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Category Archives: BioEngineering
U.C. Merced recently announced that bioengineering professor Arvind Gopinath was a recipient of the early career, or CAREER, award from the National Science Foundation.
Gopinath received the award for his research that seeks to understand how living biological materials such as bacterial swarms and fungal biofilms colonize surfaces, respond to physical features of their environments and cause infection, a university release said.
The Indian American professor is the 27th researcher from UC Merced to earn this recognition.
CAREER awards are among the NSFs most prestigious awards. They are given through the Faculty Early Career Development Program to recognize untenured faculty members as teacher-scholars, the release said.
Early-career faculty members are selected based on three factors: the strength of their research proposals; their potential to serve as academic role models in research and education; and their leadership in their field and organizations.
Gopinath will receive $525,868 over the next five years for his research and educational outreach, the report said.
Our research focusses on understanding how bacterial and fungal cells cooperate and form multicellular materials, such as biofilms, that can morph and adapt continuously to challenging environments. This will help us identify mechanisms and methods by which colonization and infection may be controlled, Gopinath said in a statement.
Gopinath andhis labare currently studying how single bacterial cells sense surfaces; the properties of living matter such as bacterial swarms and fungal films; the emergence of cooperativity in intracellular networks; and the mechanics of blood clots, the report adds.
This NSF CAREER award is key to sustaining Arvinds very active research group and acknowledges the promise his line of research offers in better understanding the fundamental processes influencing biofilm formation,Department of Bioengineeringchair and professor emeritus Tom Peterson said in a statement.
Each CAREER award proposal includes an educational outreach component, and Gopinaths includes working with the Fresno American Indian Health Project to engage with Indigenous youth and help familiarize them with science, technology, engineering and math studies and careers.
Native Americans tend to be underrepresented in universities and in STEM fields, and this is partly due to a lack of engagement with the community, Gopinath adds. STEM careers provide opportunities to give back to their communities. I am excited to collaborate and work with FAIHP and their sister organizations covering the Merced, Fresno Unified, Central Unified, and Clovis Unified schools.
Gopinath began his full-time academic career in 2017. His interdisciplinary work spans graduate groups including Bioengineering, Materials and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. He is a member of theHealth Sciences Research Instituteand theCenter for Cellular and Biomolecular Machines. This is Gopinaths second NSF grant to support his work studying bacteria and biofilm formation, the university said.
The CAREER Award is a huge honor and incredibly helpful for me and for my students, he added in the report. Its nice to be recognized early in my career and is very encouraging.
Read more from the original source:
UC Merced Indian American Researcher Arvind Gopinath Receives 2nd NSF CAREER Award - India West
Two new plans outline strategy to restore and protect the Connecticut River and Lake Champlain – Vermont Biz
Vermont Business Magazine The Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC), in collaboration with local nonprofits, town officials, scientists and regional planners, finalized two tactical basin plans that outline the strategy to restore and protect rivers, lakes and wetlands across much of the state, from Ferrisburgh to Peacham.
The Tactical Basin Plans for Northern Lake Champlain Direct Drainages and the Stevens, Wells, Waits, Ompompanoosuc and Connecticut River Direct Tributaries provide details on how DEC will work alongside nonprofits, farmers, towns, landowners, and Natural Resource Conservation Districts to continue to improve water quality, restore aquatic habitats, and prevent future pollution.
DEC has made a concerted effort in the last several years to engage Vermont municipalities, said Dan Albrecht, senior planner for the Chittenden County Regional Planning Commission. Towns play a critical role in improving water quality from good road management to stormwater improvements. This Basin Plan reflects their input and information provided to us by the Regional Planning Commission.
Each plan identifies specific approaches that will ensure agricultural, development, wastewater, and natural resources activities are managed in a way that protects water quality. For example, the Vermont River and Road Workshops offered by DEC train town road crews on how to direct road runoff away from streams. These free trainings empower local road crews to initiate important water quality projects, such as slope stabilization using bioengineering, to reduce erosion.
The plans also include information for landowners, watershed organizations, and communities about how to access funding and get assistance from state scientists to protect ponds and streams on their land and in their communities.
