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2016 Reminder Healthy Living Can Add Up To 14 Years to Your Life

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The Ethics of the Future: Human Genetic Engineering and Human Immortality Medicine is Coming in 19 years!!

Posted: January 1, 2015 at 12:46 pm

The Ethics of the Future: Genetic Engineering and Immortality Medicine

2015 is Going to Be a Fascinating Year for Longevity Science

By Professor Mark

How do you feel about the potential for great advances in Human Longevity Science that have been occurring in recent years? Do you feel excited about the prospect of living a much longer life, or are you indifferent? Are you nervous about the prospects of what this sort of tinkering with genetics and human nature might bring?

Is the potential for a vastly expanded lifespan going to be something that everyone can enjoy, or will it be an advantage simply for those that can afford it? If you could live 100 years longer, would you want to? Would you care if the opportunity were afforded to you as an individual? Would such a huge opportunity lead to a new and beautiful life on earth, or would earth somehow take these momentous advantages and turn the world on its head?

My Beliefs Regarding Advanced Genetic Engineering

Many years ago, when I was an undergraduate at Penn State, our professor posited similar questions in our Genetics Class, which played a major role in affecting my beliefs toward the subject of hyper-longevity and Genetic Engineering. The class was large, with more than 100 students, and my professor asked the class what their opinions were regarding the use of genetic manipulation and engineering to alter human life.

Surprisingly, the class was completely silent. In response to this silence, the professor called up two students to debate the subject. One of my classmates volunteered to voice his opposition to genetic engineering, and I chose to volunteer, providing an argument in favor of it.

My opponent voiced his opinion to the class that genetic engineering for this purpose would be ethically wrong because it is not in man’s best interest to play God. Most of our classmates seemed to agree, nodding subtly in agreement.

Personal Aesthetic: Choosing to Be Different

I felt as though I was standing upon a grand crossroads of history. As I looked around the class, it felt as though all of my classmates, for all of their cliquish differences, were being incredibly closed-minded, like they just accepted what they had been told all their lives and were afraid to think for themselves.

After the professor gauged the response of the students, I had my opportunity to argue in favor of this advanced human genetic engineering. I glanced around the class, and felt my argument come together cleanly in my mind. I saw white girls with bleached hair stretching down their backs, more than a few of which had fake breasts. I saw black girls with expensive weaves and complex and expensive hairstyles.

There were white students mimicking their hip hop and rap idols, and I even saw a young Asian student that had very obviously dyed her hair red. In my class I saw a great commingling of different styles. People both attempting to exemplify American standards of beauty and those taking on the aspects of other cultures, adopting them as their own.

As I looked around at all of this, recognizing the great diversity in my class, I had a strong feeling that there was not one person in the class that didn’t have at least one thing they wanted to alter about the characteristics they were born with. I continued thinking to myself, that these students probably wanted to be different in a variety of different ways: some wanted to be smarter, some taller. Some girls wish they had larger breasts, and some guys wanted larger penises. Others probably wish that they didn’t have to go through the trouble to put in contacts and hair dyes to look like the person they wish they were. For myself, I would have given anything just to be a few inches taller.

A Call for Genetic Freedom

After standing quietly for a moment, with all of these thoughts running through my at head a rapid place, I spoke from my position, in the back of the class, and suddenly stated loudly: Genetic Freedom!

I felt that just those two words spoke for themselves, but my professor threw a dejected glance in my direction, and I could detect her shaking her head almost imperceptibly. Her silence was a sign that she needed more. After the brief silence, I continued. I argued to the class that the individual should have full control to alter his DNA as he sees fit, so long as it doesn’t negatively impact society or the rights of anyone else.

She seemed thoroughly unhappy with the argument, and the class began to chatter loudly, nearly in unison. After the short spate of controlled chaos, the class continued with liveliness and energy, but I felt that others in the class largely shunned me as a result of the fervent beliefs I expressed in regard to what legitimately amounted to the potential future of the human race.

Will People Be Able to Resist Genetic Alteration?

I still laugh to myself to this day about how my belief met such incredulity in the face of so many. In the future, once science makes it possible to make such powerful changes to humanity at the genetic level, I am confident that these same students, if given the actual opportunity to improve themselves through futuristic genetic methods, would absolutely jump at the chance with no second thought.

It wouldn’t be Playing God. It wouldn’t be unethical. It would simply be the new reality. In fact, once the time comes to pass when Genetic Alteration becomes a reality, the exact same people today that seek out plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery will clamor for these procedures as soon as they become available. In the end, I believe I made a B in the course, which is regretful, because I’ve always remained highly interested in genetics.

The Future of Humanity: The Organic and the Engineered

Another of my professors at Penn State, himself with a doctorate in genetics, explained an interesting aspect of human evolution, one which I had never thought of before. He explained that the many races that make up humanity as a whole developed their differences as a result of dispersing far from one another, and slowly adapting to their new environments over time.

After they migrated, geography, distance, and other factors kept them from interacting heavily with one another, which caused their minor adaptations to become more pronounced. In the same way that they developed their own habits and cultures, their aesthetic and physical makeup also changed. Some grew taller, others grew paler, and each individual culture became maximally resistant to the diseases which were prominent in their area.

Even though these physical and genetic changes were significant, any healthy woman on earth could still mate with any other healthy man, no matter how different he looked or acted. What he said that truly sparked my mind was that if the different races of human beings stayed geographically isolated from one another for longer period of time, eventually the different races could have changed enough to where they could no longer produce children with one another.

Could Genetically Engineered Humans Evolve Beyond Humanity?

This can also apply to the future of genetic engineering. The modern world is so interconnected that geography has no impact on the ability of humans to breed with one another, but genetic enhancement may lead to a point at which a human born today would not be able to mate with an individual that was the result of generations of genetically altered parents.

As Genetic Engineering becomes more advanced, humans may change enough at the genetic level to prevent interbreeding between lineages which have undergone these advancements and those that chose not to. This change would of course be gradual, first reducing the ability to conceive before denying that ability altogether. At this point, it would take genetic engineering just to create a viable child for two disparate humans. Interestingly enough, it may even come to pass that different species of humans evolve from such endeavors, as distinct from one another as they are from humans themselves.

The beginning of this story could begin sometime in the next hundred years, as scientists and medical specialists develop the ability to safely and effectively alter DNA to meet the specifications of the individual.

The Future is Coming: the Great Human Divergence and the Neo-Sapient

The people that choose to reject Genetic Modification and Advanced Longevity Treatments in the near future will create an interesting binary world. This could be the beginning of a grand human experiment. This could be the focal point of a genetic divergence so strong that it literally fragments the human race, creating a new class of post-humans that have advanced to a point where they qualify as their own unique species.

