Search Immortality Topics:

Page 11234..1020..»

Technocalpyse Part 1, 2, 3

Posted: January 24, 2016 at 7:16 am

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

The Ethics of the Future: Human Genetic Engineering and Human Immortality Medicine is Coming in 19 years!!

Posted: January 1, 2015 at 12:46 pm

The Ethics of the Future: Genetic Engineering and Immortality Medicine

2015 is Going to Be a Fascinating Year for Longevity Science

By Professor Mark

How do you feel about the potential for great advances in Human Longevity Science that have been occurring in recent years? Do you feel excited about the prospect of living a much longer life, or are you indifferent? Are you nervous about the prospects of what this sort of tinkering with genetics and human nature might bring?

Is the potential for a vastly expanded lifespan going to be something that everyone can enjoy, or will it be an advantage simply for those that can afford it? If you could live 100 years longer, would you want to? Would you care if the opportunity were afforded to you as an individual? Would such a huge opportunity lead to a new and beautiful life on earth, or would earth somehow take these momentous advantages and turn the world on its head?

My Beliefs Regarding Advanced Genetic Engineering

Many years ago, when I was an undergraduate at Penn State, our professor posited similar questions in our Genetics Class, which played a major role in affecting my beliefs toward the subject of hyper-longevity and Genetic Engineering. The class was large, with more than 100 students, and my professor asked the class what their opinions were regarding the use of genetic manipulation and engineering to alter human life.

Surprisingly, the class was completely silent. In response to this silence, the professor called up two students to debate the subject. One of my classmates volunteered to voice his opposition to genetic engineering, and I chose to volunteer, providing an argument in favor of it.

My opponent voiced his opinion to the class that genetic engineering for this purpose would be ethically wrong because it is not in man’s best interest to play God. Most of our classmates seemed to agree, nodding subtly in agreement.

Personal Aesthetic: Choosing to Be Different

I felt as though I was standing upon a grand crossroads of history. As I looked around the class, it felt as though all of my classmates, for all of their cliquish differences, were being incredibly closed-minded, like they just accepted what they had been told all their lives and were afraid to think for themselves.

After the professor gauged the response of the students, I had my opportunity to argue in favor of this advanced human genetic engineering. I glanced around the class, and felt my argument come together cleanly in my mind. I saw white girls with bleached hair stretching down their backs, more than a few of which had fake breasts. I saw black girls with expensive weaves and complex and expensive hairstyles.

There were white students mimicking their hip hop and rap idols, and I even saw a young Asian student that had very obviously dyed her hair red. In my class I saw a great commingling of different styles. People both attempting to exemplify American standards of beauty and those taking on the aspects of other cultures, adopting them as their own.

As I looked around at all of this, recognizing the great diversity in my class, I had a strong feeling that there was not one person in the class that didn’t have at least one thing they wanted to alter about the characteristics they were born with. I continued thinking to myself, that these students probably wanted to be different in a variety of different ways: some wanted to be smarter, some taller. Some girls wish they had larger breasts, and some guys wanted larger penises. Others probably wish that they didn’t have to go through the trouble to put in contacts and hair dyes to look like the person they wish they were. For myself, I would have given anything just to be a few inches taller.

A Call for Genetic Freedom

After standing quietly for a moment, with all of these thoughts running through my at head a rapid place, I spoke from my position, in the back of the class, and suddenly stated loudly: Genetic Freedom!

I felt that just those two words spoke for themselves, but my professor threw a dejected glance in my direction, and I could detect her shaking her head almost imperceptibly. Her silence was a sign that she needed more. After the brief silence, I continued. I argued to the class that the individual should have full control to alter his DNA as he sees fit, so long as it doesn’t negatively impact society or the rights of anyone else.

She seemed thoroughly unhappy with the argument, and the class began to chatter loudly, nearly in unison. After the short spate of controlled chaos, the class continued with liveliness and energy, but I felt that others in the class largely shunned me as a result of the fervent beliefs I expressed in regard to what legitimately amounted to the potential future of the human race.

Will People Be Able to Resist Genetic Alteration?

I still laugh to myself to this day about how my belief met such incredulity in the face of so many. In the future, once science makes it possible to make such powerful changes to humanity at the genetic level, I am confident that these same students, if given the actual opportunity to improve themselves through futuristic genetic methods, would absolutely jump at the chance with no second thought.

It wouldn’t be Playing God. It wouldn’t be unethical. It would simply be the new reality. In fact, once the time comes to pass when Genetic Alteration becomes a reality, the exact same people today that seek out plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery will clamor for these procedures as soon as they become available. In the end, I believe I made a B in the course, which is regretful, because I’ve always remained highly interested in genetics.

The Future of Humanity: The Organic and the Engineered

Another of my professors at Penn State, himself with a doctorate in genetics, explained an interesting aspect of human evolution, one which I had never thought of before. He explained that the many races that make up humanity as a whole developed their differences as a result of dispersing far from one another, and slowly adapting to their new environments over time.

After they migrated, geography, distance, and other factors kept them from interacting heavily with one another, which caused their minor adaptations to become more pronounced. In the same way that they developed their own habits and cultures, their aesthetic and physical makeup also changed. Some grew taller, others grew paler, and each individual culture became maximally resistant to the diseases which were prominent in their area.

Even though these physical and genetic changes were significant, any healthy woman on earth could still mate with any other healthy man, no matter how different he looked or acted. What he said that truly sparked my mind was that if the different races of human beings stayed geographically isolated from one another for longer period of time, eventually the different races could have changed enough to where they could no longer produce children with one another.

Could Genetically Engineered Humans Evolve Beyond Humanity?

This can also apply to the future of genetic engineering. The modern world is so interconnected that geography has no impact on the ability of humans to breed with one another, but genetic enhancement may lead to a point at which a human born today would not be able to mate with an individual that was the result of generations of genetically altered parents.

As Genetic Engineering becomes more advanced, humans may change enough at the genetic level to prevent interbreeding between lineages which have undergone these advancements and those that chose not to. This change would of course be gradual, first reducing the ability to conceive before denying that ability altogether. At this point, it would take genetic engineering just to create a viable child for two disparate humans. Interestingly enough, it may even come to pass that different species of humans evolve from such endeavors, as distinct from one another as they are from humans themselves.

The beginning of this story could begin sometime in the next hundred years, as scientists and medical specialists develop the ability to safely and effectively alter DNA to meet the specifications of the individual.

The Future is Coming: the Great Human Divergence and the Neo-Sapient

The people that choose to reject Genetic Modification and Advanced Longevity Treatments in the near future will create an interesting binary world. This could be the beginning of a grand human experiment. This could be the focal point of a genetic divergence so strong that it literally fragments the human race, creating a new class of post-humans that have advanced to a point where they qualify as their own unique species.

I think back to the genetics course I mentioned earlier. I remember the absolute ocean of diversity that was contained within the 100-student course, and I was able to visualize a future in which Genetic Modification leads to even greater diversity, and a uniqueness that has never existed in the history of the human race. It made me think of the diversity of the universe, and the unlimited options for diversity that it represents. As someone with an affinity for astronomy, I find it utterly inconceivable that planet earth is home to the only lifeforms in the universe.

Of course, along with my great optimism, I do recognize that there are risks and unknowns related to the future of Genetic Modification. There is even the potential that the science behind Genetic Modification could be used for Genetic Warfare. There is certainly the potential that the same science that creates a new humanity could be used to destroy large swathes of it. I can imagine an apocalypse that is not nuclear and grandiose, but genetic and nanoscopic.

Post-Humanism and the Search For Other Worlds

In the end, will humans be able to develop interplanetary travel and colonization in order to insure itself against such potential apocalyptic scenarios? It’s a subject that I am particularly concerned with, and is the core reason why I support NASA and the United States Space Program. As the world moves faster and the dangers become greater, it is imperative that we are able to save humanity even in the case of a state of mutually assured destruction.

If there truly is a Genetic Revolution on the horizon, it is vitally important that we use all of the resources we have available in order to make our dreams of space colonization a reality. Imagine a future so spectacular: A future where a multitude of post-human species advance outward from earth in order to colonize space like a rainbow across the galaxy.

This journey will be arduous and epic, as earthlings spread across the cosmos in order to find new viable homes and potentially interact with other life forms.

What Would Aliens Be Like?

Can you imagine how literally otherworldly that would be? If we found advanced aliens, would they have unlocked the key to eternity? Would we have done the same? There is no doubt that the first time that we make contact with an extraterrestrial species, they will come from worlds and cultures which are absolutely unimaginable in the face of everything that we have experienced.

I may have delved a bit into the realm of science fiction, but the future of humanity in the face of Genetic Modification has the potential to be every bit as exciting and otherworldly as the potential future that I just described. It instills a tremendous sense of fear, awe, and most importantly, unlimited potential.

Do You Think That You Could Handle Immortality?

If you ask the average person out on the street about the potential future afforded by Genetic Engineering, Advanced Longevity, and Immortality medicine, you’ll likely get a number of different responses, some positive, some negative, others simply incredulous. If you surveyed 100 people, I believe that you would find that the majority would ultimately reject the idea of immortality.

Some people think that eternity would take the excitement out of life. Others fear that they would eventually just become a broken shell of their former selves as their bodies physically decline in spite of science’s ability to prevent death. For many, the concept of eternity is just as fearsome as the concept of death itself. It’s not all that different from the way that people feel about retirement these days. They are frustrated because they have to work so hard all through the healthiest part of their lives only to be too frail and broken down by the time they retire to enjoy it.

Longevity Medicine and the Future

That’s why Longevity Medicine is so important. We want our retirement years to last as long as possible, and we want to be able to enjoy them. Maybe one day, we will be retired as long in our lives as we are at work, or longer! That’s what the approach to immortality will be like!

