigation is needed, they will refer the patient to the appropriate department. Here, the healthcare professionals have expert knowledge in a particular area.

One of the biggest strains on healthcare is when health issues become critical. This is why early management of health conditions is such an important primary healthcare benefit. Primary healthcare is where smaller and more routine tests take place. These tests include blood tests, pap smears, blood pressure monitoring, mammograms, and screenings for conditions such as STIs or bowel cancer.

It has been suggested that withmore primary healthcare in place,fewer unnecessary and wasteful hospital admissions would be made, which could certainly help the healthcare sector move forward.

The initial assessments that take place in primary care reduce the waste of both resources and time. Additionally, it also serves as a critical opportunity for early intervention. This not only benefits the patients emotional wellbeing but also may prevent the need for more invasive treatment at a later date.

Primary healthcare has a strong focus on preventative treatment. There is an emphasis on staying well and fit rather than using medical intervention. Campaigns such as those for stopping smoking, reducing alcohol intake, eating a balanced diet, and staying physically active are all preventative measures that are promoted within healthcare.

An ongoing and consistent relationship between a patient and doctor can provide a crucial understanding of the history and personality of a patient. From the patients perspective, seeing the same doctor builds trust and offers familial comfort. This would not be obtained if the patient was to see a different doctor every visit.

While notes are always available on file, they do not give the doctor the whole picture. In fact, a few sentences quickly typed up might not give a different doctor the required insight that a patient might need to build trust and feel heard, understood, and cared for.

Managing disease is vital to the health of society. This includes both the health of its citizens and the health of the economy. An effective system helps in disease management by providing skilled healthcare workers who are able to identify a range of illnesses. This can range from patients who are at risk of developing a chronic illness, to those who have simply caught a common bug.

Disease management is beneficial to both thepatientand the healthcare system, as when potential chronic illnesses are identified before they materialize, and managed before they increase in severity, this can help eliminate any costs that are associated with treatment for an illness that could otherwise have been avoided.

All in all, healthcare is vital to the wellbeing of all aspects of civilization. It should be treated as such, in order to keep progressing and keep the world safe and healthy.

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Top 5 Minecraft Updates That Helped The Game’s Longevity – KeenGamer News

Just the other day, I booted up my Xbox One to play some Minecraft with friends, something I havent done in years. And I mean years. Although its obvious from the games popularity that Mojang has kept the game updated, I was taken back by the sheer amount of additions. The amount of new items, blocks, creatures, and places made the game feel brand new. It turns out, Minecraft has quite the history of game-changing updates. While some of these havent been the most well-accepted, many have been literally game-changing. Here are 5 of the most notable updates behind Minecrafts decade of popularity.

The #5 for this top 5 influential Minecraft updates is 1.11, the Exploration Update. Released on November 14th, 2016, the Exploration Update aimed to better Minecrafts survival mode experience. It added in a few new mobs, as well as some other features aimed at improving exploration. It added in llamas, Evokers, Vexes, and Vindicators as new mobs. One new feature involved curse enchantments, which could be found on weapons and armor. Items with the Curse of Vanishing would disappear if players died. The Curse of Binding would make it impossible for players to drop the item or take it off of its equipped armor.

One of the items added in included the Exploration map, which would show treasure locations. It also added in the Shulker Box, which was a chest that holds items even when broken. Another big item added was the Totem of Undying. When held, the totem would prevent a players death. The Exploration update also added in rare spawned Woodland Mansions, where players could find tools and items.

Adding pretty utilities and scary mobs, the Pretty Scary Update was the first named update. Released on October 25th, 2012, this update started the trend of themed updates, rather than updates adding various items and debugs. From that point, updates would center around a specific game aspect, and generally hype up fans more for game changes. As for the update, it added in a few more mobs: The Wither, Wither Skeletons, Witches, and bats. Although none of these mobs are game changing, they have all become staples for the Minecraft experience. The update also added in new food items like potatoes, carrots, and pumpkin pie. They also made variants like golden carrots and poisonous potatoes.

As far as utilities, this update gave players things like the command block, beacons, nether star, decorative mob heads, anvils, and cobblestone walls. It also added in a few important commands, like being able to set new spawn points and change game rules in the middle of a game. This wasnt the most groundbreaking update, but it was incredibly well-received. Players enjoyed a Halloween themed update, and many additions fit in perfectly for players. This is all despite the update being horribly buggy when it first came out.