I think back to the genetics course I mentioned earlier. I remember the absolute ocean of diversity that was contained within the 100-student course, and I was able to visualize a future in which Genetic Modification leads to even greater diversity, and a uniqueness that has never existed in the history of the human race. It made me think of the diversity of the universe, and the unlimited options for diversity that it represents. As someone with an affinity for astronomy, I find it utterly inconceivable that planet earth is home to the only lifeforms in the universe.

Of course, along with my great optimism, I do recognize that there are risks and unknowns related to the future of Genetic Modification. There is even the potential that the science behind Genetic Modification could be used for Genetic Warfare. There is certainly the potential that the same science that creates a new humanity could be used to destroy large swathes of it. I can imagine an apocalypse that is not nuclear and grandiose, but genetic and nanoscopic.

Post-Humanism and the Search For Other Worlds

In the end, will humans be able to develop interplanetary travel and colonization in order to insure itself against such potential apocalyptic scenarios? It’s a subject that I am particularly concerned with, and is the core reason why I support NASA and the United States Space Program. As the world moves faster and the dangers become greater, it is imperative that we are able to save humanity even in the case of a state of mutually assured destruction.

If there truly is a Genetic Revolution on the horizon, it is vitally important that we use all of the resources we have available in order to make our dreams of space colonization a reality. Imagine a future so spectacular: A future where a multitude of post-human species advance outward from earth in order to colonize space like a rainbow across the galaxy.

This journey will be arduous and epic, as earthlings spread across the cosmos in order to find new viable homes and potentially interact with other life forms.

What Would Aliens Be Like?

Can you imagine how literally otherworldly that would be? If we found advanced aliens, would they have unlocked the key to eternity? Would we have done the same? There is no doubt that the first time that we make contact with an extraterrestrial species, they will come from worlds and cultures which are absolutely unimaginable in the face of everything that we have experienced.

I may have delved a bit into the realm of science fiction, but the future of humanity in the face of Genetic Modification has the potential to be every bit as exciting and otherworldly as the potential future that I just described. It instills a tremendous sense of fear, awe, and most importantly, unlimited potential.

Do You Think That You Could Handle Immortality?

If you ask the average person out on the street about the potential future afforded by Genetic Engineering, Advanced Longevity, and Immortality medicine, you’ll likely get a number of different responses, some positive, some negative, others simply incredulous. If you surveyed 100 people, I believe that you would find that the majority would ultimately reject the idea of immortality.

Some people think that eternity would take the excitement out of life. Others fear that they would eventually just become a broken shell of their former selves as their bodies physically decline in spite of science’s ability to prevent death. For many, the concept of eternity is just as fearsome as the concept of death itself. It’s not all that different from the way that people feel about retirement these days. They are frustrated because they have to work so hard all through the healthiest part of their lives only to be too frail and broken down by the time they retire to enjoy it.

Longevity Medicine and the Future

That’s why Longevity Medicine is so important. We want our retirement years to last as long as possible, and we want to be able to enjoy them. Maybe one day, we will be retired as long in our lives as we are at work, or longer! That’s what the approach to immortality will be like!

There are a growing number of people that are optimistic about a lengthy future. They understand that even with regard to a concept like immortality, life is the sum of individual experience. Some will take advantage of a life bordering on immortality, while others would simply choose to be boring. People that live lives full of happiness and vitality shouldn’t be deprived the opportunity to extend that joy, simply because there are others who wouldn’t appreciate it!

The arguments stemming from the subject of Human Immortality continue to become both more interesting and more complex, both for those that long for such a fate, and those that oppose the concept. No matter how you feel about the idea of Advanced Longevity, there is no doubt that such opportunities to live lives we now consider unimaginable will eventually come to pass.

As long as human beings are able to engage in scientific advancement without destroying ourselves or sending ourselves back to the stone age, such opportunities will present themselves to the human race in the near future.

Gene Therapy and Stem Cell Therapy: The First Steps to Hyperlongevity

The seeds of these future endeavors are being planted today, in the fields of gene therapy, genetic medicine, and stem cell therapy. This is also the core concept behind medical treatments which seek to optimize hormone production in the body in order to alleviate the medical conditions associated with hormone imbalance and aging.

Hormone Replacement Therapy: Streamline Your Body for the Future!

Treatments such as Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Sermorelin Acetate Therapy, and Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy seek to correct common hormonal imbalances that occur as a result of the aging process. There is even a strong argument that these hormone imbalances are actually the root cause of many symptoms of aging, including frailty, osteoporosis, and cognitive decline.

There are many Health, Wellness, and Longevity Physicians that believe that these forms of Hormone Replacement Therapy are some of the must effective means to prolong a healthy and active life when used in combination with a healthy and conscientious lifestyle. These medical treatments are the best way to decrease your mortality risk so that you are more likely to experience the next great advancement in Anti-Aging Medicine.

If you feel that your quality of life has been on the decline as a result of changes in your body and mind resulting from the aging process, I strongly encourage you to get your hormone levels checked, because there is a significant chance that you may be suffering from a reversible form of hormone deficiency.

The Future of Human Genetic Engineering

This is truly an exciting time to be alive. We are quickly approaching the point at which scientific breakthroughs in health science will continue to occur at an ever-increasing pace, with groundbreaking new health advances occurring on a regular basis. The following years will be incredibly interesting, because there are a multitude of clinical trials regarding the promise and potential effectiveness of both gene therapy and stem cell therapy.

By 2012, these studies, and other similar studies, were already displaying high levels of potential to both treat and protect both animals and humans from disease. Beyond Hormone Optimization and Genetic Therapy, the next stage of advancement will most likely be in the field of nanomedicine. Beyond nanomedicine is femtomedicine.

At this stage of scientific inquiry, this is as far as even the most forward-thinking physician or philosopher could imagine, but there is no doubt as we create new medical treatments and expend our knowledge of medical science, new opportunities for advancement will be conceptualized that could be even more life-altering and fantastic than those that we just mentioned.

When you consider the future of medicine and longevity, you realize that human beings as they are now aren’t simply the end result of millions of years of evolution, but also a gateway to the next state of terrestrial life, a transitional state between what was and what will be, an opportunity to experience even greater consciousness and enlightenment by conquering time, itself.

What is the Idea Behind Human Immortality?

When we discuss the idea of human immortality, it doesn’t just mean allowing a human being to live forever, human immortality represents the idea that it will be possible, with future biomedical and genetic enhancements, for human beings to experience a practical immortality in which one is able to live as they were in the prime of their life, for all of their life.