There are a growing number of people that are optimistic about a lengthy future. They understand that even with regard to a concept like immortality, life is the sum of individual experience. Some will take advantage of a life bordering on immortality, while others would simply choose to be boring. People that live lives full of happiness and vitality shouldn’t be deprived the opportunity to extend that joy, simply because there are others who wouldn’t appreciate it!

The arguments stemming from the subject of Human Immortality continue to become both more interesting and more complex, both for those that long for such a fate, and those that oppose the concept. No matter how you feel about the idea of Advanced Longevity, there is no doubt that such opportunities to live lives we now consider unimaginable will eventually come to pass.

As long as human beings are able to engage in scientific advancement without destroying ourselves or sending ourselves back to the stone age, such opportunities will present themselves to the human race in the near future.

Gene Therapy and Stem Cell Therapy: The First Steps to Hyperlongevity

The seeds of these future endeavors are being planted today, in the fields of gene therapy, genetic medicine, and stem cell therapy. This is also the core concept behind medical treatments which seek to optimize hormone production in the body in order to alleviate the medical conditions associated with hormone imbalance and aging.

Hormone Replacement Therapy: Streamline Your Body for the Future!

Treatments such as Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Sermorelin Acetate Therapy, and Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy seek to correct common hormonal imbalances that occur as a result of the aging process. There is even a strong argument that these hormone imbalances are actually the root cause of many symptoms of aging, including frailty, osteoporosis, and cognitive decline.

There are many Health, Wellness, and Longevity Physicians that believe that these forms of Hormone Replacement Therapy are some of the must effective means to prolong a healthy and active life when used in combination with a healthy and conscientious lifestyle. These medical treatments are the best way to decrease your mortality risk so that you are more likely to experience the next great advancement in Anti-Aging Medicine.

If you feel that your quality of life has been on the decline as a result of changes in your body and mind resulting from the aging process, I strongly encourage you to get your hormone levels checked, because there is a significant chance that you may be suffering from a reversible form of hormone deficiency.

The Future of Human Genetic Engineering

This is truly an exciting time to be alive. We are quickly approaching the point at which scientific breakthroughs in health science will continue to occur at an ever-increasing pace, with groundbreaking new health advances occurring on a regular basis. The following years will be incredibly interesting, because there are a multitude of clinical trials regarding the promise and potential effectiveness of both gene therapy and stem cell therapy.

By 2012, these studies, and other similar studies, were already displaying high levels of potential to both treat and protect both animals and humans from disease. Beyond Hormone Optimization and Genetic Therapy, the next stage of advancement will most likely be in the field of nanomedicine. Beyond nanomedicine is femtomedicine.

At this stage of scientific inquiry, this is as far as even the most forward-thinking physician or philosopher could imagine, but there is no doubt as we create new medical treatments and expend our knowledge of medical science, new opportunities for advancement will be conceptualized that could be even more life-altering and fantastic than those that we just mentioned.

When you consider the future of medicine and longevity, you realize that human beings as they are now aren’t simply the end result of millions of years of evolution, but also a gateway to the next state of terrestrial life, a transitional state between what was and what will be, an opportunity to experience even greater consciousness and enlightenment by conquering time, itself.

What is the Idea Behind Human Immortality?

When we discuss the idea of human immortality, it doesn’t just mean allowing a human being to live forever, human immortality represents the idea that it will be possible, with future biomedical and genetic enhancements, for human beings to experience a practical immortality in which one is able to live as they were in the prime of their life, for all of their life.

It seems just as you master your body and your mind in the late twenties and early thirties, your body and mind start to enter a slow and unstoppable decline. What if you could preserve that period of physical and psychological perfection forever? It is during this period that the average person reaches his or her functional peak as an individual, with regard to strength, cognitive ability, immunity, and overall health.

How Much Better Would Life Be if You Lived to 200?

Think about how different and exciting that life would be if you could have the body and mind of a 29 year old for 120 years. There are a number of people that think that humans should not have this opportunity, but it sounds much better than spending the whole sum of those years in slow and steady decline.

How Much Better Would Life Be if You Could Live Indefinitely?

Immortalists subscribe to the belief that individuals that truly enjoy life and are creative or passionate enough to find interesting or fulfilling things to do would be able to easily take advantage of a significantly lengthened lifespan. I do understand how such a long life would feel to someone that lacks passion or imagination, however. I can imagine two hundred years of absolutely drudgery. If one does not have the propensity to invest or save to create wealth, I can imagine two hundred years of hard work with nothing to show for it.

With luck, a more automated world would allow us to enjoy our lives while actually working less. Imagine a world of eco-friendly machines could do the work of one hundred men. This could be a wonderful world of leisure for all, but it could also lead to a world where machines are used as a method of control and domination, like in Frank Herbert’s dystopian novel Dune.

The Temptation of Human Immortality

Whether the opportunity for Human Immortality comes in twenty years or two hundred years, there will be those that seek out the opportunity for such a life, and there will be those that choose to reject the opportunity for immortality.

The central question that Immortalists posit is a simple one: Why would anyone actually want to die or grow old? When you think of it that way, it sounds absolutely silly. Who would ever want to do such things? But in reality, it seems as though most human beings are resigned to such a fate.

Who Really Wants to Grow Old?

More than simply growing old, who wants to lose their lust for life or their libido? Who wants to experience their own body slowly deteriorate as they are beaten down by illness and disease? Human Immortalists are those that are willing to fight against what is perceived as inevitable by society at large. They believe that those that have resigned themselves to decay and death are simply not willing to imagine a post-human age where they could evolve beyond the inevitability of death.

It seems that many humans think of Human Immortalists as harbingers of doom which are going to bring about a new genocide. They believe that Immortalists are going against the will of God by altering the Human Genetic Code in an attempt to foster extreme lifespans, improved aesthetic, and vastly improved health outcomes.

The Great Schism of Humanity

There is a strong chance that a rift will develop between those that choose genetic alteration and those that choose to forgo such opportunities. In the end, it is likely that humanity will rift into two distinct groups. Over time, greater and greater numbers will opt for Genetic Modification, and those that opt out of such procedures may potentially lose footing in society as a result of their choice.

If modification indeed has the ability to create such disparity, genetically modified humans will spread their genes with one another, and their offspring may have greater potential for both prosperity and intellect, which will create a socioeconomic rift between GM Humans and Unmodified Humans.

Will Post-Humans be able to act ethically under these circumstances? Will Unmodified Humans be able to accept a place in the world where they are unequivocally inferior to their GM counterparts? This new world will be different and exciting, and it’s up to us to create a civil world where we can act in the best interest of all.

What Other Strange Opportunities May Become Available in the Future?

On top of our ability to vastly extend and improve our long-term health, the future will also provide us with enhanced opportunities with regard to personal aesthetic. We will not only be able to cure conditions such as psoriasis which plague millions in the world today, but many may choose to move beyond mere optimization and may choose to fully customize their appearance. Perhaps one may choose not to have olive or alabaster skin as many in society desire today, but go for a different color all together.

What if someone chose to color their skin orange, green, or blue? What if they wanted to be leopard print or covered in zebra stripes? This may appear otherworldly and unnatural to our minds, but when presented with an entire array of customization, what would be so strange about doing something like that to stand out? How different would it be to dying your hair blue or rainbow, if there were no dangers in undergoing such a change?

But, given enough time and scientific innovation, skin color and other basic augmentations like genetic breast and penis enlargement will be just another evolution in the concept of general aesthetic. The potential for more extreme changes would eventually become possible. What if humans wanted to take on the characteristics of animals? What if someone wanted the ears or tail of a cat, for example? There would even be the potential to do even more drastic things that we can barely imagine today.

Genetically Engineered Pets

These genetic advancements won’t occur in a human vacuum. They will also apply to animals as well. Today people are paying top dollar for basic genetically modified hypo-allergenic dogs, and glow-in-the-dark mammals have even been developed in laboratories.

In the future, it is likely that scientists will come up with scientific modifications which significantly enhance both the aesthetic and intelligence of animals. It’s even likely that animals will experience the benefits of genetic engineering more quickly than humans, as this future will largely be facilitated by means of animal testing.

The Post-Human Era Starts with Basic Genetic Engineering and Ends with Post-Humanism, Hyperlongevity, and Potential Immortality

You may not be able to tell, but we are already in the midst of the first phase of the Post-Human era. The beginning of this era was marked by the first time that egg and sperm from two different individuals was combined and implanted into an adoptive mother. It was such a grand event in retrospect, but the passing into this new era was not met with massive celebrations, but simply with concerns over the ethics of the new future.

Post-Humanity will have a litany of moral conundrums to unravel, some that we can imagine, and others that are unfathomable to us today. The state of the mortal mind is simply not equipped to handle the moral and ethical quandaries that the genetically modified mind will face. What if there are other lifeforms just like us in other parts of the galaxy, that have also learned to take control of their very existence on the cellular level? What if the number of unique alien civilizations in the universe is unlimited? What if we as earthlings are just one form of intelligent life among a countless litany of others?

The Current State of Genetic Modification and Gene Therapy

Today, scientists, researchers, and physicians are taking the first step into this future, with the quickly growing field of genetic therapy. We are on the cusp of doing some truly amazing things, like genetically altering viruses in order to protect humans from genetic disorders and conditions. At first, these initial treatments have been risky, reserved for those in most dire need, but as medical science becomes more well-versed in these therapeutic advancements, they will become safer and more widely available to the general public. Could you imagine reducing your risk of cancer by 80% just with a single injection? That may be the future for you.

