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Category Archives: BioEngineering

Bioengineering | Britannica

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Bioengineering, the application of engineering knowledge to the fields of medicine and biology. The bioengineer must be well grounded in biology and have engineering knowledge that is broad, drawing upon electrical, chemical, mechanical, and other engineering disciplines. The bioengineer may work in any of a large range of areas. One of these is the provision of artificial means to assist defective body functionssuch as hearing aids, artificial limbs, and supportive or substitute organs. In another direction, the bioengineer may use engineering methods to achieve biosynthesis of animal or plant productssuch as for fermentation processes.

Before World War II the field of bioengineering was essentially unknown, and little communication or interaction existed between the engineer and the life scientist. A few exceptions, however, should be noted. The agricultural engineer and the chemical engineer, involved in fermentation processes, have always been bioengineers in the broadest sense of the definition since they deal with biological systems and work with biologists. The civil engineer, specializing in sanitation, has applied biological principles in the work. Mechanical engineers have worked with the medical profession for many years in the development of artificial limbs. Another area of mechanical engineering that falls in the field of bioengineering is the air-conditioning field. In the early 1920s engineers and physiologists were employed by the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers to study the effects of temperature and humidity on humans and to provide design criteria for heating and air-conditioning systems.

Today there are many more examples of interaction between biology and engineering, particularly in the medical and life-support fields. In addition to an increased awareness of the need for communication between the engineer and the associate in the life sciences, there is an increasing recognition of the role the engineer can play in several of the biological fields, including human medicine, and, likewise, an awareness of the contributions biological science can make toward the solution of engineering problems.

Much of the increase in bioengineering activity can be credited to electrical engineers. In the 1950s bioengineering meetings were dominated by sessions devoted to medical electronics. Medical instrumentation and medical electronics continue to be major areas of interest, but biological modeling, blood-flow dynamics, prosthetics, biomechanics (dynamics of body motion and strength of materials), biological heat transfer, biomaterials, and other areas are now included in conference programs.

Bioengineering developed out of specific desires or needs: the desire of surgeons to bypass the heart, the need for replacement organs, the requirement for life support in space, and many more. In most cases the early interaction and education were a result of personal contacts between physician, or physiologist, and engineer. Communication between the engineer and the life scientist was immediately recognized as a problem. Most engineers who wandered into the field in its early days probably had an exposure to biology through a high-school course and no further work. To overcome this problem, engineers began to study not only the subject matter but also the methods and techniques of their counterparts in medicine, physiology, psychology, and biology. Much of the information was self-taught or obtained through personal association and discussions. Finally, recognizing a need to assist in overcoming the communication barrier as well as to prepare engineers for the future, engineering schools developed courses and curricula in bioengineering.

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The worlds of technology and food have fully collided in a good way –

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The new discipline of bioengineering is going to dramatically impact how we produce and consume our food. The petroleum era ushered in many of the marquee companies and manufacturing processes of our generation names such as IBM, BP and Texaco. But we are increasingly aware of the impact these processes have had on the environment. We know that we need to reinvent manufacturing to improve our planet and our health.

Bioengineering which uses a range of approaches from electrical and mechanical engineering, computer and material sciences and, of course, biology marks a shift in our ability to change nature itself. In 2020, we will see biology eat the manufacturing world. New companies will spring up to reinvent the processes by which our food is grown, made and distributed.

Biology is already being engineered to reinvent many of the food processes and products born out of the petroleum era. Take Apeel, which uses nanotechnology to apply natures own protective peel material to fruits and vegetables, allowing them to last up to three times longer without refrigeration. This isnt just about keeping your strawberries fresh; Apeel is revolutionising logistics, as in many cases a cold chain is no longer needed, greatly decreasing cost and increasing optionality and directly addressing worldwide food waste.

Other companies have engineered products such as non-browning apples, by editing the gene that causes the apple to brown. These kinds of products are better for consumers and help our global systems by extending global trade routes, opening up new markets and reducing food waste on a global scale.

And of course we are seeing a move into plant-based meat. Companies such as Impossible Foods and Beyond Meat are already gaining traction with consumers. They have created an alternative to meat without the downsides of the traditional meat industry, such as methane production, consumption of grain, and E coli contamination. In 2020, we will see this industry shift further into bioengineered meat made directly from animal cells and requiring neither the birth nor slaughter of more animals.