It seems just as you master your body and your mind in the late twenties and early thirties, your body and mind start to enter a slow and unstoppable decline. What if you could preserve that period of physical and psychological perfection forever? It is during this period that the average person reaches his or her functional peak as an individual, with regard to strength, cognitive ability, immunity, and overall health.

How Much Better Would Life Be if You Lived to 200?

Think about how different and exciting that life would be if you could have the body and mind of a 29 year old for 120 years. There are a number of people that think that humans should not have this opportunity, but it sounds much better than spending the whole sum of those years in slow and steady decline.

How Much Better Would Life Be if You Could Live Indefinitely?

Immortalists subscribe to the belief that individuals that truly enjoy life and are creative or passionate enough to find interesting or fulfilling things to do would be able to easily take advantage of a significantly lengthened lifespan. I do understand how such a long life would feel to someone that lacks passion or imagination, however. I can imagine two hundred years of absolutely drudgery. If one does not have the propensity to invest or save to create wealth, I can imagine two hundred years of hard work with nothing to show for it.

With luck, a more automated world would allow us to enjoy our lives while actually working less. Imagine a world of eco-friendly machines could do the work of one hundred men. This could be a wonderful world of leisure for all, but it could also lead to a world where machines are used as a method of control and domination, like in Frank Herbert’s dystopian novel Dune.

The Temptation of Human Immortality

Whether the opportunity for Human Immortality comes in twenty years or two hundred years, there will be those that seek out the opportunity for such a life, and there will be those that choose to reject the opportunity for immortality.

The central question that Immortalists posit is a simple one: Why would anyone actually want to die or grow old? When you think of it that way, it sounds absolutely silly. Who would ever want to do such things? But in reality, it seems as though most human beings are resigned to such a fate.

Who Really Wants to Grow Old?

More than simply growing old, who wants to lose their lust for life or their libido? Who wants to experience their own body slowly deteriorate as they are beaten down by illness and disease? Human Immortalists are those that are willing to fight against what is perceived as inevitable by society at large. They believe that those that have resigned themselves to decay and death are simply not willing to imagine a post-human age where they could evolve beyond the inevitability of death.

It seems that many humans think of Human Immortalists as harbingers of doom which are going to bring about a new genocide. They believe that Immortalists are going against the will of God by altering the Human Genetic Code in an attempt to foster extreme lifespans, improved aesthetic, and vastly improved health outcomes.

The Great Schism of Humanity

There is a strong chance that a rift will develop between those that choose genetic alteration and those that choose to forgo such opportunities. In the end, it is likely that humanity will rift into two distinct groups. Over time, greater and greater numbers will opt for Genetic Modification, and those that opt out of such procedures may potentially lose footing in society as a result of their choice.

If modification indeed has the ability to create such disparity, genetically modified humans will spread their genes with one another, and their offspring may have greater potential for both prosperity and intellect, which will create a socioeconomic rift between GM Humans and Unmodified Humans.

Will Post-Humans be able to act ethically under these circumstances? Will Unmodified Humans be able to accept a place in the world where they are unequivocally inferior to their GM counterparts? This new world will be different and exciting, and it’s up to us to create a civil world where we can act in the best interest of all.

What Other Strange Opportunities May Become Available in the Future?

On top of our ability to vastly extend and improve our long-term health, the future will also provide us with enhanced opportunities with regard to personal aesthetic. We will not only be able to cure conditions such as psoriasis which plague millions in the world today, but many may choose to move beyond mere optimization and may choose to fully customize their appearance. Perhaps one may choose not to have olive or alabaster skin as many in society desire today, but go for a different color all together.

What if someone chose to color their skin orange, green, or blue? What if they wanted to be leopard print or covered in zebra stripes? This may appear otherworldly and unnatural to our minds, but when presented with an entire array of customization, what would be so strange about doing something like that to stand out? How different would it be to dying your hair blue or rainbow, if there were no dangers in undergoing such a change?

But, given enough time and scientific innovation, skin color and other basic augmentations like genetic breast and penis enlargement will be just another evolution in the concept of general aesthetic. The potential for more extreme changes would eventually become possible. What if humans wanted to take on the characteristics of animals? What if someone wanted the ears or tail of a cat, for example? There would even be the potential to do even more drastic things that we can barely imagine today.

Genetically Engineered Pets

These genetic advancements won’t occur in a human vacuum. They will also apply to animals as well. Today people are paying top dollar for basic genetically modified hypo-allergenic dogs, and glow-in-the-dark mammals have even been developed in laboratories.

In the future, it is likely that scientists will come up with scientific modifications which significantly enhance both the aesthetic and intelligence of animals. It’s even likely that animals will experience the benefits of genetic engineering more quickly than humans, as this future will largely be facilitated by means of animal testing.

The Post-Human Era Starts with Basic Genetic Engineering and Ends with Post-Humanism, Hyperlongevity, and Potential Immortality

You may not be able to tell, but we are already in the midst of the first phase of the Post-Human era. The beginning of this era was marked by the first time that egg and sperm from two different individuals was combined and implanted into an adoptive mother. It was such a grand event in retrospect, but the passing into this new era was not met with massive celebrations, but simply with concerns over the ethics of the new future.

Post-Humanity will have a litany of moral conundrums to unravel, some that we can imagine, and others that are unfathomable to us today. The state of the mortal mind is simply not equipped to handle the moral and ethical quandaries that the genetically modified mind will face. What if there are other lifeforms just like us in other parts of the galaxy, that have also learned to take control of their very existence on the cellular level? What if the number of unique alien civilizations in the universe is unlimited? What if we as earthlings are just one form of intelligent life among a countless litany of others?

The Current State of Genetic Modification and Gene Therapy

Today, scientists, researchers, and physicians are taking the first step into this future, with the quickly growing field of genetic therapy. We are on the cusp of doing some truly amazing things, like genetically altering viruses in order to protect humans from genetic disorders and conditions. At first, these initial treatments have been risky, reserved for those in most dire need, but as medical science becomes more well-versed in these therapeutic advancements, they will become safer and more widely available to the general public. Could you imagine reducing your risk of cancer by 80% just with a single injection? That may be the future for you.

The Current State of Organ Regeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

Another aspect of genetic therapy has to do with the advancing field of Stem Cell Therapy. There are new, state of the art treatments available which utilize stem cells in order to improve the health of the heart. Patients that have experienced heart attack or heart disease can be treated with stem cells which have the ability to develop into new and healthy muscle tissue.

Similar techniques have also been used in order to regenerate other parts of the body or parts of individual organs. In one famous case, scientists biomanufactured a windpipe for a patient with the patient’s own cells. They were able to do this by taking the stem cells and allowing them to grow in culture before pouring them over a scaffold in the shape of a windpipe. Just by providing the cells with the nutrients to grow, they were able to recreate a human windpipe in the laboratory just in a matter of days.