The Current State of Organ Regeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

Another aspect of genetic therapy has to do with the advancing field of Stem Cell Therapy. There are new, state of the art treatments available which utilize stem cells in order to improve the health of the heart. Patients that have experienced heart attack or heart disease can be treated with stem cells which have the ability to develop into new and healthy muscle tissue.

Similar techniques have also been used in order to regenerate other parts of the body or parts of individual organs. In one famous case, scientists biomanufactured a windpipe for a patient with the patient’s own cells. They were able to do this by taking the stem cells and allowing them to grow in culture before pouring them over a scaffold in the shape of a windpipe. Just by providing the cells with the nutrients to grow, they were able to recreate a human windpipe in the laboratory just in a matter of days.

Because the windpipe was created from the patient’s own cells, the body did not reject the windpipe when it was surgically implanted into the body. This is one of the first successful cases where a patient’s life was changed through the scientific advancements of genetic organ replacement.

Stem Cell Therapy Will Be Available in the Near Future: Hormone Replacement Therapy is Here Today!

Stem Cell Therapy is exciting and will become increasingly common and popular over the next century in the United States. Today, there are a few places where Stem Cell Therapy is available internationally, especially in Asia, but they have yet to be medically certified, and there are still a number of pertinent risks involved. In the Western World, Stem Cell Treatments are currently going through clinical trials. Although the results are mixed, continual progress is being made.

There are many scientists that believe that Stem Cell Research will lead to a new future in medicine, but policies enacted during the presidency of George W. Bush have set the United States behind by at least a decade, and other nations in Europe and Asia are currently taking advantage of their head start, and may one day eclipse us in these new and futuristic medical therapies.

In just a few short years, genetic testing will become affordable enough that it will become a common and recommended part of prenatal care as well as regular checkups throughout the lifespan. Over time, more and more Genetic Disorders will be able to be effectively treated with Gene Therapy, and with every breakthrough, people will be that much more likely to live a longer and healthier life.

Once the clinical science is sound, it won’t even be a difficult ordeal for the patient. It would simply be like going to visit the pharmacist, or making a call to a specialist pharmacy. After receiving the medication, one will be able to administer the medication on his or her own and without the frequent oversight of a medical professional.

Not long after these Genetic Treatments are made available to the public, Stem Cell Therapies will quickly become more and more advanced as well. There are even companies that have expressed a desire to take your stem cells and develop them in a laboratory environment. The goal of this treatment would be to take your own stem cells and foster the healthiest cells to multiply. After these cultures are developed, they would be mailed back to you in order for you to inject them to alleviate health conditions and other symptoms related to the aging process.

Beyond Genetic Engineering and Stem Cell Therapies, will come new forms of medical treatment that we are just beginning to research today, but will surely flourish in the coming decades: nanomedicine and femtomedicine.

Nanoscience and the Healthcare of the Future

These are tiny, genetically engineered cellular machines that will be able to improve your health by altering the functions of your body in a positive manner. They will be able to repair and alter particular forms of cells so that they function optimally, even after a period of long life in which you would expect to see physiological breakdown. It is even believed that these treatments can also preserve and repair the brain itself! Isn’t that exciting?

There are countless people in the world that have a litany of big dreams, more than they could ever hope to accomplish in a single lifetime in some cases. They have these long checklists of things they want to do in their life, a whole wide world they want to explore. Some have an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, and want to read thousands of books or learn dozens of languages in their life.

There are countless more people that have spent their early lives living on the edge, and suffer from issues such as alcohol dependency or drug addiction which have harmed their bodies and their brains. With these forms of genetic and nanomedicine, it will be possible to repair the bodies and minds of these individuals, allowing them to make a fresh start. It is possible that addiction itself may become a historical curiosity as a result of these medical advances.

What Would Do If You Had 200 More Years to Live?

  • Would you learn to play multiple musical instruments?

  • Would you research for decades in order to write the perfect novel?

  • Would you visit every country on earth?

The number of dreams that humans have yearned for is nearly infinite, and most never live to achieve all of their dreams, if they achieve any of their dreams at all. If you are still alive in the near future, around 2032, you will be able to take full advantage of what Longevity Medicine and Anti-Aging Therapy have to offer!

Some time in the future, we will finally overcome the condition of aging. We will be able to prevent all illness and be able to live in perpetuity, as long as we don’t succumb to an accident or similar fate. This is the extreme vision of Immortality Medicine.

The First Immortals Could be Alive Today!

By the time we make it to the 22nd century, there will already be individuals that have taken the road to Hyperlongevity, and there will likely be millions of humans that have taken part in this great leap forward into Post-Humanism. They will not only be healthier, but smarter too, with further advances in Genetic Science that allow us to amplify the capacity of our brains.

As people continue to develop down this evolutionary road, will we even consider them humans anymore? They will represent a new version of humanity, and they will likely use a new term to define themselves, whether that be Neohuman or some other clever word or phrase.

I believe that this advance into Neohumanism will also lead to a new era in space travel and human colonization. With these extensive lifespans, many Neohumans will inevitably turn their eyes to the stars in a desire to find new worlds and discover new lands and extraterrestrial lifeforms. Brave Neohumans from all over the planet will take to interplanetary space vessels in order to colonize and experience new worlds and lands that are beyond the scope of human imagination.

Can I Live to Experience This New Era of Humanity?

All of the things we’ve discussed may seem incredibly exciting to you, but we understand that these innovations are going to come in the near future. If you want to take part in this grand human experiment, it’s important that you live long enough to seize these innovations as they come! There are steps you can take now to alleviate the negative symptoms of the aging process and increase your odds of experiencing the new, human revolution.

My suggestions will not ensure that you will live for the next twenty years or longer, but they will potentially drastically decrease your mortality risk so that you are able to seek out this new and exciting future that we have laid before you.

Today, the door to Neo-Humanism, Hyperlongevity, and even Human Immortality is slightly open, and there are many alive today that will experience these magnificent and life-altering advances.

Will You Take Advantage of the Advances of Hyper-Longevity and Anti-Aging Medicine? Are You Willing to Commit to a Longer and more Youthful Life?

It’s quite plain to see that we are at the crest of an event horizon, beyond which it will truly be possible to lengthen lifespans indefinitely. The most important thing is to breach that horizon. By taking steps to increase health and lifespan now, you allow yourself the opportunity to take care of further, greater medical enhancements down the road.

The most modern advances available today are in the form of Recombinant Hormone Replacement Therapies. By optimizing your hormone balance, you increase the odds that you will live long enough to experience the new, up-and-coming breakthroughs of the mid-21st century.

If you live just a few more years, new genetic medical treatments will become available which will significantly increase your lifespan. While you are enjoying the benefit of genetic medicine, researchers and medical scientists will advance and perfect Genetic Therapy and Stem Cell Therapy, allowing you to live even longer!

There are a number of Stem Cell and Gene Therapies going through clinical trials as you read this, which show great promise in preventing or treating serious illnesses which severely inhibit lifespan today. As the medical community becomes more adept at using these new tools for the purpose of treatment, they will begin to utilize these treatments as forms of Positive Medicine.

They will be able to treat patients before they even get sick in order to optimize their health and greatly improve lifespans as a result, because the incidence of illness will decline significantly. In addition, these same treatments will be able to streamline existing physiological processes, keeping the body physiologically stronger and more youthful. They will be able to tailor these treatments uniquely to the individual in order to give the best care to each individual patient.

Stay on the Cutting Edge of Longevity Medicine to Perpetually Extend the Human Lifespan

With each of these breakthroughs and treatments, we will come one step closer to Immortality. Eventually, scientists and researchers will crack the code of human life, and finally figure out how to allow us to truly live indefinitely. It may take 100 years or it may take 500 years to achieve true Immortality, but each life-extending advance will allow people to survive until the next great advance. Hyper-Longevity will eventually become a universal reality, barring accident, war, or any other form of life-ending catastrophe.

You may feel that this is a science fiction world that I am describing, but it very well may be possible for you to experience this all for yourself. It is estimated that at some point between 2032 and 2052 we will have perfected medical practices which allow us to live significantly longer lives than we do today. Those that are optimistic feel that we are just twenty years away from this era, while those that are more cautious suggest that fifty years would be a more reasonable estimate.

Twenty to fifty years may not seem like that long in scientific study, but in terms of your own life, it is a significant period of time. Are you willing to make the sacrifices now in order to experience Hyperlongevity in the near future?

Eight Ways to Extend Your Lifespan

There are a lot of steps that you can take in your life today in order to significantly increase the odds that you survive to experience this new and amazing future. If you follow the suggestions below, conscientiously, you will maximize your potential to extend your life until further longevity advances develop in the coming decades.

These eight factors have been shown to be most important when determining the length of an individual’s lifespan:

  • Nutrition

  • Exercise

  • Environment

  • Social Circles

  • Vice

  • Climate

  • Calorie-Restricted Diet

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy

The Diet of the 21st Century: Caloric Restriction and Fasting for a Longer Life

A recent article in Newsmax Health explained that the future of longevity isn’t fad dieting or strenuous exercise, but a Calorie-Restricted diet which manages metabolism and ensures a long and healthy life.

Over the last century, there have been more than twenty thousand studies regarding caloric restriction in animal species from around the globe. All of these studies have unequivocally shown that restricting the calories in an animal’s diet has the ability to significantly increase the lifespan, and the same appears to apply to human beings..

This may sound like a starvation diet at first, but conscientiously and significantly restricting calories in the human diet is a powerful means to a longer life. Of course, most people consume at least 1500 calories per day and some consume several thousand! But, it appears that the sweet spot for human longevity is quite a bit lower than that 1500 calorie threshold.

For those that are struggling with Caloric Restriction, especially those that are currently overweight, HCG Injections can help relieve the feeling of hunger associated with the initial phase of the diet in order to acclimate to their new dietary lifestyle more effectively.

