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Category Archives: BioEngineering
A fully automated algorithm-driven platform can not only design, build and test biochemical pathways to make valuable compounds, it can learn from its mistakes and optimise the process too.1 After the initial setup, the robotic system plans and performs all the experiments without further human participation. The new approach can be used to produce a variety of chemicals using biological engineering.
The prospects of computer scientists working more closely with bioengineers is salivating
Vikramaditya Yadav,University of British Columbia
Materials developed using synthetic biology and bioengineering are important for research, medicine and industry, but biological systems are complex, so many rounds of design, build, test and learn (DBTL) are usually required. The development of biofoundries systems that mimic factories and can produce valuable compounds by making use of biochemical pathways has been an important step towards automating the design, build and test components of the cycle, but there are no examples of automating learning. Now, a US team has created the BioAutomata platform that can do just this.
We empowered a state-of-the-art robotic system for chemical manufacturing and biological experimentation with artificial intelligence (AI) for planning its experiments without human intervention, says Saurabh Sinha of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US. His colleague Huimin Zhao points out that previous biofoundry efforts focused on one or two components of the DBTL cycle whereas theirs can perform all four. We have demonstrated for the first time that we can close the entire cycle by combining AI and automation, he says. Sinha adds that the system contains an algorithm that can learn and plan new experiments as it goes. We incorporated the learn component in the cycle, where the robotic system learns from its tests and gets ready to repeat the cycle of engineering, he says.
BioAutomata was built using the Illinois Biological Foundry for Advanced Biomanufacturing (iBioFAB), which was developed by Zhaos team in 2014.2 iBioFAB integrates more than 20 instruments with a robotic arm on a large platform and can be used to perform many different biological engineering experiments, Zhao says. The scientists tested their system by optimising the biosynthesis of lycopene, a red food additive and colourant found in tomatoes. Sinha explains that BioAutomatas task was to tune the activities of three genes in the pathway to obtain the desired product. But each of the genes can be tuned to one of many different levels of activity, so theres a huge number of possible combinations.
To explore this large space of possibilities, each of which can be achieved by an experiment that will reveal if its a productive setting, BioAutomata adopts a special algorithm called Bayesian optimisation, Sinha says. Using this algorithm, the new platform evaluated less than 1% of the 13,824 possibilities and was still able to outperform conventional trial-and-error strategies by 77%.
Paul Freemont at Imperial College London, UK, who was not involved in the study, says that the work demonstrates the power of new biofoundry approaches for biosynthetic pathway engineering. By showing the clear advantage of using automated experimental design over random approaches for biosynthetic pathway engineering, it reinforces the emerging roles of biofoundries in synthetic biology.
Vikramaditya Yadav of the University of British Columbia, Canada, adds that the results are an elegant demonstration of how machine learning will drive biosystems optimisation in the future. The closest rival technology is George Churchs Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering, which is also a very successful method, he says.3 The big difference is the elimination of randomness in this work.
The researchers point out that their approach can also be applied to the production of other chemicals. This strategy can be used for engineering of enzymes, pathways and genomes for basic and applied biological research, and for identifying new biological mechanisms or insights, says Zhao.
Yadav believes that there are exciting times ahead. Machine learning is the ultimate differentiator and the prospects of computer scientists working more closely with bioengineers is salivating. We are looking at a new era of targeted, high-precision and high-throughout bioengineering, he says.
Originally posted here:
Robotic system can plan and perform biosynthesis without human intervention - Chemistry World
Dr. Karl Jacob Jr. and Karl Jacob III Early-Career Chair Eun Ji Chung. Photo courtesy of Viterbi Staff.
Eun Ji Chung, USC Viterbis Dr. Karl Jacob Jr. and Karl Jacob III Early-Career Chair and Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, has recently been honored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) for her research in nanomedicine and bioengineering.
The IEEE has selected Chung as a NANOMED New Innovator, with the award to be presented at the IEEE International Conference on Nano/Molecular Medicine and Engineering in Gwangju, Korea on 21 24 November. The latest honor recognizes Chungs eminent research activities in the field of nanomedicine and molecular engineering as well as her continuous contribution to the IEEE-NANOMED community.
Meanwhile the BMES will honor Chung with the 2020 Rising Star Junior Faculty Award, to be presented at the BMES Cell and Molecular Bioengineering conference on January 2 6 in Puerto Rico. Chung will be recognized at the conference gala, and will be invited to present at the event. The BMES describes the Rising Star Award as a leading form of recognition of outstanding research in the field of cell and molecular bioengineering.
Chung and her research groupinvestigate molecular design, nanomedicine and tissue engineering to generate biomaterial strategies for clinical applications. A key focus of Chungs labs research involves the design and application of self-assembling, peptide nanoparticles for targeted cardiovascular and cancer treatments, as well as for the treatment of kidney disease.