If youre curious about what the State is doing to protect water quality, I encourage you to read these plans to find ways you can support this work in your community, said Karen Bates, Watershed Planner for DEC.
The final plans and engaging visual and map-based plan summaries known as story maps can be found on the DECs basin web pages or contacting the respective planner, see below:
The Northern Lake Champlain Direct Drainages is available online at https://dec.vermont.gov/water-investment/watershed-planning/tactical-basin-planning/basin5 or by contacting Karen Bates at Karen.Bates@vermont.gov or (802) 490-6144,
The Stevens, Wells, Waits, Ompompanoosuc & Connecticut River Direct Tributaries is available online at https://dec.vermont.gov/water-investment/watershed-planning/tactical-basin-planning/basin14 or by contacting Danielle Owczarski by email or phone:Danielle.Owczarski@vermont.gov or(802) 490-6176.
Source: February 5, 2021 The Department of Environmental Conservation
Polyoxin Market In Depth Research with Global Industry Analysis, Size, Trends and Forecast by 2026 | Jiangsu Fengyuan Bioengineering Co., Ltd.,…
In-Depth Market Research Report 2021 on Global Polyoxin Market with Industry Growth Analysis, Competitor Analysis, Product & Applications Analysis, Regional Trends and Forecast by 2026.
The Global Polyoxin Market report offers actionable data through the SWOT analysis, Porters Five Analysis, Competitors Analysis, Products and Sales Analysis. It also includes the major market situations across the globe such as the product profit, price, production, capacity, demand, supply, as well as market growth structure. The report on the Global Polyoxin Market has been prepared after conducting a comprehensive research through a systematized methodology. This report will help you to make your business decisions in upcoming years as report data is forecasted precisely to 2026 by applying all the matrices.
The report covers market shares, CAGR, sales, gross margin, value, volume, and other important market statistics and figures that give an exact picture of the growth of the global Polyoxin market.
Get The Sample Report PDF with Detail TOC & List of Figures@https://www.apexmarketsresearch.com/report/global-polyoxin-market-by-product-type-wettable-powder-905970/?utm_source=Tanuj&utm_medium=Tanuj#sample
The report also provides detail study on the trending innovations, business models, growth factors and every information about the big companies that will be present in the future market insights. Every market consists of set of manufacturers, vendors and consumers that gives a definition to the market, its each and every move, achievements. All these important subjects are covered in this report.
The report covers following Top Companies Data:
Jiangsu Fengyuan Bioengineering Co., Ltd., Beijing Green Agrosino Co., Ltd., Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nufarm Limited, Arysta LifeScience, Certis, OHP Inc., Cleary Chemical Corp., Hanzhou Dayangchem Co. Ltd., Shanxi Lvhai Agrochemicals
The Polyoxin Market report has been segregated based on distinct categories, such as product type, application, end user, and region. Each and every segment is evaluated on the basis of CAGR, share, and growth potential. In the regional analysis, the report highlights the prospective region, which is estimated to generate opportunities in the global Polyoxin market in the forthcoming years. This segmental analysis will surely turn out to be a useful tool for the readers, stakeholders, and market participants to get a complete picture of the global Polyoxin market and its potential to grow in the years to come.
Market Segmentation by Product Types:
Wettable Powder (WP)Dustable Powder (DP)Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC)
Market Segmentation by Applications:
This research report is segmented into several key regions, with the market production, consumption, revenue and market share.
North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico) Europe (Germany, U.K., France, Italy, Russia, Spain, and Rest of Europe) Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, Russia, and Rest of Asia Pacific) Latin America (Cuba, Brazil, Argentina, and Rest of Latin America) Middle East & Africa (South Africa, GCC and Rest of the Middle East & Africa)
FAQS in the report:What are the growth opportunities of the Polyoxin market?Which application/end-user category or Product Type may seek incremental growth prospects?What is the market concentration? Is it fragmented or highly concentrated?Which regional market will dominate in coming years?Which region may tap highest market share in coming era?What are the key challenges that the global Polyoxin market may face in future?Which are the leading players in the global Polyoxin market?What trends, challenges and barriers will impact the development and sizing of Global Polyoxin market?Which are the growth strategies considered by the players to sustain hold in the global Polyoxin market?What will be the post COVID-19 market scenario?What growth momentum or acceleration market carries during the forecast period?