Because the windpipe was created from the patient’s own cells, the body did not reject the windpipe when it was surgically implanted into the body. This is one of the first successful cases where a patient’s life was changed through the scientific advancements of genetic organ replacement.

Stem Cell Therapy Will Be Available in the Near Future: Hormone Replacement Therapy is Here Today!

Stem Cell Therapy is exciting and will become increasingly common and popular over the next century in the United States. Today, there are a few places where Stem Cell Therapy is available internationally, especially in Asia, but they have yet to be medically certified, and there are still a number of pertinent risks involved. In the Western World, Stem Cell Treatments are currently going through clinical trials. Although the results are mixed, continual progress is being made.

There are many scientists that believe that Stem Cell Research will lead to a new future in medicine, but policies enacted during the presidency of George W. Bush have set the United States behind by at least a decade, and other nations in Europe and Asia are currently taking advantage of their head start, and may one day eclipse us in these new and futuristic medical therapies.

In just a few short years, genetic testing will become affordable enough that it will become a common and recommended part of prenatal care as well as regular checkups throughout the lifespan. Over time, more and more Genetic Disorders will be able to be effectively treated with Gene Therapy, and with every breakthrough, people will be that much more likely to live a longer and healthier life.

Once the clinical science is sound, it won’t even be a difficult ordeal for the patient. It would simply be like going to visit the pharmacist, or making a call to a specialist pharmacy. After receiving the medication, one will be able to administer the medication on his or her own and without the frequent oversight of a medical professional.

Not long after these Genetic Treatments are made available to the public, Stem Cell Therapies will quickly become more and more advanced as well. There are even companies that have expressed a desire to take your stem cells and develop them in a laboratory environment. The goal of this treatment would be to take your own stem cells and foster the healthiest cells to multiply. After these cultures are developed, they would be mailed back to you in order for you to inject them to alleviate health conditions and other symptoms related to the aging process.

Beyond Genetic Engineering and Stem Cell Therapies, will come new forms of medical treatment that we are just beginning to research today, but will surely flourish in the coming decades: nanomedicine and femtomedicine.

Nanoscience and the Healthcare of the Future

These are tiny, genetically engineered cellular machines that will be able to improve your health by altering the functions of your body in a positive manner. They will be able to repair and alter particular forms of cells so that they function optimally, even after a period of long life in which you would expect to see physiological breakdown. It is even believed that these treatments can also preserve and repair the brain itself! Isn’t that exciting?

There are countless people in the world that have a litany of big dreams, more than they could ever hope to accomplish in a single lifetime in some cases. They have these long checklists of things they want to do in their life, a whole wide world they want to explore. Some have an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, and want to read thousands of books or learn dozens of languages in their life.

There are countless more people that have spent their early lives living on the edge, and suffer from issues such as alcohol dependency or drug addiction which have harmed their bodies and their brains. With these forms of genetic and nanomedicine, it will be possible to repair the bodies and minds of these individuals, allowing them to make a fresh start. It is possible that addiction itself may become a historical curiosity as a result of these medical advances.

What Would Do If You Had 200 More Years to Live?

  • Would you learn to play multiple musical instruments?

  • Would you research for decades in order to write the perfect novel?

  • Would you visit every country on earth?

The number of dreams that humans have yearned for is nearly infinite, and most never live to achieve all of their dreams, if they achieve any of their dreams at all. If you are still alive in the near future, around 2032, you will be able to take full advantage of what Longevity Medicine and Anti-Aging Therapy have to offer!

Some time in the future, we will finally overcome the condition of aging. We will be able to prevent all illness and be able to live in perpetuity, as long as we don’t succumb to an accident or similar fate. This is the extreme vision of Immortality Medicine.

The First Immortals Could be Alive Today!

By the time we make it to the 22nd century, there will already be individuals that have taken the road to Hyperlongevity, and there will likely be millions of humans that have taken part in this great leap forward into Post-Humanism. They will not only be healthier, but smarter too, with further advances in Genetic Science that allow us to amplify the capacity of our brains.

As people continue to develop down this evolutionary road, will we even consider them humans anymore? They will represent a new version of humanity, and they will likely use a new term to define themselves, whether that be Neohuman or some other clever word or phrase.

I believe that this advance into Neohumanism will also lead to a new era in space travel and human colonization. With these extensive lifespans, many Neohumans will inevitably turn their eyes to the stars in a desire to find new worlds and discover new lands and extraterrestrial lifeforms. Brave Neohumans from all over the planet will take to interplanetary space vessels in order to colonize and experience new worlds and lands that are beyond the scope of human imagination.

Can I Live to Experience This New Era of Humanity?

All of the things we’ve discussed may seem incredibly exciting to you, but we understand that these innovations are going to come in the near future. If you want to take part in this grand human experiment, it’s important that you live long enough to seize these innovations as they come! There are steps you can take now to alleviate the negative symptoms of the aging process and increase your odds of experiencing the new, human revolution.

My suggestions will not ensure that you will live for the next twenty years or longer, but they will potentially drastically decrease your mortality risk so that you are able to seek out this new and exciting future that we have laid before you.

Today, the door to Neo-Humanism, Hyperlongevity, and even Human Immortality is slightly open, and there are many alive today that will experience these magnificent and life-altering advances.

Will You Take Advantage of the Advances of Hyper-Longevity and Anti-Aging Medicine? Are You Willing to Commit to a Longer and more Youthful Life?

It’s quite plain to see that we are at the crest of an event horizon, beyond which it will truly be possible to lengthen lifespans indefinitely. The most important thing is to breach that horizon. By taking steps to increase health and lifespan now, you allow yourself the opportunity to take care of further, greater medical enhancements down the road.

The most modern advances available today are in the form of Recombinant Hormone Replacement Therapies. By optimizing your hormone balance, you increase the odds that you will live long enough to experience the new, up-and-coming breakthroughs of the mid-21st century.

If you live just a few more years, new genetic medical treatments will become available which will significantly increase your lifespan. While you are enjoying the benefit of genetic medicine, researchers and medical scientists will advance and perfect Genetic Therapy and Stem Cell Therapy, allowing you to live even longer!

There are a number of Stem Cell and Gene Therapies going through clinical trials as you read this, which show great promise in preventing or treating serious illnesses which severely inhibit lifespan today. As the medical community becomes more adept at using these new tools for the purpose of treatment, they will begin to utilize these treatments as forms of Positive Medicine.