At first it may seem counter-intuitive, that too much of the Bread of Life can actually shorten the lifespan, but that absolutely seems to be the case. A diet that provides high levels of nutrients through the consumption of a small number of calories is the number one way to increase human longevity effectively. Intermittent Fasting and Caloric Restriction slow down aging and also reduce the incidence of a wide variety of illnesses that plague so many in America today.

The Modern Media and the Culture of Food in the West

In the United States, as well as other countries in the West including the United Kingdom, children were raised in a reality in which starvation was one of the greatest evils of the 19th and 20th century. The various forms of media available all showed the terrible fates of so many who were denied the food needed to live. Nowhere is this imagery more vivid in Western Civilization than in the footage captured after the end of World War II as the true horrors of the Holocaust were revealed to the world at large.

During the Cold War we also experienced further evidence of the horrors of famine as communist Russia and China struggled with providing their populations with proper nutrition, leading countless to die of starvation over many decades. Today, on modern television, there are advertisements for charities throughout Africa and Asia which show the plight of the starving in these third world nations.

I do not mean to discount the real and significant struggles that those that came before us experienced in the not so distant past, but it had a powerful impact on food culture in the West, particularly the idea that it is better to eat too much than too little. In our elementary education and beyond, we are confronted with story after story of mass famine, and it seems that part of the way that we culturally appreciate our current abundance is by partaking in it.

This appreciation for our abundance has led directly to a culture of overeating that borders on obsession. In the West, we simply love our food too much, and the expansion of cuisine in the West has allowed anyone to get whatever they want, when they want it, whether they go to the grocery store, the pizza parlor, or the Chinese buffet.

A Culture of Overeating Develops into a Culture of Force Feeding

Throughout the twentieth century, we have always been taught that we need to eat every last bite on our plates. Often times, we were also strongly encouraged, if not forced, to go back for a second portion. In addition to this, the proliferation of soda drinks has led directly to a significant increase in the empty calories that the average American consumes.

As the twentieth century barreled on, parents on average had less time to cook and prepare meals at home, which led to the greater proliferation of both fast food and microwavable dinners, loaded with sugars, salts, and carbohydrates which increased our caloric consumption even more!

During this age, restaurants like Burger King and McDonald’s became the captains of the fast food industry, generating billions of dollars in profit funneling cheap calories into the mouths of men, women, and children all across the country.

Because of all these pressures to overeat, the longevity gains that people in the West experienced as a result of modernization all began to slip away, the combination of unhealthy eating and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle is threatening today’s generation with the prospect of living shorter lives than their parents on average!

The United States would be stronger in every way, if it could foster greater consciousness about the importance of eating smarter to eat longer. If we all just made the proactive decision to engage in a lifestyle of at least mild caloric restriction, it would both decrease the price of health care and allow the citizens of this nation to live longer, happier, and healthier lives.

Do You Dream of a Healthier, Happier Life? Contact the Conscious Evolution Institute Today!

If you are a man or woman over the age of thirty and currently live in the United States, the Conscious Evolution Institute can help you improve your health and longevity. We provide Doctor-Monitored Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy to patients all across the United States.

With just a simple phone call, we can arrange for you to meet with one of our affiliate physicians in order to set you on the road to a new you. We offer a variety of Hormone Replacement options, including Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Human Growth Hormone Injections, Sermorelin Acetate Injections, and HCG Injection Therapy for Weight Loss.

We also provide nutrition and lifestyle counseling in order to help you maximize the results of your treatment by choosing foods, supplements, and exercises that will get your body running on all cylinders!

If you feel that you may be a candidate for Hormone Replacement Therapy, don’t hesitate, call us today, and one of our friendly specialists will walk you through the process and answer any and all questions that you may have.

For more information on Ten Ways To Live Ten Years Longer check out

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

gene therapy facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia …

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 3:46 pm

Gene therapy is a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat diseases. Genes control heredity and provide the basic biological code for determining a cell’s specific functions. Gene therapy seeks to provide genes that correct or supplant the disease-controlling functions of cells that are not, in essence, doing their job. Somatic gene therapy introduces therapeutic genes at the tissue or cellular level to treat a specific individual. Germ-line gene therapy inserts genes into reproductive cells or possibly into embryos to correct genetic defects that could be passed on to future generations. Initially conceived as an approach for treating inherited diseases, like cystic fibrosis and Huntington’s disease, the scope of potential gene therapies has grown to include treatments for cancers, arthritis, and infectious diseases. Although gene therapy testing in humans has advanced rapidly, many questions surround its use. For example, some scientists are concerned that the therapeutic genes themselves may cause disease. Others fear that germ-line gene therapy may be used to control human development in ways not connected with disease, like intelligence or appearance.

Gene therapy has grown out of the science of genetics or how heredity works. Scientists know that life begins in a cell, the basic building block of all multicellular organisms. Humans, for instance, are made up of trillions of cells, each performing a specific function. Within the cell’s nucleus (the center part of a cell that regulates its chemical functions) are pairs of chromosomes. These threadlike structures are made up of a single molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which carries the blueprint of life in the form of codes, or genes, that determine inherited characteristics.

A DNA molecule looks like two ladders with one of the sides taken off both and then twisted around each other. The rungs of these ladders meet (resulting in a spiral staircase-like structure) and are called base pairs. Base pairs are made up of nitrogen molecules and arranged in specific sequences. Millions of these base pairs, or sequences, can make up a single gene, specifically defined as a segment of the chromosome and DNA that contains certain hereditary information. The gene, or combination of genes formed by these base pairs ultimately direct an organism’s growth and characteristics through the production of certain chemicals, primarily proteins, which carry out most of the body’s chemical functions and biological reactions.

Scientists have long known that alterations in genes present within cells can cause inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia, and hemophilia. Similarly, errors in the total number of chromosomes can cause conditions such as Down syndrome or Turner’s syndrome. As the study of genetics advanced, however, scientists learned that an altered genetic sequence also can make people more susceptible to diseases, like atherosclerosis, cancer, and even schizophrenia. These diseases have a genetic component, but also are influenced by environmental factors (like diet and lifestyle). The objective of gene therapy is to treat diseases by introducing functional genes into the body to alter the cells involved in the disease process by either replacing missing genes or providing copies of functioning genes to replace nonfunctioning ones. The inserted genes can be naturally-occurring genes that produce the desired effect or may be genetically engineered (or altered) genes.

Scientists have known how to manipulate a gene’s structure in the laboratory since the early 1970s through a process called gene splicing. The process involves removing a fragment of DNA containing the specific genetic sequence desired, then inserting it into the DNA of another gene. The resultant product is called recombinant DNA and the process is genetic engineering.

There are basically two types of gene therapy. Germ-line gene therapy introduces genes into reproductive cells (sperm and eggs) or someday possibly into embryos in hopes of correcting genetic abnormalities that could be passed on to future generations. Most of the current work in applying gene therapy, however, has been in the realm of somatic gene therapy. In this type of gene therapy, therapeutic genes are inserted into tissue or cells to produce a naturally occurring protein or substance that is lacking or not functioning correctly in an individual patient.

In both types of therapy, scientists need something to transport either the entire gene or a recombinant DNA to the cell’s nucleus, where the chromosomes and DNA reside. In essence, vectors are molecular delivery trucks. One of the first and most popular vectors developed were viruses because they invade cells as part of the natural infection process. Viruses have the potential to be excellent vectors because they have a specific relationship with the host in that they colonize certain cell types and tissues in specific organs. As a result, vectors are chosen according to their attraction to certain cells and areas of the body.

One of the first vectors used was retroviruses. Because these viruses are easily cloned (artificially reproduced) in the laboratory, scientists have studied them extensively and learned a great deal about their biological action. They also have learned how to remove the genetic information that governs viral replication, thus reducing the chances of infection.

Retroviruses work best in actively dividing cells, but cells in the body are relatively stable and do not divide often. As a result, these cells are used primarily for ex vivo (outside the body) manipulation. First, the cells are removed from the patient’s body, and the virus, or vector, carrying the gene is inserted into them. Next, the cells are placed into a nutrient culture where they grow and replicate. Once enough cells are gathered, they are returned to the body, usually by injection into the blood stream. Theoretically, as long as these cells survive, they will provide the desired therapy.

Another class of viruses, called the adenoviruses, also may prove to be good gene vectors. These viruses can effectively infect nondividing cells in the body, where the desired gene product then is expressed naturally. In addition to being a more efficient approach to gene transportation, these viruses, which cause respiratory infections, are more easily purified and made stable than retroviruses, resulting in less chance of an unwanted viral infection. However, these viruses live for several days in the body, and some concern surrounds the possibility of infecting others with the viruses through sneezing or coughing. Other viral vectors include influenza viruses, Sindbis virus, and a herpes virus that infects nerve cells.

Scientists also have delved into nonviral vectors. These vectors rely on the natural biological process in which cells uptake (or gather) macromolecules. One approach is to use liposomes, globules of fat produced by the body and taken up by cells. Scientists also are investigating the introduction of raw recombinant DNA by injecting it into the bloodstream or placing it on microscopic beads of gold shot into the skin with a “gene-gun.” Another possible vector under development is based on dendrimer molecules. A class of polymers (naturally occurring or artificial substances that have a high molecular weight and formed by smaller molecules of the same or similar substances), is “constructed” in the laboratory by combining these smaller molecules. They have been used in manufacturing Styrofoam, polyethylene cartons, and Plexiglass. In the laboratory, dendrimers have shown the ability to transport genetic material into human cells. They also can be designed to form an affinity for particular cell membranes by attaching to certain sugars and protein groups.