For More Queries and Customization in The Report@https://www.apexmarketsresearch.com/report/global-polyoxin-market-by-product-type-wettable-powder-905970/?utm_source=Tanuj&utm_medium=Tanuj#inquiry
TOC for the Global Polyoxin Market:
Chapter 1 Industry Overview
1.1 Polyoxin Market Overview1.1.1 Polyoxin Product Scope1.1.2 Market Status and Outlook1.2 Global Polyoxin Market Size and Analysis by Regions (2014-2019)1.2.1 North America Polyoxin Market Status and Outlook1.2.2 EU Polyoxin Market Status and Outlook1.2.3 Japan Polyoxin Market Status and Outlook1.2.4 China Polyoxin Market Status and Outlook1.2.5 India Polyoxin Market Status and Outlook1.2.6 Southeast Asia Polyoxin Market Status and Outlook1.3 Global Polyoxin Market Segment by Types (2014-2026)1.3.1 Global Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate Comparison by Types (2014-2026)1.3.2 Global Polyoxin Revenue Market Share by Types in 20181.3.3 Type11.3.4 Type21.3.5 OtherOthers1.4 Polyoxin Market by End Users/Application1.4.1 Global Polyoxin Revenue (USD Mn) Comparison by Applications (2014-2026)1.4.2 Application 11.4.3 Application 2
Chapter 2 Global Polyoxin Competition Analysis by Players
2.1 Global Polyoxin Market Size (Million USD) by Players (2014-2019)2.2 Competitive Status and Trend2.2.1 Market Concentration Rate2.2.2 Product/Service Differences2.2.3 New Entrants2.2.4 The Technology Trends in Future
Chapter 3 Company (Top Players) Profiles and Key Data
3.1 Company 13.1.1 Company Profile3.1.2 Main Business/Business Overview3.1.3 Products, Services and Solutions3.1.4 Company 1, Polyoxin Revenue (Million USD) (2014-2019)3.1.5 Recent Developments3.2 Company 23.2.1 Company Profile3.2.2 Main Business/Business Overview3.2.3 Products, Services and Solutions3.2.4 Company 2, Polyoxin Revenue (Million USD) (2014-2019)3.2.5 Recent Developments3.3 Company 33.3.1 Company Profile3.3.2 Main Business/Business Overview3.3.3 Products, Services and Solutions3.3.4 Company 3, Polyoxin Revenue (Million USD) (2014-2019)3.3.5 Recent DevelopmentsAnd more
Chapter 4 Global Polyoxin Market Size Type (2014-2019)
4.1 Global Polyoxin Market Size by Type (2014-2019)
Chapter 5 Global Polyoxin Market Size Application (2014-2019)
5.1 Global Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)5.2 Potential Application of Polyoxin in Future5.3 Top Consumer / End Users of Polyoxin
Chapter 6 North America Polyoxin Development Status and Outlook
6.1 North America Polyoxin Market Size (2014-2019)6.2 North America Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)
Chapter 7 EU Polyoxin Development Status and Outlook
7.1 EU Polyoxin Market Size (2014-2019)7.2 EU Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)
Chapter 8 Japan Polyoxin Development Status and Outlook
8.1 Japan Polyoxin Market Size (2014-2019)8.2 Japan Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)
Chapter 9 China Polyoxin Development Status and Outlook
9.1 China Polyoxin Market Size and Forecast (2014-2019)9.2 China Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)
Chapter 10 India Polyoxin Development Status and Outlook
10.1 India Polyoxin Market Size and Forecast (2014-2019)10.2 India Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)
Chapter 11 Southeast Asia Polyoxin Development Status and Outlook
11.1 Southeast Asia Polyoxin Market Size and Forecast (2014-2019)11.2 Southeast Asia Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2014-2019)
Chapter 12 Market Forecast by Regions and Application (2019-2026)
12.1 Global Polyoxin Market Size (Million USD) by Regions (2019-2026)12.1. North America Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate (2019-2026)12.1.2 EU Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate (2019-2026)12.1.3 China Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate (2019-2026)12.1.4 Japan Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate (2019-2026)12.1.5 Southeast Asia Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate (2019-2026)12.1.6 India Polyoxin Revenue and Growth Rate (2019-2026)12.2 Global Polyoxin Market Size by Application (2019-2026)
Chapter 13 Polyoxin Market Dynamics
13.1 Polyoxin Market Opportunities13.2 Polyoxin Challenge and Risk13.2.1 Competition from Opponents13.2.2 Downside Risks of Economy13.3 Polyoxin Market Constraints and Threat13.3.1 Threat from Substitute13.3.2 Government Policy13.3.3 Technology Risks13.4 Polyoxin Market Driving Force13.4.1 Growing Demand from Emerging Markets13.4.2 Potential Application
Chapter 14 Market Effect Factors Analysis
14.1 Technology Progress/Risk14.1.1 Substitutes14.1.2 Technology Progress in Related Industry14.2 Consumer Needs Trend/Customer Preference14.3 External Environmental Change14.3.1 Economic Fluctuations14.3.2 Other Risk Factors