They will be able to treat patients before they even get sick in order to optimize their health and greatly improve lifespans as a result, because the incidence of illness will decline significantly. In addition, these same treatments will be able to streamline existing physiological processes, keeping the body physiologically stronger and more youthful. They will be able to tailor these treatments uniquely to the individual in order to give the best care to each individual patient.

Stay on the Cutting Edge of Longevity Medicine to Perpetually Extend the Human Lifespan

With each of these breakthroughs and treatments, we will come one step closer to Immortality. Eventually, scientists and researchers will crack the code of human life, and finally figure out how to allow us to truly live indefinitely. It may take 100 years or it may take 500 years to achieve true Immortality, but each life-extending advance will allow people to survive until the next great advance. Hyper-Longevity will eventually become a universal reality, barring accident, war, or any other form of life-ending catastrophe.

You may feel that this is a science fiction world that I am describing, but it very well may be possible for you to experience this all for yourself. It is estimated that at some point between 2032 and 2052 we will have perfected medical practices which allow us to live significantly longer lives than we do today. Those that are optimistic feel that we are just twenty years away from this era, while those that are more cautious suggest that fifty years would be a more reasonable estimate.

Twenty to fifty years may not seem like that long in scientific study, but in terms of your own life, it is a significant period of time. Are you willing to make the sacrifices now in order to experience Hyperlongevity in the near future?

Eight Ways to Extend Your Lifespan

There are a lot of steps that you can take in your life today in order to significantly increase the odds that you survive to experience this new and amazing future. If you follow the suggestions below, conscientiously, you will maximize your potential to extend your life until further longevity advances develop in the coming decades.

These eight factors have been shown to be most important when determining the length of an individual’s lifespan:

  • Nutrition

  • Exercise

  • Environment

  • Social Circles

  • Vice

  • Climate

  • Calorie-Restricted Diet

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy

The Diet of the 21st Century: Caloric Restriction and Fasting for a Longer Life

A recent article in Newsmax Health explained that the future of longevity isn’t fad dieting or strenuous exercise, but a Calorie-Restricted diet which manages metabolism and ensures a long and healthy life.

Over the last century, there have been more than twenty thousand studies regarding caloric restriction in animal species from around the globe. All of these studies have unequivocally shown that restricting the calories in an animal’s diet has the ability to significantly increase the lifespan, and the same appears to apply to human beings..

This may sound like a starvation diet at first, but conscientiously and significantly restricting calories in the human diet is a powerful means to a longer life. Of course, most people consume at least 1500 calories per day and some consume several thousand! But, it appears that the sweet spot for human longevity is quite a bit lower than that 1500 calorie threshold.

For those that are struggling with Caloric Restriction, especially those that are currently overweight, HCG Injections can help relieve the feeling of hunger associated with the initial phase of the diet in order to acclimate to their new dietary lifestyle more effectively.

At first it may seem counter-intuitive, that too much of the Bread of Life can actually shorten the lifespan, but that absolutely seems to be the case. A diet that provides high levels of nutrients through the consumption of a small number of calories is the number one way to increase human longevity effectively. Intermittent Fasting and Caloric Restriction slow down aging and also reduce the incidence of a wide variety of illnesses that plague so many in America today.

The Modern Media and the Culture of Food in the West

In the United States, as well as other countries in the West including the United Kingdom, children were raised in a reality in which starvation was one of the greatest evils of the 19th and 20th century. The various forms of media available all showed the terrible fates of so many who were denied the food needed to live. Nowhere is this imagery more vivid in Western Civilization than in the footage captured after the end of World War II as the true horrors of the Holocaust were revealed to the world at large.

During the Cold War we also experienced further evidence of the horrors of famine as communist Russia and China struggled with providing their populations with proper nutrition, leading countless to die of starvation over many decades. Today, on modern television, there are advertisements for charities throughout Africa and Asia which show the plight of the starving in these third world nations.

I do not mean to discount the real and significant struggles that those that came before us experienced in the not so distant past, but it had a powerful impact on food culture in the West, particularly the idea that it is better to eat too much than too little. In our elementary education and beyond, we are confronted with story after story of mass famine, and it seems that part of the way that we culturally appreciate our current abundance is by partaking in it.

This appreciation for our abundance has led directly to a culture of overeating that borders on obsession. In the West, we simply love our food too much, and the expansion of cuisine in the West has allowed anyone to get whatever they want, when they want it, whether they go to the grocery store, the pizza parlor, or the Chinese buffet.

A Culture of Overeating Develops into a Culture of Force Feeding

Throughout the twentieth century, we have always been taught that we need to eat every last bite on our plates. Often times, we were also strongly encouraged, if not forced, to go back for a second portion. In addition to this, the proliferation of soda drinks has led directly to a significant increase in the empty calories that the average American consumes.

As the twentieth century barreled on, parents on average had less time to cook and prepare meals at home, which led to the greater proliferation of both fast food and microwavable dinners, loaded with sugars, salts, and carbohydrates which increased our caloric consumption even more!

During this age, restaurants like Burger King and McDonald’s became the captains of the fast food industry, generating billions of dollars in profit funneling cheap calories into the mouths of men, women, and children all across the country.

Because of all these pressures to overeat, the longevity gains that people in the West experienced as a result of modernization all began to slip away, the combination of unhealthy eating and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle is threatening today’s generation with the prospect of living shorter lives than their parents on average!

The United States would be stronger in every way, if it could foster greater consciousness about the importance of eating smarter to eat longer. If we all just made the proactive decision to engage in a lifestyle of at least mild caloric restriction, it would both decrease the price of health care and allow the citizens of this nation to live longer, happier, and healthier lives.

Do You Dream of a Healthier, Happier Life? Contact the Conscious Evolution Institute Today!

If you are a man or woman over the age of thirty and currently live in the United States, the Conscious Evolution Institute can help you improve your health and longevity. We provide Doctor-Monitored Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy to patients all across the United States.

With just a simple phone call, we can arrange for you to meet with one of our affiliate physicians in order to set you on the road to a new you. We offer a variety of Hormone Replacement options, including Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Human Growth Hormone Injections, Sermorelin Acetate Injections, and HCG Injection Therapy for Weight Loss.

We also provide nutrition and lifestyle counseling in order to help you maximize the results of your treatment by choosing foods, supplements, and exercises that will get your body running on all cylinders!

If you feel that you may be a candidate for Hormone Replacement Therapy, don’t hesitate, call us today, and one of our friendly specialists will walk you through the process and answer any and all questions that you may have.

For more information on Ten Ways To Live Ten Years Longer check out

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Pharmacogenomics – PubMed Central (PMC)

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 10:50 am

BMJ. 1999 Nov 13; 319(7220): 1286.