In the early 1970s, scientists proposed “gene surgery” for treating inherited diseases caused by faulty genes. The idea was to take out the disease-causing gene and surgically implant a gene that functioned properly. Although sound in theory, scientists, then and now, lack the biological knowledge or technical expertise needed to perform such a precise surgery in the human body.

However, in 1983, a group of scientists from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, proposed that gene therapy could one day be a viable approach for treating Lesch-Nyhan disease, a rare neurological disorder. The scientists conducted experiments in which an enzyme-producing gene (a specific type of protein) for correcting the disease was injected into a group of cells for replication. The scientists theorized the cells could then be injected into people with Lesch-Nyhan disease, thus correcting the genetic defect that caused the disease.

As the science of genetics advanced throughout the 1980s, gene therapy gained an established foothold in the minds of medical scientists as a promising approach to treatments for specific diseases. One of the major reasons for the growth of gene therapy was scientists’ increasing ability to identify the specific genetic malfunctions that caused inherited diseases. Interest grew as further studies of DNA and chromosomes (where genes reside) showed that specific genetic abnormalities in one or more genes occurred in successive generations of certain family members who suffered from diseases like intestinal cancer, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, diabetes, and many more. Although the genes may not be the only cause of the disease in all cases, they may make certain individuals more susceptible to developing the disease because of environmental influences, like smoking, pollution, and stress. In fact, some scientists theorize that all diseases may have a genetic component.

On September 14, 1990, a four-year old girl suffering from a genetic disorder that prevented her body from producing a crucial enzyme became the first person to undergo gene therapy in the United States. Because her body could not produce adenosine deaminase (ADA), she had a weakened immune system, making her extremely susceptible to severe, life-threatening infections. W. French Anderson and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health’s Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, took white blood cells (which are crucial to proper immune system functioning) from the girl, inserted ADA producing genes into them, and then transfused the cells back into the patient. Although the young girl continued to show an increased ability to produce ADA, debate arose as to whether the improvement resulted from the gene therapy or from an additional drug treatment she received.

Nevertheless, a new era of gene therapy began as more and more scientists sought to conduct clinical trial (testing in humans) research in this area. In that same year, gene therapy was tested on patients suffering from melanoma (skin cancer). The goal was to help them produce antibodies (disease fighting substances in the immune system) to battle the cancer.

These experiments have spawned an ever growing number of attempts at gene therapies designed to perform a variety of functions in the body. For example, a gene therapy for cystic fibrosis aims to supply a gene that alters cells, enabling them to produce a specific protein to battle the disease. Another approach was used for brain cancer patients, in which the inserted gene was designed to make the cancer cells more likely to respond to drug treatment. Another gene therapy approach for patients suffering from artery blockage, which can lead to strokes, induces the growth of new blood vessels near clogged arteries, thus ensuring normal blood circulation.

Currently, there are a host of new gene therapy agents in clinical trials. In the United States, both nucleic acid based (in vivo ) treatments and cell-based (ex vivo ) treatments are being investigated. Nucleic acid based gene therapy uses vectors (like viruses) to deliver modified genes to target cells. Cell-based gene therapy techniques remove cells from the patient in order to genetically alter them then reintroduce them to the patient’s body. Presently, gene therapies for the following diseases are being developed: cystic fibrosis (using adenoviral vector), HIV infection (cell-based), malignant melanoma (cell-based), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (cell-based), hemophilia B (cell-based), kidney cancer (cell-based), Gaucher’s Disease (retroviral vector), breast cancer (retroviral vector), and lung cancer (retroviral vector). When a cell or individual is treated using gene therapy and successful incorporation of engineered genes has occurred, the cell or individual is said to be transgenic.

The medical establishment’s contribution to transgenic research has been supported by increased government funding. In 1991, the U.S. government provided $58 million for gene therapy research, with increases in funding of $15-40 million dollars a year over the following four years. With fierce competition over the promise of societal benefit in addition to huge profits, large pharmaceutical corporations have moved to the forefront of transgenic research. In an effort to be first in developing new therapies, and armed with billions of dollars of research funds, such corporations are making impressive strides toward making gene therapy a viable reality in the treatment of once elusive diseases.

The potential scope of gene therapy is enormous. More than 4,200 diseases have been identified as resulting directly from abnormal genes, and countless others that may be partially influenced by a person’s genetic makeup. Initial research has concentrated on developing gene therapies for diseases whose genetic origins have been established and for other diseases that can be cured or improved by substances genes produce.

The following are examples of potential gene therapies. People suffering from cystic fibrosis lack a gene needed to produce a salt-regulating protein. This protein regulates the flow of chloride into epithelial cells, (the cells that line the inner and outer skin layers) that cover the air passages of the nose and lungs. Without this regulation, patients with cystic fibrosis build up a thick mucus that makes them prone to lung infections. A gene therapy technique to correct this abnormality might employ an adenovirus to transfer a normal copy of what scientists call the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, or CTRF, gene. The gene is introduced into the patient by spraying it into the nose or lungs. Researchers announced in 2004 that they had, for the first time, treated a dominant neurogenerative disease called Spinocerebella ataxia type 1, with gene therapy. This could lead to treating similar diseases such as Huntingtons disease. They also announced a single intravenous injection could deliver therapy to all muscles, perhaps providing hope to people with muscular dystrophy.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) also is an inherited disease, resulting in the inability to process cholesterol properly, which leads to high levels of artery-clogging fat in the blood stream. Patients with FH often suffer heart attacks and strokes because of blocked arteries. A gene therapy approach used to battle FH is much more intricate than most gene therapies because it involves partial surgical removal of patients’ livers (ex vivo transgene therapy). Corrected copies of a gene that serve to reduce cholesterol build-up are inserted into the liver sections, which then are transplanted back into the patients.

Gene therapy also has been tested on patients with AIDS. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which weakens the body’s immune system to the point that sufferers are unable to fight off diseases like pneumonias and cancer. In one approach, genes that produce specific HIV proteins have been altered to stimulate immune system functioning without causing the negative effects that a complete HIV molecule has on the immune system. These genes are then injected in the patient’s blood stream. Another approach to treating AIDS is to insert, via white blood cells, genes that have been genetically engineered to produce a receptor that would attract HIV and reduce its chances of replicating. In 2004, researchers reported that had developed a new vaccine concept for HIV, but the details were still in development.

Several cancers also have the potential to be treated with gene therapy. A therapy tested for melanoma, or skin cancer, involves introducing a gene with an anticancer protein called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) into test tube samples of the patient’s own cancer cells, which are then reintroduced into the patient. In brain cancer, the approach is to insert a specific gene that increases the cancer cells’ susceptibility to a common drug used in fighting the disease. In 2003, researchers reported that they had harnessed the cell killing properties of adenoviruses to treat prostate cancer. A 2004 report said that researchers had developed a new DNA vaccine that targeted the proteins expressed in cervical cancer cells.

Gaucher disease is an inherited disease caused by a mutant gene that inhibits the production of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. Patients with Gaucher disease have enlarged livers and spleens and eventually their bones deteriorate. Clinical gene therapy trials focus on inserting the gene for producing this enzyme.

Gene therapy also is being considered as an approach to solving a problem associated with a surgical procedure known as balloon angioplasty. In this procedure, a stent (in this case, a type of tubular scaffolding) is used to open the clogged artery. However, in response to the trauma of the stent insertion, the body initiates a natural healing process that produces too many cells in the artery and results in restenosis, or reclosing of the artery. The gene therapy approach to preventing this unwanted side effect is to cover the outside of the stents with a soluble gel. This gel contains vectors for genes that reduce this overactive healing response.

Regularly throughout the past decade, and no doubt over future years, scientists have and will come up with new possible ways for gene therapy to help treat human disease. Recent advancements include the possibility of reversing hearing loss in humans with experimental growing of new sensory cells in adult guinea pigs, and avoiding amputation in patients with severe circulatory problems in their legs with angiogenic growth factors.

Although great strides have been made in gene therapy in a relatively short time, its potential usefulness has been limited by lack of scientific data concerning the multitude of functions that genes control in the human body. For instance, it is now known that the vast majority of genetic material does not store information for the creation of proteins, but rather is involved in the control and regulation of gene expression, and is, thus, much more difficult to interpret. Even so, each individual cell in the body carries thousands of genes coding for proteins, with some estimates as high as 150,000 genes. For gene therapy to advance to its full potential, scientists must discover the biological role of each of these individual genes and where the base pairs that make them up are located on DNA.

To address this issue, the National Institutes of Health initiated the Human Genome Project in 1990. Led by James D. Watson (one of the co-discoverers of the chemical makeup of DNA) the project’s 15-year goal is to map the entire human genome (a combination of the words gene and chromosomes). A genome map would clearly identify the location of all genes as well as the more than three billion base pairs that make them up. With a precise knowledge of gene locations and functions, scientists may one day be able to conquer or control diseases that have plagued humanity for centuries.

Scientists participating in the Human Genome Project identified an average of one new gene a day, but many expected this rate of discovery to increase. By the year 2005, their goal was to determine the exact location of all the genes on human DNA and the exact sequence of the base pairs that make them up. Some of the genes identified through this project include a gene that predisposes people to obesity, one associated with programmed cell death (apoptosis), a gene that guides HIV viral reproduction, and the genes of inherited disorders like Huntington’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, and some colon and breast cancers. In April 2003, the finished sequence was announced, with 99% of the human genome’s gene-containing regions mapped to an accuracy of 99.9%.

Gene therapy seems elegantly simple in its concept: supply the human body with a gene that can correct a biological malfunction that causes a disease. However, there are many obstacles and some distinct questions concerning the viability of gene therapy. For example, viral vectors must be carefully controlled lest they infect the patient with a viral disease. Some vectors, like retroviruses, also can enter cells functioning properly and interfere with the natural biological processes, possibly leading to other diseases. Other viral vectors, like the adenoviruses, often are recognized and destroyed by the immune system so their therapeutic effects are short-lived. Maintaining gene expression so it performs its role properly after vector delivery is difficult. As a result, some therapies need to be repeated often to provide long-lasting benefits.