Chapter 15 Research Finding /Conclusion
Chapter 16 Methodology and Data Source
16.1 Methodology/Research Approach16.1.1 Research Programs/Design16.1.2 Market Size Estimation16.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation16.2 Data Source16.2.1 Secondary Sources16.2.2 Primary Sources16.3 Disclaimer16.4 Author List
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Northern Arizona University moved up five spots in the most recent National Science Foundations (NSF) national research rankings, moving to No. 191 with a fiscal year 2019 performance of $58.91 million.
Year after year, NAU has risen in these rankings, which takes research expenditures into account. NAU also rose to No. 88 for universities without a medical school and No. 70 in the nation for public institutions without a medical school.
The NSFs Higher Education Research and Development (HERD) annual survey ranks more than 900 colleges and universities and is the primary source of information on research and development expenditures.
NAUs climb is attributed to a 11 percent increase in research expenditures from 2018 to nearly $59 million in 2019.
Breaking into these elite ranks has been an important goal for President Rita Cheng since arriving at NAU in 2014. It represents the universitys commitment to and investment in research that is vital to students, faculty and the state.
NAU has continued to rise in these rankings, which are a measure of the diverse achievements of NAUs world-class faculty, researchers and support staff and our hard-working students, Cheng said. These rankings highlight the investment that NAU has made to high-level research, particularly in this time when creating new knowledge has never been more important. Our faculty are at the peak of their disciplines, and their work continues to be groundbreaking while also giving unparalleled experience to our graduate and undergraduate students.
Benjamin Ruddell, the director of the School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems and director of the FEWSION Project, said this ranking was a result of a concerted effort to ensure NAU was on the cutting edge of research across its many academic areas.
NAU is ranked among the top 10 percent of U.S. universities by most metrics, and we are now getting recognition for our excellence and leadership in research and innovation, Ruddell said. President Cheng and her team have made a carefully targeted investment in research capacity in science and technology at NAU in recent years, and our improved ranking demonstrates what that focused investment is achieving to benefit our students and the people of the State of Arizona.
Julie Baldwin, Regents professor and director of the Center for Health Equity Research, attributed the ranking to the dedicated faculty, staff and students at NAU and the investments and commitments made by the administration to support research.
We are proud to have contributed to the increased growth and capacity through our Center for Health Equity Research and our NIMHD-funded Research Center for Minority Institutions, known as the Southwest Health Equity Research Collaborative, she said. We have more than 90 investigators across campus who are affiliated with SHERC and CHER who are making tremendous progress in addressing health inequities in our region.
The annual ranking of U.S. universities by level of research activity considers total research expenditures, types of research and the number of personnel who participate in research and development.
While NAU is at the leading edge of research in physics, astronomy, climate and environmental science, ecology, forest health and land management and microbiology, these rankings demonstrate a breadth of expertise across disciplines. Those include science, health and social sciences, and a focus on top-tier research, including increased research activity in emerging fields such as cyber systems and informatics, health equity, planetary sciences, bioengineering and material science.
Ted Schuur, a professor of ecosystem ecology in the Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, said NAUs increased rankings year after year show the universitys investments into core research strengths have paid off. This cutting-edge research translates into improved opportunities for student training, particularly at the graduate level where students learn research skills that are widely applicable by working closely with faculty mentors. This investment also gives undergraduate students opportunities to be exposed to research for the first time.