Departments of Biopharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA94143-0446, USA

We all differ in our response to drug treatmentoccasionally with dramatic effects. The era of one drug fits all patients is about to give way to individualised therapy matching the patient’s unique genetic make up with an optimally effective drug.1 Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are the emerging disciplines that are leading the way towards individualised medicine.2,3 Initially, researchers focused their attention on pharmacogeneticsvariations in single candidate genes responsible for variable drug response. Subsequently, studies involving the entire human genome broadened the scope of investigation, giving rise to pharmacogenomics as one of the hottest fields in biotechnology today.

Response to drug treatment can vary greatly between patients; genetic factors have a major role in treatment outcome

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are emerging disciplines that focus on genetic determinants of drug response at the levels of single genes or the entire human genome respectively

Technologies involving gene chip arrays can determine thousands of variations in DNA sequences for individual patients; most variants are single nucleotide polymorphisms

Pharmacogenomics aims at establishing a signature of DNA sequence variants that are characteristic of individual patients to assess disease susceptibility and select the optimal drug treatment

This approach has the potential to revolutionise prevention and treatment of diseases

Unexpected drug reactions have been noted for some time, but the systematic study of hereditary origins began only in the 1950s. A few patients developed prolonged respiratory muscular paralysis after being given succinylcholine (suxamethonium), a short acting muscle relaxant widely used in surgery and electroshock treatment. In the 1970s, a trial with the antihypertensive agent debrisoquine resulted in a precipitous drop of blood pressure and collapse in nearly 10% of volunteers. Furthermore, isoniazid therapy for tuberculosis caused peripheral neuropathies in patients who were sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of the drug. Ground breaking genetic and biochemical studies by Werner Kalow and others showed that these adverse effects result from polymorphisms in genes encoding the drug metabolising enzymes serum cholinesterase,4 cytochrome P-450,5 and N-acetyltransferase.6 These observations laid the foundation for pharmacogenetics.

Today, many examples of genetic variability in drug response and toxicity are known (table). In a few cases, genetic tests are beginning to find their way into clinical practice. In cancer chemotherapy with tioguanine, severe toxicity or even death can result if a patient is unable to inactivate the drug. Functional assays of thiopurine methyltransferase in red blood cells or genotyping can identify those patients who are at risk and must be given a much lower dose of tioguanine.7,8 This is particularly critical for the 1 in 300 patients who is homozygous for null alleles (non-functional) of the gene encoding thiopurine methyltransferase which converts the drug to its inactive methylated form. Therefore, genotyping or functional analysis has become standard practice in major cancer treatment centres such as the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minneapolis, and St Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.

The large family of cytochrome P-450 genes has been most intensely studied because it contains the main drug metabolising enzymes encoded by numerous genes.2 Among the cytochrome P-450 subtypes, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 play a critical part in determining the response to several drugs. This is particularly important for lipophilic drugssuch as drugs that act on the central nervous system and penetrate the lipophilic blood-brain barrierbecause renal excretion is minimal and cytochrome P-450 metabolism provides the only means of effective drug elimination. Thus, homozygous carriers of CYP2D6 null alleles and cannot readily degrade and excrete many drugs, including debrisoquine, metoprolol, nortriptyline, and propafenone.9 These patients are termed poor metabolisers for CYP2D6 selective drugs. Because of this they are exquisitely sensitive to these drugs. The incidence of poor metabolisers varies greatly among ethnic groups, ranging from 1% in Japanese people to 15% in Nigerians. Similarly, patients with defective CYP2C19 subtypes are highly sensitive to methoin (mephenytoin), hexobarbital (hexobarbitone), and other drugs selectively metabolised by this P-450 isoform.

The principal molecular defect in poor metabolisers is a single base pair mutation (AG) in exon 5 of CYP2C19.10 Gene chips designed to test for polymorphisms of the main subtypes of cytochrome P-450 are now commercially available, but not yet in general clinical use. Cytochrome P-450 polymorphisms also affect the inactivation or, in some cases, activation or toxification of xenobiotics, and thus affect an individual’s susceptibility to environmental toxins. This is studied in a field of research called toxicogenetics. Launched recently by the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the environmental genome project aims at understanding genetic factors in individual responses to the environment and parallels the study of genetic variability in drug response.11

As a scientific discipline, pharmacogenetics has made steady progress, but the human genome project has shattered any complacency as it has revealed profound gaps in our knowledge. By broadening the search for genetic polymorphisms that determine drug responses, the new field of pharmacogenomics begins to supersede the candidate gene approach typical of earlier pharmacogenetic studies. Initially hailed by pharmaceutical biotechnology as the latest trend in biotechnology, pharmacogenomics is now taken seriously everywhere. While genomic techniques serve to identify new gene targets for drug research, and some might refer to this as pharmacogenomics, the broader consensus is that pharmacogenomics deals specifically with genetic variability in drug response. The distinction between pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics remains blurred, but here are some of the new ideas typical of pharmacogenomics.

Each drug is likely to interact in the body with numerous proteins, such as carrier proteins, transporters, metabolising enzymes, and multiple types of receptors.1 These proteins determine the absorption, distribution, excretion, targeting to the site of action, and pharmacological response of drugs. As a result, multiple polymorphisms in many genes could affect the drug response, requiring a genome-wide search for the responsible genes. We now know that that there are thousands of receptor genes in the human genome, many of which are closely related to each other because they have evolved by gene duplications. Therefore, we must anticipate that a drug rarely binds just to a single receptor but rather interacts promiscuously with several receptor types. Chlorpromazine, for example, is known to engage several dopaminergic, adrenergic, and serotonergic receptors. As a result, polymorphisms in multiple genes can affect the drug response.

Polymorphisms are generally defined as variations of DNA sequence that are present in more than 1% of the population. Most polymorphisms are single nucleotide polymorphisms (referred to as snips). As the human genome contains three billion nucleotides, and variations between individuals occur in 1/300 base pairs, around 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms probably exist. Only 1% of these may have any functional consequence at all, and thus individuals differ from each other genetically by roughly 100000 polymorphic sites, providing for near infinite variety. As only a small fraction of these single nucleotide polymorphisms will prove relevant to drug response, our goal will be to identify the most important variants.