For 3rd place in the top 5 Minecraft updates: the recently released Nether Update. This newest update to Minecraft gave a full makeover to the Nether, a desolate underworld filled only with lava pools. Not anymore. Released on June 23rd, 2020, the Nether Update gave the Nether different biomes, unique mobs, items, blocks, and structures. While that was pretty much the extent of the update, its a pretty big deal. The Nether was always an interesting concept, but it was one of those once you have seen some of it, you have seen it all situations. But with the changes, its now a place players can go explore just like the rest of the world. Its somewhere that players will want to go explore.

And it looks pretty good. The four biomesSoul Sand Valley, Crimson Forest, Warped Forest, and Basalt Deltasall have an eerie vibe that really fits. Also, the new Nether is set up to be quite deadly. Players under-equipped will have a bad time, between the new and old mobs found there. But, it is a good challenge for players who want a little more from the game.

And this update did live up to its namesake. Released on October 25th, 2013, 1.7 The Update That Changed The World greatly diversified the environments of Minecraft. It added 11 new biomes to the game, as well as two new types of trees and unique wood types. New types of flowers were put in, which allowed for dyes to become more widely available. Another new addition was stained glass, which allowed glass to be dyed any color. This is all on top of a few more technical items, like a new command for setting everyones spawn. These changes all greatly enhanced player exploration. It ensured players going into infinite spawning worlds could feel a real vastness to Minecraft. This was great for the games long-term playability, as the world variations in a sandbox game are integral at keeping the game interesting.

And for our #1 spot for the Top 5 Minecraft Updates is 1.13, Update Aquatic. One of the biggest updates Minecraft has ever seen, the Update Aquatic revamped the ocean worlds of the game. No doubt this update was one of the most influential in the games continued playability. Released on July 18th, 2018, the update fleshed out the oceans of Minecraft with new mobs like dolphins, turtles, new types of fish, and drowned. The drowned are zombies that live underwater that will attack players that come near. They even made it to where normal zombies could become drowned after being in water too long. The color of ocean water was changed to fit its designated biome as well. Many new points of interest were added, like underwater ruins, underwater caves, and shipwrecks.

This overhaul made the oceans of Minecraft a lot more interesting. Players were given far more initiative to explore underwater and possibly build underwater as well. Basically, a whole other world was unlocked. Rightfully, this update got a lot of positive feedback from players.

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Why airlines need to be innovative to ensure longevity during Covid-19 pandemic – IOL

By Travel Reporter Jul 3, 2020

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While the aviation industry had to deal with a series of setbacks over the years, experts say Covid-19 is different.

The global pandemic has had an unparalleled and devastating impact on the aviation industry with airlines grounding their entire fleets for months. Over 60 percent of flights were cancelled worldwide, with bookings in April 2020 alone dropping a staggering 95 percent compared to the same month the previous year, and 75 million jobs are said to be at risk. Yet there is light at the end of the tunnel as some countries have started to open their borders and air travel is tentatively resuming.

Maher Koubaa, Executive Vice President Airlines of the Amadeus IT Group believes innovation will be key to overcome the challenges and emerge stronger from the crisis.

Although the future is uncertain for everyone and especially for those in the travel industry history teaches us that change is inevitable and unavoidable. As we see a cautious return to the skies, and we rethink the future of the industry together, innovation will be key to overcome the challenges and emerge stronger from the crisis, he said.

Koubaa said there were a number of innovations that airlines could use.

He shares a few with IOL Travel:

Focus on delivering a frictionless traveller experience

Koubaa said travellers may be hesitant or anxious to board a flight in this new Covid-19 world. "To rebuild traveller trust, it is imperative that airlines address these fears while they continue to focus on delivering a seamless traveller experience.

"Technology lies at the heart of this goal. During the current period of uncertainty, relevant real-time information is more important than ever before. Technology allows airlines to support customers throughout the journey, providing real-time, personalised alerts to inform of flight changes, services or offers," he said

Improve airline systems to allow for agility

Koubaa said Covid-19 has effectively reset the travel industry. He said every tourism company and airline is taking a hard look at its operations, reassessing its ways of working and adapting to the 'new normal'.

"In this new world, the ability to make fast decisions has become crucial. Over the past few months, many airlines scaled back operations and refocused some of their fleets to support repatriation flights and medical supply shipments. Technology played a critical role in helping carriers achieve agile aircraft configurations.