One of the most pressing issues, however, is gene regulation. Genes work in concert to regulate their functioning. In other words, several genes may play a part in turning other genes on and off. For example, certain genes work together to stimulate cell division and growth, but if these are not regulated, the inserted genes could cause tumor formation and cancer. Another difficulty is learning how to make the gene go into action only when needed. For the best and safest therapeutic effort, a specific gene should turn on, for example, when certain levels of a protein or enzyme are low and must be replaced. But the gene also should remain dormant when not needed to ensure it doesn’t oversupply a substance and disturb the body’s delicate chemical makeup.

One approach to gene regulation is to attach other genes that detect certain biological activities and then react as a type of automatic off-and-on switch that regulates the activity of the other genes according to biological cues. Although still in the rudimentary stages, researchers are making headway in inhibiting some gene functioning by using a synthetic DNA to block gene transcriptions (the copying of genetic information). This approach may have implications for gene therapy.

While gene therapy holds promise as a revolutionary approach to treating disease, ethical concerns over its use and ramifications have been expressed by scientists and lay people alike. For example, since much needs to be learned about how these genes actually work and their long-term effect, is it ethical to test these therapies on humans, where they could have a disastrous result? As with most clinical trials concerning new therapies, including many drugs, the patients participating in these studies usually have not responded to more established therapies and often are so ill the novel therapy is their only hope for long-term survival.

Another questionable outgrowth of gene therapy is that scientists could possibly manipulate genes to genetically control traits in human offspring that are not health related. For example, perhaps a gene could be inserted to ensure that a child would not be bald, a seemingly harmless goal. However, what if genetic manipulation was used to alter skin color, prevent homosexuality, or ensure good looks? If a gene is found that can enhance intelligence of children who are not yet born, will everyone in society, the rich and the poor, have access to the technology or will it be so expensive only the elite can afford it?

The Human Genome Project, which plays such an integral role for the future of gene therapy, also has social repercussions. If individual genetic codes can be determined, will such information be used against people? For example, will someone more susceptible to a disease have to pay higher insurance premiums or be denied health insurance altogether? Will employers discriminate between two potential employees, one with a “healthy” genome and the other with genetic abnormalities?

Some of these concerns can be traced back to the eugenics movement popular in the first half of the twentieth century. This genetic “philosophy” was a societal movement that encouraged people with “positive” traits to reproduce while those with less desirable traits were sanctioned from having children. Eugenics was used to pass strict immigration laws in the United States, barring less suitable people from entering the country lest they reduce the quality of the country’s collective gene pool. Probably the most notorious example of eugenics in action was the rise of Nazism in Germany, which resulted in the Eugenic Sterilization Law of 1933. The law required sterilization for those suffering from certain disabilities and even for some who were simply deemed “ugly.” To ensure that this novel science is not abused, many governments have established organizations specifically for overseeing the development of gene therapy. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health require scientists to take a precise series of steps and meet stringent requirements before proceeding with clinical trials. As of mid-2004, more than 300 companies were carrying out gene medicine developments and 500 clinical trials were underway. How to deliver the therapy is the key to unlocking many of the researchers discoveries.

In fact, gene therapy has been immersed in more controversy and surrounded by more scrutiny in both the health and ethical arena than most other technologies (except, perhaps, for cloning) that promise to substantially change society. Despite the health and ethical questions surrounding gene therapy, the field will continue to grow and is likely to change medicine faster than any previous medical advancement.

Cell The smallest living unit of the body that groups together to form tissues and help the body perform specific functions.

Chromosome A microscopic thread-like structure found within each cell of the body, consisting of a complex of proteins and DNA. Humans have 46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs. Changes in either the total number of chromosomes or their shape and size (structure) may lead to physical or mental abnormalities.

Clinical trial The testing of a drug or some other type of therapy in a specific population of patients.

Clone A cell or organism derived through asexual (without sex) reproduction containing the identical genetic information of the parent cell or organism.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The genetic material in cells that holds the inherited instructions for growth, development, and cellular functioning.

Embryo The earliest stage of development of a human infant, usually used to refer to the first eight weeks of pregnancy. The term fetus is used from roughly the third month of pregnancy until delivery.

Enzyme A protein that causes a biochemical reaction or change without changing its own structure or function.

Eugenics A social movement in which the population of a society, country, or the world is to be improved by controlling the passing on of hereditary information through mating.

Gene A building block of inheritance, which contains the instructions for the production of a particular protein, and is made up of a molecular sequence found on a section of DNA. Each gene is found on a precise location on a chromosome.

Gene transcription The process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA, resulting in a specific protein formation.

Genetic engineering The manipulation of genetic material to produce specific results in an organism.

Genetics The study of hereditary traits passed on through the genes.

Germ-line gene therapy The introduction of genes into reproductive cells or embryos to correct inherited genetic defects that can cause disease.

Liposome Fat molecule made up of layers of lipids.

Macromolecules A large molecule composed of thousands of atoms.

Nitrogen A gaseous element that makes up the base pairs in DNA.

Nucleus The central part of a cell that contains most of its genetic material, including chromosomes and DNA.

Protein Important building blocks of the body, composed of amino acids, involved in the formation of body structures and controlling the basic functions of the human body.

Somatic gene therapy The introduction of genes into tissue or cells to treat a genetic related disease in an individual.

Vectors Something used to transport genetic information to a cell.

Abella, Harold. “Gene Therapy May Save Limbs.” Diagnostic Imaging (May 1, 2003): 16.

Christensen R. “Cutaneous Gene TherapyAn Update.” Histochemical Cell Biology (January 2001): 73-82.

“Gene Therapy Important Part of Cancer Research.” Cancer Gene Therapy Week (June 30, 2003): 12.

“Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human Genome.” Nature (February 15, 2001): 860-921.

Kingsman, Alan. “Gene Therapy Moves On.” SCRIP World Pharmaceutical News (July 7, 2004): 19:ndash;21.

Nevin, Norman. “What Has Happened to Gene Therapy?” European Journal of Pediatrics (2000): S240-S242.

“New DNA Vaccine Targets Proteins Expressed in Cervical Cancer Cells.” Gene Therapy Weekly (September 9, 2004): 14.

“New Research on the Progress of Gene Therapy Presented at Meeting.” Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week (July 3, 2004): 405.

Pekkanen, John. “Genetics: Medicine’s Amazing Leap.” Readers Digest (September 1991): 23-32.

Silverman, Jennifer, and Steve Perlstein. “Genome Project Completed.” Family Practice News (May 15, 2003): 50-51.

“Study Highlights Potential Danger of Gene Therapy.” Drug Week (June 20, 2003): 495.

“Study May Help Scientists Develop Safer Mthods for Gene Therapy.” AIDS Weekly (June 30, 2003): 32.

Trabis, J. “With Gene Therapy, Ears Grow New Sensory Cells.” Science News (June 7, 2003): 355.

National Human Genome Research Institute. The National Institutes of Health. 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 496-2433.

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Online genetic testing information sponsored by National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Continue reading here:
gene therapy facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia …

Recommendation and review posted by Fredricko

Estimating Alzheimer’s disease causative genes by an evolutionary medicine approach – Medical Xpress

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 3:46 pm

June 27, 2017

Alzheimer’s disease patients are increasing with the aging of the world’s population, becoming a huge health care and social burden. To find the cause of various diseases, in recent years, scientists have focused within the human genome on copy number variations (CNVs), which are changes in the number of genes within a population.

Likewise, a group of genes responsible for a gene number change has also been reported for Alzheimer’s disease, but to date, it has not been easy to identify a causative gene from multiple genes within the pathogenic CNV region.

Now, a new approach to finding Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causative genes was estimated by paying attention to special duplicated genes called “ohnologs” included in the genomic region specific to AD patients. Human ohnologs, which are vulnerable to change in number, were generated by whole genome duplications 500 million years ago.

In a new study published in the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, Mizuka Sekine and Takashi Makino investigated the gene expression and knockout mouse phenotype for ohnologs, and succeeded in narrowing down the genetic culprits. The narrowed gene group had a function related to the nervous system and a high expression level in the brain which were similar to characteristics of known AD causative genes.

Their findings suggest that the identification of causative genes using ohnologs is a promising and effective approach in diseases caused by dosage change.

Explore further: Characterizing the mouse genome reveals new gene functions and their role in human disease

More information: Molecular Biology And Evolution (2017). DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msx183

The first results from a functional genetic catalogue of the laboratory mouse has been shared with the biomedical research community, revealing new insights into a range of rare diseases and the possibility of accelerating …

An algorithm developed by Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) scientists has the potential to help patients with mysterious ailments find genetic causes for their undiagnosed diseases.

Geneticists from Trinity College Dublin have used our evolutionary history to shine light on a plethora of neurodevelopmental disorders and diseases. Their findings isolate a relatively short list of genes as candidates for …

Although a family history of Alzheimer’s disease is a primary risk factor for the devastating neurological disorder, mutations in only three genes the amyloid precursor protein and presenilins 1 and 2 have been established …

Using a new and powerful approach to understand the origins of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, researchers at Mayo Clinic in Florida are building the case that these diseases are primarily caused …

Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are two of the most prevalent forms of neurodegenerative disorders. In a study published online today in Genome Research, researchers have analyzed changes …

(Medical Xpress)Via genetic analysis, a large international team of researchers has found rare, damaging gene variants that they believe contribute to the risk of a person developing schizophrenia. In their paper published …

Using a new skin cell model, researchers have overcome a barrier that previously prevented the study of living tissue from people at risk for early heart disease and stroke. This research could lead to a new understanding …

Whole genome sequencing involves the analysis of all three billion pairs of letters in an individual’s DNA and has been hailed as a technology that will usher in a new era of predicting and preventing disease. However, the …

Researchers have found that genes for coronary heart disease (CAD) also influence reproduction, so in order to reproduce successfully, the genes for heart disease will also be inherited.