This approach to manufacturing will spill over into many other food products. Dairy alternatives are already being produced in ways that dont involve cows, from new plant products such as oat milk to milk products that can be grown in plants instead of secreted by cows. Fish, too, will also increasingly be grown from these techniques, helping to address problems such as overfishing, environmental concerns and toxic materials in our aquatic ecosystems.

These products, designed by humans using natures own processes, will be revolutionary in the impact they have on our global economies and the worlds health. And the way they are produced will spill over into other sectors. As bioengineering eats our food system, the biology of our food will in turn eat more of our manufacturing. Companies such as Mycoworks and Bolt are already using materials such as mushrooms to create leather, and well see much more of that things like tree lights and houses that are grown instead of built. We are now seeing the first wave of a coming era in biological innovation, and companies in the sector will become as big as those that came before a bio Del Monte or Cargill for the 21st century.

In 2020, the advances in bioengineering in academia and in industry mean that we will finally have the capability and technology to replace the worlds faulty systems.

Vijay Pande is a general partner at Andreessen Horowitz

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Healing powers of Manuka honey explored in new study – Digital Journal

The antimicrobial properties in the honey appear to be due to a compound found within the honey called methylglyoxal, according to an investigation conducted at Newcastle University in the U.K.. Having identified the specific compound, this could enable researchers to use the compound in medical devices in order to promote wound healing. An example of such a device is a surgical mesh. The reason for focusing on devices like a mesh is while a mesh is needed to provide support for tissue regeneration, the design of the mesh also provides opportunity for bacterial biofilms to develop, which increases the chances of a patient becoming infected.Mnuka honey is a monofloral honey produced from the nectar of the mnuka tree, Leptospermum scoparium. To assess the compound, a study was set up whereby nanolayers of Manuka honey were carefully inserted between layers of a polymer. Following this, an electrostatic nanocoating was produced (with the field created between the honey, which has a negative charge, and the polymer, which carries a positive charge). A simulation of wound healing was conducted, whereby the honey was allowed to be slowly released over a three week period. This was demonstrated to inhibit bacterial growth over the study period. Further work trying different layers of the honey were attempted, with the most effective quantity found to be what the researchers are calling a 16-layered 'charged sandwich'. Commenting on the study, lead researcher Dr. Piergiorgio Gentile states: These results are really very exciting. Honey has been used to treat infected wounds for thousands of years but this is the first time it has been shown to be effective at fighting infection in cells from inside the body." The researcher also states that the use of the honey in this way represents one of the most effective antimicrobial materials that have been tried to date. While effective, the properties have, so far, only been tested out in culture against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Further work will need to conducted against an animal model. The research, outing the success of combining a naturally occurring antimicrobial material with nanotechnology, has been reported to the journal Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology. The research paper is titled Potential of Manuka Honey as a Natural Polyelectrolyte to Develop Biomimetic Nanostructured Meshes With Antimicrobial Properties.

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Viewpoints: Medicaid Expansion Reveals How Liberal Policies Make For Good Politics; Hey, Congress, What’s The Hold Up With Surprise Medical Bills? -…

Opinion writers tackle these and other health issues.

The New York Times:Progressives Are The Real PragmatistsWhen left-wing Democrats push for universal benefits and expansive new policies, they do so with a theory of politics in mind. It goes like this: The reason to fight for debt-free college or Medicare for all isnt just to improve life for Americans, but to build new ground for progressive political activity. New programs create new constituencies, and new programs with broad benefits can give more Americans a stake in the expansion and preservation of the welfare state. Conservatives know this. Thats why theyve fought so hard to block or undermine even modest new programs. (Jamelle Bouie, 1/13)

The Washington Post:Congress Needs To Settle Its Differences And Put An End To Surprise Medical BillingWashington seemed to be working, for once. Last month, key members of the House and Senate House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Frank Pallone Jr. (D-N.J.), Rep. Greg Walden (R-Ore.), Senate Health Committee Chairman Lamar Alexander (R-Tenn.) and Sen. Patty Murray (D-Wash.) had negotiated legislation that would end so-called surprise medical billing. Example: when you have emergency surgery, then get slammed unexpectedly with a huge bill from an out-of-network anesthesiologist you didnt choose. The legislation was set to be included last month in a must-pass funding bill. (1/12)