Novel technology in the form of microarray chips enables us to scan the entire human genome for relevant polymorphisms.12,13 We can determine simultaneously many thousands of polymorphisms in a patient. At present, these single nucleotide polymorphisms are selected merely as markers evenly distributed throughout the genome, in the hope that functionally relevant polymorphisms can be associated with specific markers by virtue of their proximity on the chromosome. Such genome-wide association studies are already being used in the discovery of susceptibility genes for diseases such as asthma and prostate cancer, but they are equally suitable for determining the genes involved in drug response. Genome-wide scanning can identify these genes even if we do not know the mechanisms by which the drug acts in the body. The French genomics company, Genset, currently uses gene chips with 60000 single nucleotide polymorphism markerssufficient for a complete genomic scanapplied to clinical drug trials in partnership with major pharmaceutical companies. Expanding the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms and selecting functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms in coding or promoter/enhancer regions of genes is quite feasible with current technology and would greatly enhance the power of genome-wide scanning. Herein lies the main incentive for the current rush in the pharmaceutical industry to patent single nucleotide polymorphism markers. It might also be possible to salvage useful experimental drugs that would have failed with standard clinical trials, because of an unacceptable incidence of toxicity in a poorly defined patient population. Stratifying patient populations in relation to genetic criteria emerges as a major challenge to the pharmaceutical industry. Undoubtedly, the insights expected to emerge from such an approach are staggering, but they cannot be gauged accurately at present.

Microarrays can further serve to determine the expression pattern of genes in a target tissue. This shows the mechanisms of drug action in a genomic context. It can also clarify interindividual differences in drug response that are downstream of immediate drug effects in the body by shear force of the massive amount of information emanating from chip technology. Analysing the entire transcriptional programme of a tissuefor example, fibroblasts in response to serum stimulation14provides unprecedented details of a complex system and leads to new insights in pathophysiology and biological drug response. Tissue transcript profiling is especially appropriate in cancers because mRNA can be extracted from biopsy specimens or surgical samples. Altered gene expression in the tumour can serve as a guide for selecting effective drug therapy or avoiding unnecessary exposure to toxic but ineffective drugsfor example, the overexpression of drug resistance genes encoding transporters (table).

These advances are the harbinger of profound changes in treatment. What then do we expect to gain from pharmacogenomics? In the near future, genotyping can help avert severe drug toxicity that is genetically determined but occurs only rarely. Alternatively, drugs may be designed a priori so that they are not subject to extreme variations that result from a few well defined polymorphisms. Drug structures under development are already being selected so that they do not interact with cytochrome P-450 subtype CYP2D6 to avoid unwarranted toxicity in people who metabolise this poorly.

Looking further ahead, and on a much broader scale, we could improve drug efficacy by distinguishing between people who respond well to a drug and those who respond poorly. Often, an effective drug response is found in a few patients treated, while most benefit little or not at all. Much could be gained if we could select the optimal drug for the individual patient before treatment begins. Perhaps a gene chip that establishes a single nucleotide polymorphism signature involving multiple genes relevant to therapeutic outcome for each individual will be developed. This signature could offer insights into an individual’s susceptibility to disease and responsiveness to drugs, enabling optimal drug selection by genetic criteria. For example, cure rates with combined surgical and drug treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma range from 20% to 40%, while the remainder of the patients experience little gain or even severe toxicity from chemotherapy. If we could predict which patients respond best to a particular drugor better, which drug will yield optimal effects for a given patientmuch will be gained. The success of this approach will depend critically on the selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms tested by the gene chip. Single nucleotide polymorphisms must be informative and many must be tested to scan the entire genome. This task is by no means complete and constitutes a major goal of those companies which are focusing on genomics.

There are also formidable obstacles that we are unlikely to overcome in the near future. The dynamic complexity of the human genome, involvement of multiple genes in drug responses, and racial differences in the prevalence of gene variants impede effective genome-wide scanning and progress towards practical clinical applications. Furthermore, the drug response is probably affected by multiple genes, each gene with multiple polymorphisms distributed in the general population. For example, the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil used in the treatment of colorectal cancer is activated and inactivated by nearly 40 different enzymes. Each of these is currently being scanned for relevant polymorphisms at the biotech company Variagenics. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase is a likely candidate in 5-fluorouracil inactivation (table). However, whether extensive genotyping will provide useful predictors of clinical response remains to be seen.

Racial differences add further confounding factors. Drug response might be predicted from a certain pattern of polymorphisms rather than only a single polymorphism, yet these patterns probably differ between ethnic groups. This could prevent us from making predictions about drug responses across the general patient population, and it emphasises the need to stratify clinical pharmacogenomics studies.

Genomic technologies are still evolving rapidly, at an exponential pace similar to the development of computer technology over the past 20 years. We are not certain where genomic technologies will be 10 years from now.

Ethical issues also need to be resolved. Holding sensitive information on someone’s genetic make up raises questions of privacy and security and ethical dilemmas in disease prognosis and treatment choices. After all, polymorphisms relevant to drug response may overlap with disease susceptibility, and divulging such information could jeopardise an individual. On the other hand, legal issues may force the inclusion of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice. Once the genetic component of a severe adverse drug effect is documented, doctors may be obliged to order the genetic test to avoid malpractice litigation.

Pharmacogenomics will have a profound impact on the way drug treatment is conducted. We can include here bioengineered proteins as drugs, or even gene therapy designed to deliver proteins to target tissues. These treatments are also subject to constraints and complexities engendered by individual variability. A case in point is the treatment of breast cancer with trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech, USA) a humanised monoclonal antibody against the HER2 receptor. Overexpression of HER2 may occur as a somatic genetic change in breast cancer and other tumours. This correlates with poor clinical prognosis and serves as a marker for effective therapy with trastuzumab, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy.15,16

Whether we will see broad use of gene chips in clinical practice within 10 years is questionable, but the mere knowledge of the principles underlying genetic variability will prove valuable in optimising drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics will lead us towards individualised therapy, but it will also help us understand limitations inherent in treating disease in a broad patient population

Incyte’s microarray service allows researchers to analyse differential expression in normal and diseased cells

Examples of inherited or acquired variations in enzymes and receptors that affect the drug response23

Competing interests: None declared.

2. Weber WW. Pharmacogenetics. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997.

13. Sinclair B. Everything’s great when it sits on a chip: a bright future for DNA arrays. Scientist. 1999;13:1820.

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Pharmacogenomics – PubMed Central (PMC)

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Pharmacogenomics Services | Cancer Genetics Inc.

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 10:50 am

Pharmacogenomics testing is used to assess the relationship between an individuals or tumors genomic makeup and a patients response to drugs compounds. Pharmacogenomic testing can be used for theranostic purposes in order to predict how a patient will respond to specific drugs. PGx testing is also playing an increasingly important role in clinical trial testing and can be used to better select trial populations by predicting drug efficacy and safety.

Cancer Genetics, Inc. offers a range of pharmacogenomics testing services for clinical oncologists, cancer centers, and research institutions, as well as for biotech and biopharma customers engaged in clinical trials.