For me, coming in early as NAU made new investments into research meant that the outcome was only as good as we could make it, he said. It is nice to see the new critical mass that has been attracted to NAU and added to the research that was already ongoing. Together we have made a clear impact, both as reflected in the rankings but perhaps more importantly as reflected in the new knowledge that has been produced in service of helping society move into the future.
NAUs national recognition in research helps attract and retain exceptional faculty, and enhances experiential learning and undergraduate and graduate student research opportunities. It also grows and strengthens programs leading to degrees in high-demand fields, leading to further developing Arizonas workforce, supporting jobs for students, faculty and staff, expanding the states economy and benefiting communities locally and throughout the world.
See the original post:
For second consecutive year, NAU ranks in top 200 in NSF research rankings - Prescott eNews
This past week, the Harvard community witnessed the rightful cancelation of Kevin K. Kit Parkers course, Engineering Sciences 298R: Data Fusion in Complex Systems: A Case Study. The course planned to have undergraduates examine the efficacy of policing criminal activity in Springfield, Mass. using a policing tactic modeled after how troops in America's wars in Iraq and Afghanistan conducted counterinsurgency.
Examining Springfields Counter Criminal Continuum Policing program C3 for short has become something of a pet project for Parker, a bioengineering professor. A personal connection helps explain why.
Parker and Matthew M. Cutone, the state trooper that trademarked C3, connected over the idea of bringing wartime tactics home in 2011 while in the same National Guard training unit. The army buddies, as Parker puts it, have had a working relationship for over a decade, which has included collaborating on a Harvard course in 2012.
During this 2012 class the canceled courses predecessor undergraduates developed intelligence collection software that Springfield cops used to create a database of suspected gang members to target based on information including an individuals tattoos. Cutone, the cop who invented the C3 strategy, gave undergraduates a tour of Springfield as a part of the course to determine if, after their intervention, any of the symptoms of that failed community had been alleviated, according to the 60 Minutes interview on the project Parker used to promote this years failed iteration of the course.
To be clear, thinking critically about police tactics is not inherently wrong. Responsibly studying difficult and controversial topics matters, perhaps more so for their difficulty. However, Parkers approach and personal ties to C3s creator deeply alarm us.
Parkers course was never chiefly about data; rather, it seems clear that ES 298R was meant to serve as a laboratory, as he puts it, for justifying the use of military tactics in Springfield, Mass.
Parker has indicated support for C3: Cutone, its creator, says Parker's eyes lit up upon hearing the idea. In a 2013 interview, Parker described insurgents in Afghanistan and gangs in the inner city as operating off the same business model, and expressed confidence that military counterinsurgency belongs in U.S. policing. On the subject, Parker, a veteran, said I do want to win one war in my life. I didn't fight in Iraq, I fought in Afghanistan. I want to win one counterinsurgency. To do so, the bioengineering professor has made the majority-minority neighborhood of Springfield his battleground and enlisted Harvard undergraduates as foot soldiers.
Cutone, Parkers decade-old friend and collaborator, appears to profit off of C3 policing. In addition to creating the tactic, Cutone runs a consulting company that exports it, lending weight to the question of whether Parker has improper financial connections to C3, which Parker denies, raised in the petition that led to ES 298Rs cancelation. Publicity-driven incentives could have also led the bioengineering professor to revisit his interest in policing. The last time Parker taught his C3 policing course (which, again, allowed untrained undergraduates to direct police operations), a flurry of press followed: a 60 Minutes interview, a profile in Nature, and a New York Times piece, all of which he used to promote this years botched iteration of the course.
Yet our issues with the course go well beyond the instructors background and potential conflicts of interest. ES 298R was also a course about policing that declined to wrestle with the inherent racial dynamics of its field of study; a course that, though predicated on studying the institution that helped unleash months-long protests over the deadly mistreatment of minorities, took the time to make clear that racial disparities were not the focus of its work.