Cleveland Plain Dealer:There Is No Excuse For Surprise Medical Billing. Ohio Should Act.Voters concerned about surprise billing should let those legislators know of their concerns, and share any personal experiences with surprise billing that theyve had. According to a report by the Commonwealth Fund (a philanthropy founded by the Harkness family, which had Cleveland ties), as of July, 28 states had enacted measures to protect patients against surprise medical billing.Ohio should do the same. (1/10)

The Hill:Where Women's Health Care Is Lacking, Women Are DyingA woman is more likely to die of cervical cancer in Alabama than in any other state in the country. An African-American woman in the state is twice as likely to die of cervical cancer than a white woman.While these statistics are harrowing, they are not surprising. Alabamas disproportionately high cervical cancer mortality rate is reflective of a more significant trend: States that limit access to womens health services tend to have the worst health outcomes for women. (Nakisa B. Sadeghi and Dr. Leana S. Wen, 1/10)

Colorado Sun:We Are Colorado ObGyns. Words Matter On Abortion Rights.If pregnant people and a medical procedure are going to be used as fodder for a political dispute, we all have an obligation to get the medical science and facts right. That means relying on doctors and medical professionals for their expertise, not politicians who are trying to use stigma, shame and inflammatory language to keep pregnant people from exercising their constitutional rights. Recently, Facebook took down a fact check of an anti-abortion video by three doctors after four male Republican senators objected. Thats not OK. (Dr Emily Schneider and Dr. Kristina Tocce, 1/12)

The Washington Post:I Thought My Second Baby Would Be Easier. And Then I Started Drowning.After four years, three miscarriages and an ectopic pregnancy, the second baby I had yearned for entered the world. Armed with four years of parenting experience, I thought I was better equipped to handle life with a newborn than I had been as a new mom. I had survived the sleepless nights, weathered the scary fevers that precede budding teeth and coached myself through the irrational fears that accompany caring for a completely helpless human. (Danielle Campoamor, 1/10)

Bloomberg:Obamacare Marches On As Republicans FlailState by state, my prediction that the Medicaid expansion made possible by the Affordable Care Act would eventually be universal is slowly coming true. Most Republican governors had originally rejected expansion and the federal money that finances it, but plenty of them are agreeing to compromises to make it happen. The latest? Kansas. That leaves 14 states to go, although those 14 still include both Texas and Florida, so were still talking about a lot of uninsured people. (Jonathan Bernstein, 1/10)

The New York Times:The F.D.A. Is In Trouble. Heres How To Fix It.The Food and Drug Administration is in distress. The agency is still the worlds leading regulator of food and medical products, responsible for ensuring the safety of some $2.6 trillion in consumer goods each year. That represents 20 cents of every dollar that Americans spend. But critics both inside and outside the sprawling agency say that the F.D.A.s standards have been slipping for some time. (1/11)

The Hill:China Has A New SARS-Like Virus How Serious Is It?The last several days of infectious disease headlines have been focused on a mysterious outbreak in Wuhan, China, that has many concerning harbingers. This cluster of pneumonia cases some of which are severe involves individuals who had exposure to a, since decontaminated, seafood market that housed many types of animals. (Dr. Amesh Adalja, 1/9)

The Washington Post:Puerto Ricans Should Never Forget How Trump Treated ThemHere's what Puerto Rico has endured over the past two years: a devastating hurricane that killed and displaced thousands of people and plunged the island into months of darkness; an incompetent and corrupt local government; a bungled and halfhearted emergency response from the federal government. Now, even as hurricane recovery remains incomplete, a new natural disaster: a 6.4-magnitude earthquake followed by powerful aftershocks. (1/12)

The Wall Street Journal:Cancel Culture Comes To ScienceAn unhappy side effect of the digital age is cancel culture. Anyone with an attitude of moral superiority and a Twitter account can try to shut down an event where opinions he dislikes are likely to be spoken. For several years the National Association of Scholars has inveighed against this infantile form of protest, which undermines free expression of ideas and legitimate debate. Now the cancel caravan has arrived at our door. (Peter W. Wood, 1/12)

The Washington Post:The Crisis In Foster CareThe theory behind foster care is grounded in an assumption of stability placing children whose parents are absent, dead or deemed unfit with stable families where community, schools and peers are roughly familiar. The reality is increasingly the opposite. An acute shortage of foster parents has produced a cohort of vulnerable children, many with drug-addicted parents, who are sent away, sometimes out of state, to live in juvenile detention centers, shelters and group homes. (1/11)