"Airlines repurposed their aircraft by adding cargo space to flight cabins and some added extra space around passengers and families to apply maximum safety measures. Key to this agility was the seamless integration between airline systems from inventory to reservation, departure control, and offer management; all core capabilities of the Amadeus Alta Passenger Service System (PSS), " he explained.

He suggested that fully integrated systems like Alta PSS also mean that even if unforeseen events like last-minute aircraft changes occur during operational windows, airlines can immediately and automatically reseat passengers and adjust weight and load balance. With end-to-end automated aircraft configuration and reconfiguration, airlines avoid expensive, time-consuming and resource-intensive manual intervention.

Collaboration and consolidation in aviation

Koubaa said It was likely that consolidation and concentration will lead to a major industry reshaping in all regions.

"Some airline groups are expected to become stronger, accelerating strategic investments, while others may not recover.

"We also anticipate a number of significant changes in the aviation landscape with new codeshare and interline agreements between different parties.

"Smart airline inventory management solutions, like Alta, use advanced availability management techniques, dynamic customer identification and sophisticated airline policy controls to automate flight schedules, codeshare agreements, re-accommodation and seating. This helps maximise airline network yield, increasing revenues and improving efficiency."

Explore smart revenue models

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) released an analysis showing that the airline industry's global debt could rise to $550-billion by year-end; a $120-billion increase over debt levels at the start of 2020.

"With these alarming numbers, it is clear that modern, state of the art revenue management will be crucial for airlines to move quickly to recovery, " he said.

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Why companies need to adapt to the longer-living worker – MarketWatch

In 2016, London Business School professors Andrew J. Scott and Lynda Gratton publishedThe 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity, a self-help book for our longer lives. Now theyre back with a sequel:The New Long Life: A Framework for Flourishing in a Changing World, with tools for individuals, employers, higher education and the government to navigate the challenges of longevity. In this excerpt, the authors explain why and how employers need to better serve their older workers.

It is imperative that corporate practice catches up with the needs of a 100-year life, the ebb and flow that a 60-year career entails and the flexibility that new technologies will demand.

The three-stage life is deeply embedded in the approach of corporations to their workforce: The young are recruited as they leave full-time education; high potentials are promoted in their late 20s and accelerated up several more rungs of the promotion ladder and a hard stop is established for those in their late 50s or mid-60s.

In a multistage life, careers become nonlinear: there are periods of full-time work; time spenttaking breaks to rechargeor rebuild skills and time out to achieve a better worklife balance. So rather than run the risk of losing valued workers who are embarking on a new stage, it makes sense for firms to offer their workforce the opportunity to ramp up and down their work commitments.

See: Why the coronavirus could pinch your Social Security years from now

Sponsoring educational breaks,sabbaticalsor spells of charitable work in the community is a means to achieving this.

Fortunately, some companies are starting to broaden their approach to the whole talent pool.

Welcoming people who have taken up to two years out from work is the focus of an initiative by U.K. telecommunications firm O2. It runs an 11-week paid program to reorient people to full-time work. Barclays Bank has designed an apprenticeship program which targets all ages, including people who have been made redundant midcareer or who decided to retire early.

Longer and nonlinear career paths also require fresh thinking about promotion. They can do this by offering employees the opportunity to extend their skill sets in lateral roles, and by doing so create more flexible career ladders or career nets that will also help facilitate ramping up and ramping down.

One of the overwhelming insights from the research on longevity is the malleability of age and the potential this has for enabling people to be economically productive into their 70s. Yet many people are currently blocked from working longer by a corporate policy of retirement at the age of 65 or 60 or even earlier.

This has to change and fast.

While some firms are offering older workers the possibility of continued employment, few have created a systematic way of supporting people towork into their 70s and 80s. Instead they offer employees a binary choice; either full-time work or full-time retirement. This is far from what people want or need.

A way to achieve this is to design optional retirement paths, including the possibility to carry on full-time as well as more flexible,phased paths to the end of work.

The Japanese conglomerate Mitsubishi MSBHY, +0.92% has created an independent company, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, to specifically make use of the skills of workers who are past the traditional retirement age. These focus on managerial positions, but the gig economy offers the opportunity to refashion retirement for a wider range of workers.

The time has also come to talk openly about age, promotion and wages.

A major block to extending working careers is the implicit link between age and wage. In many industries, wages rise over time with job tenure. The result is that older workers become more expensive and are therefore often the first to be laid off during economic downturns.

Read: How grim is the outlook for aging in America?