A faculty member of theUSC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience, Chung received her B.A. in Molecular Biology with honors from Scripps College, Claremont, California, and her Ph.D. from the Interdisciplinary Biological Sciences Program and the Department of Biomedical Engineering from Northwestern University.
She was recently named 2019 Orange County Engineering Council Outstanding Young Engineer and a Journal of Materials Chemistry B Emerging Investigator for 2019.
Last year, Chung was awarded the NIH New Innovator Award to develop a new approach to a type of kidney disease, known as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, the most commonly inherited kidney disorder.
Chung is a recipient of the SQI-Baxter Early Career Award, the American Heart Association Postdoctoral Fellowship, the Postdoctoral Research Grant from the Chicago Biomedical Consortium, and the K99/R00 Pathway to Independence Award from the NIH. She is a member of the Society for Biomaterials, the BMES, and the American Institute for Chemical Engineers.
Five Berkeley faculty members have been named fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), an honor bestowed upon the societys members by their peers.
The five are among 443 members awarded the honor because of their scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance science or its applications. Founded in 1848, the AAAS is the worlds largest general scientific society and publisher of Science and five other journals.
The new fellows are:
Rebecca Abergel, assistant professor of nuclear engineering and faculty scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), for distinguished contributions to heavy element chemistry, particularly applied to the development of new chelation therapies, separation processes, and radionuclide targeted delivery strategies. At Berkeley Lab, she leads the BioActinide Chemistry Group, the Heavy Element Chemistry Program and the Heavy Element Research Laboratory, and she is director of the Glenn T. Seaborg Center.
Roland Brgmann, professor of earth and planetary science, for outstanding contributions to research, teaching, innovation, service to societies and to the public in geodynamics, tectonics, rheology, seismology, geodesy and volcanology. Brgmann is a faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab.
Richard Ivry, professor of psychology, for foundational research on the cognitive processes underlying movement selection, planning, and execution, and the implementation of action in neural structures. He is director of the The Cognition and Action Lab and a member of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute.
Michael Manga, professor of earth and planetary science, for many outstanding contributions to geological processes involving fluids in physical volcanology, geodynamics, hydrogeology, and geomorphology, and for service to academe, government, and societies. Manga is the Garniss H. Curtis Endowed Department Chair, a faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab and a member of the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory.
David Schaffer, professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and of bioengineering, for pioneering contributions to biomolecular engineering, with particular attention to directed evolution to create viruses for the efficient, targeted and safe delivery of gene medicines. He is director of the Berkeley Stem Cell Center, a faculty scientist at Berkeley Lab and a member of the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute.
The new fellows will be presented with an official certificate and a rosette pin in gold and blue representing science and engineering, respectively on Saturday, Feb. 15, during the 2020 AAAS annual meeting in Seattle, Washington.
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Five Berkeley faculty members elected fellows of the AAAS - UC Berkeley
Technological Growth of Baropodometry Platforms Market SWOT Analysis and Opportunity Assessment from 2019-2025: Top Key Companies: Biodex, Sani…
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Obesity, which affects more than one-third of American adults, is more than just an uncomfortable excess of weight - it is a driver of several, often fatal diseases like high blood pressure, diabetes, asthma, stroke, and congestive health failure, making it one of the most significant public health threats. The cost of treating and managing obesity-related diseases is expected to double every decade, ballooning to account for about 16 percent of all US healthcare costs by 2030.
While genetics plays a role, eating high-calorie foods rich in carbohydrates and fats is a major cause of this epidemic, and though doctors and nutritionists recommend a healthy, balanced diet as a prevention strategy, many people simply lack affordable access to fresh foods. Several weight-loss drugs that reduce weight by about 10 percent have been approved by the FDA over the last few decades, but they come with significant side effects including headaches, diarrhea, severe liver injury, birth defects, sleep apnea, pancreatitis, and suicidal thoughts.
Now, a new study from the Harvard John A. Paulson School for Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and Harvards Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering has found that an orally administered liquid salt called Choline and Geranate (CAGE) can physically reduce the absorption of fats from food with no discernible side effects in rats, and reduces total body weight by about 12 percent. The research is reported in PNAS.
A reduction in body weight of 12 percent is like getting a human from 200 pounds down to 176, which is a significant change, said first author Md Nurunnabi, a former Postdoctoral Fellow at the Wyss Institute and SEAS who is now an Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences at The University of Texas at El Paso. Our goal is to translate this work into a product that can help people maintain a healthier weight, and this study marks the very beginning of that journey.
Turning a bug into a feature
CAGE, which is a salt in its liquid state, was created a few years ago by Samir Mitragotri, the Hiller Professor of Bioengineering and Hansjrg Wyss Professor of Biologically Inspired Engineering, as part of an effort to improve the bodys absorption of medicines. Last year, his lab published a paper describing CAGEs ability to enhance the uptake of insulin when given orally. However, in their study of CAGEs properties, they found that there was one molecule that was not helped by the liquid: a small hydrophobic molecule. Mitragotris team had a hunch that CAGE was somehow binding to this molecule and preventing it from being absorbed.