The New York Times:Trumps Weakening Of Environmental Rules Would Leave The Public In The DarkFifty years ago this month, President Richard Nixon signed one of the most effective laws ever written to protect the environment and strengthen democracy by ensuring that citizens would have a say over projects like highways and pipelines that directly affect their well-being. Now President Trump is trying to cripple it. (Sharon Buccino, 1/10)

Louisville (Ky.) Courier Journal:We Must Increase Access To Mental Health Care. Too Many People Are DyingWhen facing the homicide crisis in the U.S., nearly all of us, citizens and politicians alike, jump to the same questions: What industry is at fault? Who needs tighter regulations? Nobody is asking this about our nations mental health. Our healthcare system today clearly is not meeting the needs of Americans suffering from mental illness. Health insurance companies follow vague and unenforceable federal and state regulations that leave enrollees without access to timely mental health care. (Caitlin Liford, 1/10)

Stat:Welcome To The Bioengineering Culture ClashBioengineering, once viewed primarily as an academic discipline, is growing up. Our ability to engineer biology is on the verge of changing the landscape of health and health care. Tools and treatments that are engineered, not discovered CAR-T therapies for cancer, CRISPR for gene editing, stem cell therapies, and more are now making their way not just into new startups but into established industry. Just look at the first-generation CAR-T companies that have been acquired by major biopharma companies, like Bristol-Myers Squibb/Celgene acquiring Juno or Gilead acquiring Kite. (Vijay Pande, 1/10)

The New York Times:Everyone Knows Memory Fails As You Age. But Everyone Is Wrong.Im 62 years old as I write this. Like many of my friends, I forget names that I used to be able to conjure up effortlessly. When packing my suitcase for a trip, I walk to the hall closet and by the time I get there, I dont remember what I came for. And yet my long-term memories are fully intact. I remember the names of my third-grade classmates, the first record album I bought, my wedding day. (Daniel J. Levitin, 1/10)

The Washington Post:A Psychiatrist Feels Guilt For Making A Homeless Man Leave The ER.Tonight was yet another night on call in our emergency room a chilly winter night on which I did a cruel deed: I discharged a homeless man back out into the cold. This is a routine event in the life of psychiatry residents like myself. Normally, no one would bat an eye. It shouldnt have mattered to me, either except that the previous night Id had to walk home from the hospital parking garage in decidedly adverse weather. (Aarya Krishnan Rajalakshmi, 1/12)

The Washington Post:Prince Georges Countys Mental Health Programs Dont Work. When Will Someone Listen?Its Dec. 29, 1 p.m., and Im at a hospital in Prince Georges County. The emergency room is packed with people with varying degrees of illnesses. Many have severe colds; others have flu symptoms. Some have broken ribs or fractures and cuts and bruises from domestic violence (and broken hearts). Sadly, some have come here to die, their families clinging to the hope that this talented yet overwhelmed staff can whip up a miracle. (Sharon K. Vollin, 1/10)

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Bacillus Licheniformis Market Size, Share, Segmentation, Growth Drivers And Opportunities Analysis For Forecast Period 2017-2025| Qy Research, Inc -…

Los Angeles, United State,, The research study presented in this report offers a complete and intelligent analysis of the competition, segmentation, dynamics, and geographical advancement of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market. It takes into account the CAGR, value, volume, revenue, production, consumption, sales, manufacturing cost, prices, and other key factors related to the global Bacillus Licheniformis market. The authors of the report have segmented the global Bacillus Licheniformis Market as per product, application, and region. Segments of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market are analyzed on the basis of market share, production, consumption, revenue, CAGR, market size, and more factors. The analysts have profiled leading players of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market, keeping in view their recent developments, market share, sales, revenue, areas covered, product portfolios, and other aspects.

Our PESTLE, Porters Five Forces, and SWOT analyses give a thorough presentation of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market from different perspectives and angles. The research study has been prepared with the use of in-depth qualitative and quantitative analyses of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market. We have also provided absolute dollar opportunity and other types of market analysis on the global Bacillus Licheniformis market. All findings and data on the global Bacillus Licheniformis market provided in the report are calculated, gathered, and verified using advanced and reliable primary and secondary research sources. The regional analysis offered in the report will help you to identify key opportunities of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market available in different regions and countries.