There needs to be real social ingenuity to tackle this challenge. One way is to develop more flexible pay structures combined with more flexible approaches to working time. Many workers over 60 would like to continue working, but often not on the same full-time basis.

Another problem that corporations must fix:age discrimination. AARP reports that two-thirds of workers aged 4574 say they have experienced ageism. Underpinning this ageism is the belief that older workers are less productive and that older workers are physically constrained and unable to work.

Also see: Why millions of older workers will pay a big financial priceforeverfrom the coronavirus

However, there is surprisingly little robust evidence showing the relationship between age and productivity and certainly no simple correlation.

Also, not only are older people on average physically healthier than in the past, the role of physical work is declining. This effect should get even stronger in the years ahead as robotics support the performance of physical labor and AI serves as a kind of cognitive prosthetic.

The nexus between longevity and the technological will become ever more powerful going forward. So, it is crucial, therefore, that firms adapt now not just to enable human flourishing, but also to ensure their own success.

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If health equals happiness, will coronavirus make the world an unhappier place? – The Conversation UK

More and more politicians are starting to recognise that happiness rather than wealth might be a better way to measure their countries success. But with coronavirus causing significant disruption to peoples lives worldwide, what can we expect to happen to global happiness in the wake of the pandemic?

To answer that question, we need to understand what factors influence happiness, and what impact the coronavirus is likely to have on these. Happiness can be influenced by a number of things, but research suggests health is the most important. States with populations enjoying high levels of mental and physical health have significantly higher levels of collective happiness than those with poorer health outcomes.

On top of that, other factors that influence happiness also tend to influence health, underlining the idea that health and happiness go together. And this suggests that the pandemic is likely to have a significant effect on happiness around the world.

The above graph illustrates the positive relationship between happiness and health. Using data from 133 countries taken from the World Happiness Report 2020, the graph shows that countries where people that rate their quality of life more highly out of ten are more likely to have higher average lifespans (longevity).

Other factors that influence happiness are also covered in the World Happiness Report. These include wealth (GDP per capita), perceptions of social support, freedom to make life choices, degree of democracy, extent of income inequality across a countrys population, and quality of the environment. Of these, some have a significant effect on happiness. Those that do have the relative strength of their effects shown in the graph below.

But even when we control for these other factors, the relationship between health and happiness holds up. Average self-rated happiness climbs steadily from 4.5 to 6.3 as longevity increases from 40 to 80 years an increase of about 40%. Healthy states are happy states.

The data for the most recent World Happiness Report was gathered before the onset of the COVID-19 crisis, so at the moment we can only guess the consequences of the crisis on happiness around the world.

But knowing that all of the above factors play a role, it seems likely that happiness will fall as a result of the pandemic. Reductions in GDP, a reduced sense of social support prompted by enforced isolation, and restrictions on freedom of choice can all be expected to have significant negative effects.

Importantly, these factors will also have an additional indirect effect on happiness by negatively affecting health, too.

The final graph (above) shows that health (summarised as longevity) is significantly influenced by the state of the economy, the extent of economic inequality, feelings of being free to make life choices, and environmental wellbeing. And with the exception of the latter, its already evident these factors have been negatively affected by government efforts to combat the coronavirus.

And of course, on top of this theres evidence that the pandemic is worsening peoples health directly. The virus has had devastating effects on the physical health of many of those infected.

In addition, surveys and other evidence suggest that control measures and the economic fallout of the pandemic are causing rising levels of anxiety and depression, substance abuse and domestic violence. Finally, the virus also threatens peoples health by forcing them to defer treatment of cancers, diabetes, heart disease and other serious diseases.

The negative knock-on effects on happiness may be especially severe in western democracies and other relatively wealthy countries that typically score highly on happiness and health measures. Many of them have been hard hit by the pandemic, as shown by the sizeable positive correlations between countries fatality rates and levels of health and happiness. The pandemics strong presence in many developed countries and their efforts to fight it will do much to lower the sum of happiness around the world.

Overall, global reductions in health and happiness caused by COVID-19 (and measures taken to combat it) are very likely. Recognising the economic and social consequences of their attempts to combat the virus, a number of governments are relaxing stay-at-home rules and other social distancing measures.

The consequences are unknown, and new flare-ups in COVID-19 cases and fatalities have been reported. In response, some people are placing their hopes on the development of an effective vaccine, but the outcome of this effort is highly uncertain. For the foreseeable future, global happiness is in serious jeopardy.

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