One cannot sideline ethics for the sake of teaching a data-driven course, nor, by the use of buzzwords like data-driven alone, banish the racial biases that permeate debates about policing and infect police data. Parkers own attempt to teach ES 298R with an emphasis on criminal gangs and gang activity without proper acknowledgement of the racial character and history of such terms (what makes one group a gang and another a right-wing militia?) is a brutal display of ignorance. Objective analysis that ignores historical and social backdrop is hardly objective.
You cannot have a class on policing without conversation on race especially not one based in a majority-minority city like Springfield, where only 29 percent of residents self-identify as white. We know that the American police system is racist. Its practices disproportionately target Black, Latinx, and indigenous communities in the United States; tactics like stop-and-frisk have even codified this terrorizing. Sidelining these disparities in a class centered on police tactics is to teach a tone deaf and painfully inaccurate view of American policing. To examine C3s effect on quality of life, as ES 298Rs course description proposes, while carpeting over equity is absurd. Under Parkers framework, we doubt the crucial fact that, in 2020, the Justice Department found Springfield police engaged in an unconstitutional pattern of excessive force would even factor into quality-of-life considerations.
That Parkers course, a seeming ploy to use students to prop up literally militaristic policing, was ever offered is a nightmare. Harvard must urgently commit to ensuring that such glaringly immoral and ill-conceived coursework is never offered again. Courses that task students with coding away deep societal issues obviously and especially warrant scrutiny.
This staff editorial solely represents the majority view of The Crimson Editorial Board. It is the product of discussions at regular Editorial Board meetings. In order to ensure the impartiality of our journalism, Crimson editors who choose to opine and vote at these meetings are not involved in the reporting of articles on similar topics.
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Livestock manure properties and pollution prevention Ohio Ag Net – Ohio’s Country Journal and Ohio Ag Net
By Harold Keener, Fuqing Xu, Mary Wicks
Land application of livestock manure provides nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK) to field crops and is generally the most accepted and economical use for recycling these nutrients. However, land application of manure has been a contributor to severe outbreaks of harmful algal blooms in the Western Lake Erie Basin and Grand Lake St. Marys. The algal blooms have generated health concerns for those using these lakes as sources of drinking water or for recreation. Runoff of total and dissolved reactive P (DRP) is often the limiting nutrient for freshwater algal blooms. Previous studies have shown that the concentration of water-extractable P (WEP) in manure (expressed as lb WEP/lb dry matter) can help predict DRP in runoff.Thus, for a given level of P application per acre, reducing the WEP/P level in manure would reduce total WEP application, thereby reducing the potential for P runoff from land applied manure and associated algal blooms.
Previous studies at OSU and by others on WEP in manure indicate that WEP can be affected by manure storage conditions, such as temperature, storage time, and agitation frequency. During 2018-2019 OSU researchers conducted lab and on-farm studies to evaluate the effect of storage conditions and time on WEP/P ratios for liquid swine and dairy manure (moisture 85-98.5%). For solid poultry manure (moisture less than 70%) only on farm studies were done.These studies showed the following:
Earlier bench scale studies by other researchers have evaluated the effect of incorporating dairy, swine and poultry manure into the soil before rainfall. Those studies showed that the DRP (i.e., WEP) runoff potential for incorporation of surface applied manure was not significantly different compared to soil with no manure application.
Results of the 2018-19 Ohio studies indicate that long term storage of liquid swine and dairy manures can reduce the WEP/P of manure, but it does not eliminate the potential for DRP in runoff from surface applied manures. Results also showed that liquid dairy manure would result in the highest levels of WEP/acre for a given application rate of P/acre for the livestock manures investigated.Previous research by others tells us to incorporate manure, especially liquid swine and dairy, to reduce the risk of nutrient runoff. Note that Ohio regulations provide guidelines for manure application during winter months as well as restrictions for impaired watersheds, such as Grand Lake St. Marys or the Western Lake Erie Basin, and for permitted livestock or poultry facilities. For more information, go toagri.ohio.govand click on Conserving Resources.Dr. Harold Keener is a Professor Emeritus, Fuqing Xu was a Research Scientist, and Mary H. Wicks is a Program Coordinator in the Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering of The Ohio State University.E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org;email@example.com. Phone: (330)202-3533.This column is provided by the OSU Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, OSU Extension, Ohio Agricultural Research & Development Center, and the College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.