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Key Players of the Global Bacillus Licheniformis Market

Wuhan Natures Favour BioengineeringHenan Yi Kang BioengineeringBeihai Qunlin Shengwu GongchengXianpuairui TechnologyCangzhou Industrial Biological TechnologyZhengzhou Jinbaihe Biology EngineeringShandong Gaolong Biology TechnologyCangzhou Wangfa Biology TechnologyCangzhou Huayu Biology TechnologyCangzhou Zhongxin Biology TechnologyShandong Tianxing Bio-Fechnology

Global Bacillus Licheniformis Market: Segmentation by Product


Global Bacillus Licheniformis Market: Segmentation by Application


Global Bacillus Licheniformis Market: Segmentation by Region

The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt) North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada) South America (Brazil etc.) Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.) Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

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Table of Contents

Market Overview: The report begins with this section where product overview and highlights of product and application segments of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market are provided. Highlights of the segmentation study include price, revenue, sales, sales growth rate, and market share by product.

Competition by Company: Here, the competition in the global Bacillus Licheniformis market is analyzed, taking into consideration price, revenue, sales, and market share by company, market concentration rate, competitive situations and trends, expansion, merger and acquisition, and market shares of top 5 and 10 companies.

Company Profiles and Sales Data: As the name suggests, this section gives the sales data of key players of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market as well as some useful information on their business. It talks about the gross margin, price, revenue, products and their specifications, applications, competitors, manufacturing base, and the main business of players operating in the global Bacillus Licheniformis market.

Market Status and Outlook by Region: In this section, the report discusses gross margin, sales, revenue, production, market share, CAGR, and market size by region. Here, the global Bacillus Licheniformis market is deeply analyzed on the basis of regions and countries such as North America, Europe, China, India, Japan, and the MEA.

Application or End User: This part of the research study shows how different application segments contribute to the global Bacillus Licheniformis market.

Market Forecast: Here, the report offers a complete forecast of the global Bacillus Licheniformis market by product, application, and region. It also offers global sales and revenue forecast for all years of the forecast period.

Upstream Raw Materials: The report provides analysis of key raw materials used in the global Bacillus Licheniformis market, manufacturing cost structure, and the industrial chain.

Marketing Strategy Analysis and Distributors: This section offers analysis of marketing channel development trends, indirect marketing, and direct marketing followed by a broad discussion on distributors and downstream customers in the global Bacillus Licheniformis market.

Research Findings and Conclusion: This is one of the last sections of the report where the findings of the analysts and the conclusion of the research study are provided.

Appendix: Here, we have provided a disclaimer, our data sources, data triangulation, market breakdown, research programs and design, and our research approach.

About Us:

QYResearch always pursuits high product quality with the belief that quality is the soul of business. Through years of effort and supports from the huge number of customer supports, QYResearch consulting group has accumulated creative design methods on many high-quality markets investigation and research team with rich experience. Today, QYResearch has become a brand of quality assurance in the consulting industry.

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How to verify that quantum chips are computing correctly – MIT News

In a step toward practical quantum computing, researchers from MIT, Google, and elsewhere have designed a system that can verify when quantum chips have accurately performed complex computations that classical computers cant.

Quantum chips perform computations using quantum bits, called qubits, that can represent the two states corresponding to classic binary bits a 0 or 1 or a quantum superposition of both states simultaneously. The unique superposition state can enable quantum computers to solve problems that are practically impossible for classical computers, potentially spurring breakthroughs in material design, drug discovery, and machine learning, among other applications.

Full-scale quantum computers will require millions of qubits, which isnt yet feasible. In the past few years, researchers have started developing Noisy Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) chips, which contain around 50 to 100 qubits. Thats just enough to demonstrate quantum advantage, meaning the NISQ chip can solve certain algorithms that are intractable for classical computers. Verifying that the chips performed operations as expected, however, can be very inefficient. The chips outputs can look entirely random, so it takes a long time to simulate steps to determine if everything went according to plan.

In a paper published today in Nature Physics, the researchers describe a novel protocol to efficiently verify that an NISQ chip has performed all the right quantum operations. They validated their protocol on a notoriously difficult quantum problem running on custom quantum photonic chip.