When Ricky Ramon was 7, he went for a routine checkup. The pediatrician, who lingered over his heartbeat, sent him for a chest X-ray, which revealed a benign tumor in the top-left chamber of his heart. For Ramon, it was the …

Gene mutations accumulating in cells are typical of the development of cancer. Finnish researchers have found that a similar accumulation of mutations occurs also in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Alzheimer’s is triggered by pheromone insult. Anger closes erectile tissues in the upper and middle meati, explaining this behavior among sufferers as defensive. Lesions progress rostro-centrally along the olfactory and accessory olfactory nerves. Healthy adult male facial skin surface lipid liquid pheromone by mouth diminishes symptoms, laughing usually returns for instance. (N=2, so this is obviously just anecdotal, but the partial recovery was welcome.)

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Read more here:
Estimating Alzheimer’s disease causative genes by an evolutionary medicine approach – Medical Xpress

Recommendation and review posted by Fredricko

You Can Get Your Whole Genome Sequenced. But Should You? – WIRED

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 3:46 pm

8NB0dG)CPK3NX -x#K~ fjq*Q5wo m3}[yG#a(G%`j’NX98 ,2$j 3av)FSJrkO4ld4asv?$!n_, ed!?o5YLj$b@(6}RDU ‘_[W9e#FwlLR=D;ZU(: MVNOPC3~jg+QOP%r~8H>vpn#3.#xmuzSt4v* vLb)8RR]&7}/&3F~U3Ub]k@ X[ZX^_4qLXxkDNu:n{u9Z;*RXmk5~R-kX ^’ 22?i s / X”+/g9qlWFcG^48-] h3]!,Xv95U/O|0F5@}4,V,sYTJhO32mpE&2#A=Mqp][V3Hyo,|>F9I&m-E”- /d*2|v8gb” FQw0Gb2&iY:[=)KmoUH+2rUDG^ _ FUFzS~#H0@&zk]E{~aUA!|ieyyxkM_QEZKvPEA,vm,Huh(CKk{vjQF&Dk:8}3QMm8| T+8!B”Zo!’;Fg #)h&jHoc6’3c,#km =po;doLVWG0h#zH >|PjJAK&vWs1.x=x6vB&iUQU :gj:`-.N`qO^jZ”[email protected][#H?I1A ;4^p6:XMr{P]+.3ZH1eD”[email protected]_g^*tO-K8Sl’8~cg}38′ #koA8C,{f_&X  +: d_~bzW/UA?kiaSuR|zur*Wn6c|: |/,#ko!^Y7*d|`qYxIgR R w~7:g}KIc};g[n !|HE z36xf>[S]VcC>cF)w_{ r.] ZC[-/BUE]KOKOc6 $44/- .- miphkx53n?r|k9{FOD:_oa(ZK8XC_eicG4Q%h`5X/?9rC.F9{d9UiC]Ik_:FRQ’jg9&Sz?3Hu=}Au 6T,*+jdgc| vmha> Vbavv;z9Ky*UPrB;w|(seu{Ddz0-^~!}8B;61=/?F~4FMp’ BDMQ!8&n^9}`,RCo/Ld3Qx:}1- 97,wX2dqaK=6)pYHeD8Vg$-n k/|S=m~=y)7-q[!ERUIT+^&rrF~ySkT{W=; Qo>{“dXq7]c70″]c;Vwuc}|4q@:,n MjI%0> *Q2 @/+A?)VR,,]nXYxw&oBF?;5,XZUo9XbEp&ELJs”|u[xNvwI=~FqeS tMFX7 E4JxZwAn)nP6sCg/’yx’HRW,TbB M9z!TWSr4g*-:n)Tf$:]4″? EdRo-p3~%|ocK(VC?>k<:4a>lyyF,Hf.7% ClG3EgBb%@/)&B+CoZQ 8(>S+N$_]z’xs(tg#^-Wtj,0+2v>|?”~ [email protected][I9ZrVNKAe*(B>~[*,/,WLr&)e%XYF,gby5C [email protected];+%Ry|w|p)g!1}rMhlxr#)[email protected]*? 66idp/OT3:Q9Z9>[email protected]%M lEqo^PO>[email protected] KS,;Ies}+)D[“AYBwN5w#($Ro0bj!=%E&6GDI#V$2=bB4r0(DLyd(9fDgW:yJ9R !_ VV7 6I_G [%*,D66.~B-E”_(x7}LtRR2ZoU3=TR3|Ao4r|(v_ZN: uSM1f>0p1R?~hufGDSkV4k]F_+vW#nv-I%th]v]Jj`8n23^UwYIo:`q’-*n*9cL}eR1hczw;{6JTu[*gl[Fn 7yQ`2lz2OQ5F78hh%5OSRoh+W1/Xv>l5Wnb70iKR%0ux L+^|!b6=~Y #ua+},ZWC;Abb8cl&Ue::vsb%*Jg”Iu0a,SC~.v{L.@f C;c-T^g{ fn7y`2lz2O]5F;h7E3Uz:f~mkp]z]r(.~’>Oy8WQ.?vO} A-YeO[fj2ZLeYfjaN9,s~{(yK8L8w[ybAZ7Qv7 e7QZs!SOn(? ~w4#i&tMXm6pzjBf{5 6Vmv{dC s4″” H&DJFJJ a?HJU;J_mdZ8Uh/.uj[56>Ot`M’|Ry5Y,YwTDt 10EO+V)|{iPN/U&7^b0*3{_Q3CI?ZV-5%|pC&~YBH%s2’[email protected]>m-v3 .[email protected]*8p I)+Z4z{NZ$^T5S$D? gRR?a+(i_Y`rj6Gg!~Rq ^|N|l*fH@&QHQ,yQX$U I)5C0MOYX6PU>0AP.WH4 nwoiQ.M%KD2uh7h/~f,,!Bl6 [?pc[$eSZ{we9NYCgRSz7}UNo0%Zghqk&Ph$HEmV/i0P94.ON69qa”8JThZPNIf+Vf-Re^z7_X55FVu A,f{tjD$AOoAjQl+$B [email protected])[email protected] mcT1@:JHbo%Y~xA[c+]:^$1} c)0 6″4[:06|`UGC6={gJJ+gLd~g” ,/u3 /1w^2m0!9k-!kx:r;dZ4eYkkSFlRPH7;D”OPkx(]xm)F4:gfa*6]yd$5Gha#,v] wN$’M^[[email protected] . T{c9AJkjPq’J;t5ii:qqe B”Ku& x]tD(?TLPX9y86 -U. mHz|g61%afK=g,.cudGmJfbA8xRfl;&B_E4.m| XDF%I,M$#N~# 3t3’6K[8I0=^M:Pj0Z.Z J{FeihQsak8%5T,[email protected];P[alR)8_Ir; -n_P.J#U`{$

= [mEg/Q.hz,1m206c’Y1ZF2).?n_wd4#3NCQ%k.I],!Ib1}.#>(cG”v&!DbH!3`+p}]39=(2 ULN=Z{ M2cE%P!}kF4}v8YMT!;0&5)],WZ/WufNF-2YlU4i)O,RQyLEaA9(b>X^ .[email protected]/(c57e,%-7kD1CCBo) [email protected]=QMwVR:1O*q,Yph^[email protected])6oIbhIrZq_y Nd”~~N0O(qpzL(PsYA, [email protected][$N eEuS@[r6Ky=4:[email protected]:Qdf3;gv!YLVpRs> =: ^-dQ0{/e 29:>W – 8Ls{^R6>[email protected]@/=37y}4JY1gcI0sb}BdVbkgdP*^BG/.B`v!Qy(=npi:H/.z’MZNQk%&Ja-N:6wOx,:Zr_2[$tuiGo/T.ynZi+FS2JzU|vS^rrX’miwNLvrB^x?T(sftp9-E:btC&.nrTh8(0TS7N:tIAE5pbp`Jo*;.R*|zWiks3Uq(f23uUez#_>^/?|}lw!5G83$>z~;%5XRDTQp]]_/emVIXiwK:^l9g7l9g}xz6A/#w_vMB#[]e 4{5v:WcDqHUT Wmo”t#QOue]R,T`Zo 8:;t`q-wlfyD’ v|WYa|:1BsF;:aX>c [email protected]{|pZHS::cTc}>=e3^5~sXsJOP_Ubumj hk#gTs6k%{9c$`:/NoCHFW-|J/DtLo”I{5v”UZG.$uul^}’]EmzKz=C*7]mgk{QIZk{-2Jo IuW>u O>U{Y tVj?- }T8sj~gM0W%O!#O}NlY4%w`’Z5F oMn;Pvm9Se>>49!5@^4a8f7TF7 JQ](:MSF2ub|vgb&b’|”El>fw#Jn!1|(+'[f/dGub9KeEx|#pTy~J{JkNJ ovQ^7aM ?ov’{T/53^BXA89;’q[“RS01=j6+;XY;b&

Read more:
You Can Get Your Whole Genome Sequenced. But Should You? – WIRED

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

The gene behind follicular lymphoma – Medical Xpress

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 3:46 pm

June 28, 2017 Disruption of a region in chromosome 6 or epigenetic modifications of the DNA block Sestrin1 expression and these contribute to the development of follicular lymphoma. Credit: Elisa Oricchio/Natalya Katanayeva/EPFL

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable cancer that affects over 200,000 people worldwide every year. A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma develops when the body starts making abnormal B-cells, which are white blood cells that in normal conditions fight infections. This cancer is associated with several alterations of the cell’s DNA, but it has been unclear which gene or genes are involved in its development. EPFL scientists have now analyzed the genomes of more than 200 patients with follicular lymphoma, and they discover that a gene, Sestrin1, is frequently missing or malfunctioning in FL patients. The discovery opens to new treatment options and it is now published in Science Translational Medicine.