That observation led us to wonder if there were any contexts in which we would want to prevent the uptake of this type of molecule. We realized that fats are small and hydrophobic, and that CAGE could potentially be of interest as a medical treatment for obesity, said Mitragotri, who is also a Wyss Core Faculty member.
The researchers got to work evaluating CAGEs interactions with fats by mixing the liquid with an omega-3 fat called DHA and water. They saw that the DHA formed large particles about 3 to 4 microns in length, about the size of a cells nucleus. DHA molecules mixed with water alone formed much smaller particles in the range of 50 to 400 nanometers, suggesting that there is some interaction between the CAGE and DHA molecules that causes them to aggregate into larger particles.
The team then added the DHA-CAGE mixture to healthy rat intestines ex vivo. Compared to intestines that were only injected with DHA, the inclusion of CAGE significantly reduced the permeation of DHA into the intestinal tissue over the course of six hours.
Helping rats resist obesity
To evaluate the performance of CAGE in living organisms, the researchers prepared capsules with a mixture of DHA and CAGE and gave them orally to rats. After six hours, the amount of DHA absorbed into their blood from the mixture was about half the amount that was absorbed when they were given DHA alone. Biodistribution studies showed that giving CAGE along with the DHA increased its concentration in the rats stomachs and intestines two-fold and reduced its presence in their livers, suggesting that CAGE prevents DHA from leaving the gastrointestinal tract.
They then studied the effect of CAGE on fat uptake in rats who were fed a high-fat diet, which has 20 percent more fat than a regular diet, for 30 days. A daily, 10-microliter dose of CAGE caused rats to gain 12 percent less weight than rats that received either a 5-microliter dose or no CAGE. The untreated rats usually ate about 10 grams of food every day, whereas the high-dose CAGE cohort ate about eight grams of food, suggesting that CAGE might also have an effect on enzymes that regulate digestion, and/or increase the feeling of fullness after a meal.
Importantly, over the 30-day time period, no side effects were observed in the rats treated with CAGE, and there were no signs of inflammation or differences in the animals organ structure or function. There was also no trace of CAGEs components in the body following treatment.
This is the first proof-of-concept that orally administered ionic liquids can help reduce fat uptake and body mass, and this approach has significant clinical potential given that it is simple, fast, and much less invasive than liposuction or bariatric surgery and, because its mechanism of action is physical rather than chemical, it lacks the side effects observed with other drugs, said Mitragotri.
The team is now pursuing answers to the more mechanistic questions about CAGE, including exactly how CAGE binds to fats, how long its effects last, what its potential interactions with the obesity-associated leptin signaling pathway are, and where the unabsorbed fat goes.
Additional authors of the study are Kelly Ibsen, a former Postdoctoral Fellow in the Mitragotri lab, and Eden Tanner, a current Postdoctoral Fellow.
Read more from the original source:
Locking up fats in CAGEs to treat obesity - Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Filling Equipment Market will Generate Massive Revenue in Future: Valent U.S.A. Corporation,Jiangsu Fengyuan Bioengineering Co Ltd – Trade Examiner
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Topographical Regional Analysis: GlobalFilling Equipment Market
1. North America (United States, Canada)
2. Europe (Germany, Spain, France, UK, Russia, and Italy)
3. Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, India, Australia, and South Korea)
4. Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, etc.)
5. The Middle East and Africa (GCC and South Africa)
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Global filling equipment market segmentation by type:Rotary FillersVolumetric FillersAseptic FillersNet Weight FillersOther Filling Equipment
Global filling equipment market segmentation by process:ManualSemi-AutomaticAutomatic
Global filling equipment market segmentation by application:Food & BeveragePharmaceuticalCosmeticOthers
In This Study, The Years Considered To Estimate The Size Of Filling Equipment Market Are As Follows:
History Year: 2013-2018 || Base Year: 2018 || Estimated Year: 2019 || Forecast Year: 2019 to 2028
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The focus of theFilling Equipment MarketReport:
The Study Offers a Detail Analysis of the Global Filling Equipment Market and Ongoing & Upcoming Trends To Elucidate Imminent Investment Pockets.
Changing Filling Equipment Market Dynamics
Key players Business Strategies and Product Offerings
In-depth Analysis Of Market Segmentation
Filling Equipment Market Analyze and Forecast On The Basis of Type, Process, Application, And Region.
Table of Content:
Chapter 1 Industry Overview of Filling Equipment
Chapter 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
Chapter 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Filling Equipment
Chapter 4 Global Overall Market Overview
Chapter 5 Filling Equipment Regional Market Analysis
Chapter 6 Major Manufacturers Analysis
Chapter 7 Development Trend of Analysis of Filling Equipment Market
Chapter 8 Filling Equipment Marketing Type Analysis
Chapter 9 Conclusion of the Global Filling Equipment Market Professional Survey Report 2019
Chapter 10To be Continue
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