As rapid advances in industry and academia bring us to the cusp of quantum machines that can outperform classical machines, the task of quantum verification becomes time critical, says first author Jacques Carolan, a postdoc in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) and the Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE). Our technique provides an important tool for verifying a broad class of quantum systems. Because if I invest billions of dollars to build a quantum chip, it sure better do something interesting.

Joining Carolan on the paper are researchers from EECS and RLE at MIT, as well from the Google Quantum AI Laboratory, Elenion Technologies, Lightmatter, and Zapata Computing.

Divide and conquer

The researchers work essentially traces an output quantum state generated by the quantum circuit back to a known input state. Doing so reveals which circuit operations were performed on the input to produce the output. Those operations should always match what researchers programmed. If not, the researchers can use the information to pinpoint where things went wrong on the chip.

At the core of the new protocol, called Variational Quantum Unsampling, lies a divide and conquer approach, Carolan says, that breaks the output quantum state into chunks. Instead of doing the whole thing in one shot, which takes a very long time, we do this unscrambling layer by layer. This allows us to break the problem up to tackle it in a more efficient way, Carolan says.

For this, the researchers took inspiration from neural networks which solve problems through many layers of computation to build a novel quantum neural network (QNN), where each layer represents a set of quantum operations.

To run the QNN, they used traditional silicon fabrication techniques to build a 2-by-5-millimeter NISQ chip with more than 170 control parameters tunable circuit components that make manipulating the photon path easier. Pairs of photons are generated at specific wavelengths from an external component and injected into the chip. The photons travel through the chips phase shifters which change the path of the photons interfering with each other. This produces a random quantum output state which represents what would happen during computation. The output is measured by an array of external photodetector sensors.

That output is sent to the QNN. The first layer uses complex optimization techniques to dig through the noisy output to pinpoint the signature of a single photon among all those scrambled together. Then, it unscrambles that single photon from the group to identify what circuit operations return it to its known input state. Those operations should match exactly the circuits specific design for the task. All subsequent layers do the same computation removing from the equation any previously unscrambled photons until all photons are unscrambled.

As an example, say the input state of qubits fed into the processor was all zeroes. The NISQ chip executes a bunch of operations on the qubits to generate a massive, seemingly randomly changing number as output. (An output number will constantly be changing as its in a quantum superposition.) The QNN selects chunks of that massive number. Then, layer by layer, it determines which operations revert each qubit back down to its input state of zero. If any operations are different from the original planned operations, then something has gone awry. Researchers can inspect any mismatches between the expected output to input states, and use that information to tweak the circuit design.

Boson unsampling

In experiments, the team successfully ran a popular computational task used to demonstrate quantum advantage, called boson sampling, which is usually performed on photonic chips. In this exercise, phase shifters and other optical components will manipulate and convert a set of input photons into a different quantum superposition of output photons. Ultimately, the task is to calculate the probability that a certain input state will match a certain output state. That will essentially be a sample from some probability distribution.

But its nearly impossible for classical computers to compute those samples, due to the unpredictable behavior of photons. Its been theorized that NISQ chips can compute them fairly quickly. Until now, however, theres been no way to verify that quickly and easily, because of the complexity involved with the NISQ operations and the task itself.

The very same properties which give these chips quantum computational power makes them nearly impossible to verify, Carolan says.

In experiments, the researchers were able to unsample two photons that had run through the boson sampling problem on their custom NISQ chip and in a fraction of time it would take traditional verification approaches.

This is an excellent paper that employs a nonlinear quantum neural network to learn the unknown unitary operation performed by a black box, says Stefano Pirandola, a professor of computer science who specializes in quantum technologies at the University of York. It is clear that this scheme could be very useful to verify the actual gates that are performed by a quantum circuit [for example] by a NISQ processor. From this point of view, the scheme serves as an important benchmarking tool for future quantum engineers. The idea was remarkably implemented on a photonic quantum chip.

While the method was designed for quantum verification purposes, it could also help capture useful physical properties, Carolan says. For instance, certain molecules when excited will vibrate, then emit photons based on these vibrations. By injecting these photons into a photonic chip, Carolan says, the unscrambling technique could be used to discover information about the quantum dynamics of those molecules to aid in bioengineering molecular design. It could also be used to unscramble photons carrying quantum information that have accumulated noise by passing through turbulent spaces or materials.

The dream is to apply this to interesting problems in the physical world, Carolan says.

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