One of the common features of follicular lymphoma is a genetic abnormality between two chromosomes (14 and 18). In an event known as “chromosomal translocation” the two chromosomes “swap” certain parts with each other. This triggers the activation of a gene that protects cells from dying, making cells virtually immortalthe hallmark of a tumor.

Moreover, approximately 30% of follicular lymphoma patients lose also a portion of chromosome 6, affecting multiple genes involved in suppressing the emergence of a tumor. These patients typically have poor prognosis. Another 20 % of patients have alterations causing chromosomal disorganization and the consequent malfunctioning of several genes and proteins. The bottom line is that for both group of patients it is very difficult to pinpoint which of all the affected genes are actually causing the disease.

The lab of Elisa Oricchio at EPFL, with colleagues from the US and Canada, analyzed the genomes of over 200 follicular lymphoma patients. Their analyses revealed that a specific gene, Sestrin1, can be harmed by both loss of chromosome 6 and silenced in patients.

Sestrin1 helps the cell defending itself against DNA damagefor example after exposure to radiationand oxidative stress. In fact, Sestrin1 is part of the cell’s anti-tumor mechanism that stops potentially cancerous cells from growing.

Disruption of a region in chromosome 6 or epigenetic modifications of the DNA block Sestrin1 expression and these contribute to the development of Follicular Lymphoma.

Beyond identifying the Sestrin1 gene as frequently altered in FL patients, the scientists demonstrated that Sestrin1 is able to suppress tumors in vivo. They showed that Sestrin1 exerts its anti-tumor effects by blocking the activity of a protein complex called mTORC1, which is well known for controlling protein synthesis as well as acting as a sensor for nutrient or energy changes in the cell.

Finally, the identification of loss of Sestrin1 as a key event behind the development of follicular lymphoma is particular important because it helps identifying patients that will benefit from new therapies. Indeed, this study shows that the therapeutic efficacy of a new drug that is currently in clinical trial depends on Sestrin1. Importantly, this dependency can be extended beyond follicular lymphoma to other tumor types.

Explore further: Combination therapy may help patients with follicular lymphoma

More information: E. Oricchio el al., “Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of SESTRIN1 controls mTORC1 and response to EZH2 inhibition in follicular lymphoma,” Science Translational Medicine (2017).

A new study in The Journal of Experimental Medicine reveals that a high-risk group of patients with follicular lymphoma could benefit from a novel drug combination.

Mutations present in a blood cancer known as follicular lymphoma have revealed new molecular targets for potential treatments, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) together with collaborators …

Immune cellular therapy is a promising new area of cancer treatment. Anti-cancer therapeutics, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells, can be engineered to target tumor-associated antigens to attack and …

Follicular lymphoma (FL), the second most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a largely incurable disease of B cells, yet in many cases, because of its indolent nature, survival can extend to well beyond 10 years following …

The goal for many cancer patients is to reach the five-year, disease-free mark, but new research from UR Medicine’s Wilmot Cancer Institute suggests that two years might be a more practical survival goal for people with follicular …

(HealthDay)An initial watch-and-wait strategy does not have a detrimental effect on the freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) or overall survival rate in selected patients with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma compared …

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable cancer that affects over 200,000 people worldwide every year. A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma develops when the body starts making abnormal B-cells, which are white …

Adding an investigational antibody to the chemotherapy rituximab appears to restore its cancer-killing properties in certain leukemia patients with a natural resistance to the drug, according to a small, proof-of-concept …

Leukemia researchers led by Dr. John Dick have traced the origins of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to rare therapy-resistant leukemia stem cells that are already present at diagnosis and before chemotherapy begins.

Cancerous tumors are formidable enemies, recruiting blood vessels to aid their voracious growth, damaging nearby tissues, and deploying numerous strategies to evade the body’s defense systems. But even more malicious are …

A study by the University of Aberdeen has found that a higher concentration of the molecules that breakdown omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a higher chance of survival from bowel cancer.

Scientists from the Biotech Research & Innovation Centre (BRIC) at the University of Copenhagen have developed a groundbreaking method to reveal the structure of tissues and tumours with unprecedented detail, by completely …

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Originally posted here:
The gene behind follicular lymphoma – Medical Xpress

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

Rare Gene Mutation Reveals How the Body Responds to the Common Cold – Technology Networks

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 3:46 pm

The common cold is a regular nuisance for most of us. The average healthy adult has two to three colds per year. Cold viruses usually cause mild symptomssuch as a sore throat, runny nose, and coughand are quickly removed by the immune system. But for some people, particularly children and older adults with underlying health problems, cold viruses can lead to more severe health problems.

Human rhinovirus (HRV) is the main cause of the common cold, making up over half of the cases. Despite the prevalence of colds, the immune response to these viruses isnt well understood. A better understanding could help researchers develop effective therapies against HRV and other cold viruses.

A case study by researchers at NIHs National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) revealed an important mechanism by which the immune system responds to HRV. The case involved a child who, several weeks after birth, started getting life-threatening respiratory infections. Her doctors at National Jewish Health and NIH suspected she might have a genetic abnormality affecting her immune system. Led by NIAIDs Dr. Helen Su, they performed a genetic analysis on the child and her immediate family. The study appeared online on June 12, 2017, in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

The analysis identified a rare mutation in the IFIH1 gene, which codes for a protein called MDA5. Animal studies had found that MDA5 plays an important role in detecting viruses and initiating an immune response. The researchers showed that the childs mutant MDA5 didnt recognize HRV, and cells from her nasal passages werent able to suppress the virus.

The team confirmed that human MDA5 normally recognizes HRV. However, the protein isnt needed to recognize and control infections by another common cold virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or flu virus. The researchers speculate that lung damage, a weakened immune system due to HRV infections, or other unknown factors may have contributed to the childs increased infections with these other viruses.

To explore whether other people might be affected by similar mutations, the researchers analyzed a database of over 60,000 volunteers genomes. They found multiple rare variations in IFIH1 that could lead to less effective MDA5. Interestingly, most people with these variations lived a normal lifespan and had healthy children. Other genetic factors may have compensated for the abnormality, or people with frequent HRV infections may not have reported them.

With intensive care, the child survived numerous bouts of illness. Her health improved as her immune system matured and formed protective antibodies against various infectious agents.

This study has led to a better understanding of the human response to the common cold. Using this information, researchers hope to find a more direct way to fight HRV infections. When people have other disease factors, HRV infection can become a tipping point and lead to severe illness, disability, or even death, Su says. Now that we better understand the pathway, we can investigate more targeted ways to intervene.

The human immune response to common cold viruses is poorly understood, says NIAID Director Dr. Anthony S. Fauci. By investigating this unique case, our researchers not only helped this child but also helped answer some important scientific questions about these ubiquitous infections that affect nearly everyone.

This article has been republished frommaterialsprovided by NIH. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.


Lamborn, I. T., Jing, H., Zhang, Y., Drutman, S. B., Abbott, J. K., Munir, S., … & Masutani, E. (2017). Recurrent rhinovirus infections in a child with inherited MDA5 deficiency. Journal of Experimental Medicine, jem-20161759.

Continue reading here:
Rare Gene Mutation Reveals How the Body Responds to the Common Cold – Technology Networks

Recommendation and review posted by Fredricko

Arix leads $45M series B for gene therapy biotech LogicBio – FierceBiotech

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 3:46 pm

LogicBio Therapeutics has got off a $45 million series B funding round as it eyes the cash for disease-modifying gene therapies in rare childhood diseases.

London-based investment firm Arix Bioscience led the oversubscribed round in the semi-stealth biotech, with new investors OrbiMed, Edmond De Rothschild Investment Partners, Pontifax, and SBI, along with previous investors OrbiMed Israel Partners, also stumping up cash.

Arix Bioscience’s investment manager, Daniel OConnell, M.D., Ph.D, will join Cambridge, Massachusetts-based LogicBios board as part of the raise. This brings its total raised to $50 million, much of which will be put toward finishing off preclinical work and moving them into human tests.

The biotech sets itself up as a breakthrough gene therapy company targeting lifelong cures for serious, early-onset rare diseases by combining the best of gene therapy and gene editing in a one-time treatment.

It was founded in 2014 with platform technologies discovered by Adi Barzel, Tel Aviv University, Dr Leszek Lisowski, Childrens Medical Research Institute, Australia, and Professor Mark Kay at Stanford University School of Medicine.

The first platform, GeneRide, is a technology that uses homologous recombination that is designed to allow site-specific transfer of therapeutic genetic material without the use of promoters or nucleases. The company says it also has access to a library of synthetic, non-pathogenic, recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors developed at Stanford that allows for better predictability of vector performance in clinical trials.

Joe Anderson, CEO of Arix Bioscience, said: Early intervention for rare genetic disorders in children is important and LogicBio is uniquely positioned at the forefront of this research area with its proprietary genetic therapy technology to deliver a durable cure for young patients with life-threatening genetic diseases and otherwise limited options. LogicBio has huge potential and, alongside its excellent team and investors, we look forward to supporting the company to achieve continued success in this area.

Read the original here:
Arix leads $45M series B for gene therapy biotech LogicBio – FierceBiotech

Recommendation and review posted by Fredricko

Page 11234..1020..»