Testing for theranostic biomarkers has become part of the standard diagnostic paradigm for many cancers. In addition to understanding an individual patients subtype or risk of disease progression, understanding whether or not they are likely to respond to certain therapy regimens is essential to determining the best way to manage a patients disease. CGI offers theranostic testing for a number of hematological and solid tumor cancers.

Click here for our clinical test menu.

We also offer a comprehensive range of pharmacogenomics testing services for biotech and biopharma companies through our Select One Clinical Trials program.

Click here to learn more about our pharmacogenomics testing services for clinical trials.

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Pharmacogenomics – Department of Psychiatry and Psychology …

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 10:50 am

The primary objective of the clinical research of pharmacogenomics is to better understand genetic variability as it relates to antidepressant response. The team is involved in both psychiatric pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenomic testing for algorithm research.

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research. Yuan Ji, Ph.D., leads this study with the PGRN team, researching iPS cells in depressed patients treated with SSRIs. The team has partnered with Timothy J. Nelson, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Minnesota and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies to study a subset of patients who have been in the PGRN SSRI study.

First reported in 2007, iPS cells accomplish two important tasks. First, they convert adult skin cells into stem cells (cells capable of growing into many cell types). Second, these cells can be differentiated into neurons or other mature cell types. This technology provides the means to reprogram patients’ skin cells into their own neurons, theoretically allowing an understanding of either an individual’s response to treatment or how to engineer a personalized plan.

The team has completed numerous other projects, including a pharmacometabolomics study of escitalopram and citalopram response. Additional analyses are underway with colleagues at the University of North Carolina; the University of California, Davis; and the Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Veterans Hospital in Bedford, Mass.


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Benefits and Applications | Nano

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 10:49 am

After more than 20 years of basic nanoscience research andmore than a decade of focused R&D under the NNI, applications of nanotechnology are delivering in both expected and unexpected ways on nanotechnologys promise to benefit society.

Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve, even revolutionize, many technology and industry sectors: information technology, energy, environmental science, medicine, homeland security, food safety, and transportation, among many others. Described below is a sampling of the rapidly growing list of benefits and applications of nanotechnology.

Most benefits of nanotechnology depend on the fact that it is possible to tailor the essential structures of materials at the nanoscale to achieve specific properties, thus greatly extending the well-used toolkits of materials science. Using nanotechnology, materials can effectively be made to be stronger, lighter, more durable, more reactive, more sieve-like, or better electrical conductors, among many other traits. There already exist over 800 everyday commercial products that rely on nanoscale materials and processes:

Nanotechnology is already in use in many computing, communications, and other electronics applications to provide faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. These continuously evolving applications include:

The difficulty of meeting the worlds energy demand is compounded by the growing need to protect our environment. Many scientists are looking into ways to develop clean, affordable, and renewable energy sources, along with means to reduce energy consumption and lessen toxicity burdens on the environment.

Besides lighter cars and machinery that requires less fuel, and alternative fuel and energy sources, there are many eco-friendly applications for nanotechnology, such as materials that provide clean water from polluted water sources in both large-scale and portable applications, and ones that detect and clean up environmental contaminants.

Nanorust cleans arsenic from drinking water. (Image courtesy of Rice University)

New nanotechnology-enabled sensors and solutions may one day be able to detect, identify, and filter out, and/or neutralize harmful chemical or biological agents in the air and soil with much higher sensitivity than is possible today. Researchers around the world are investigating carbon nanotube scrubbers, and membranes to separate carbon dioxide from power plant exhaust. And researchers are investigating particles such as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and metalloporphyrinogens to determine how to apply their unique chemical and physical properties for various kinds of toxic site remediation.

Nanotechnology has the real potential to revolutionize a wide array of medical and biotechnology tools and procedures so that they are more personalized, portable, cheaper, safer, and easier to administer. Below are some examples of important advances in these areas.

Before (left) and after (right) picture of atherosclerotic placque in a mouse artery. Placque accumulation is shown in this image by the increasing intensity of color, from blue to yellow and red. (Image courtesy of M. Nahrendorf, MGH Center for Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School)

In addition to contributing to building and maintaining lighter, smarter, more efficient, and greener vehicles, aircraft, and ships, nanotechnology offers various means to improve the transportation infrastructure:

Besides moving forward to capture these and many other benefits of nanotechnologies, the NNI is also committed to addressing the potential environmental, health, and safety impacts and various societal, legal, or ethical implications of nanotechnology to avoid or minimize any undesirable or unintended effects of nanotechnology.

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Benefits and Applications | Nano

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Nanotechnology – Health Effects and Workplace Assessments and …

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 10:49 am

Health Effects and Workplace Assessments and Controls

Employees who use nanomaterials in research or production processes may be exposed to nanoparticles through inhalation, dermal contact, or ingestion, depending upon how employees use and handle them. Although the potential health effects of such exposure are not fully understood at this time, scientific studies indicate that at least some of these materials are biologically active, may readily penetrate intact human skin, and have produced toxicologic reactions in the lungs of exposed experimental animals.

Current research indicates that the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles will depend on the physical and chemical properties of the particle. Engineered nanomaterials may have unique chemical and physical properties that differ substantially from those of the same material in bulk or macro-scale form. Properties that may be important in understanding the toxic effects of nanomaterials include particle size and size distribution, agglomeration state, shape, crystal structure, chemical composition, surface area, surface chemistry, surface charge, and porosity.

The resources below contain information on the potential health effects of exposure to nanomaterials and workplace exposure control methods. As part of a government-wide coordination effort, OSHA is working with other federal agencies to address issues related to the impact of nanomaterials on human health and the environment.

*Accessibility Assistance: Contact OSHA’s Directorate of Standards and Guidance at (202) 693-1999 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA’s Directorate of Standards and Guidance at (202) 693-1999.

**eBooks – EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.

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Nanotechnology – Health Effects and Workplace Assessments and …

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Nanotechnology Journals | Scholarly articles list | Nanomaterials

Posted: August 23, 2016 at 10:49 am

Journal of Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology is a peer-reviewed scholarlyjournal and aims to publish the most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all major themes pertaining to Nanotechnology and making them accessibleonline freely without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.

Journal of Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology focuses on the topics that include:

The journal is using Editorial Manager System for quality in review process. Editorial Manager is an online manuscript submission, review and tracking systems. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the system, hopefully to publication. Reviewers can download manuscripts and submit their opinions to the editor. Editors can manage the whole submission/review/revise/publish process.

Confirmed Special Issues:

Submit manuscript at or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at [email protected] or [email protected]

Nanotechnology is the manipulation or the engineering of functional matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. It is a science, engineering and technology conducted at Nanoscale level that involves the designing, manipulating and producing of very small objects or structures (products) ranged on the level of 100 nanometers.

Journals related to Nanotechnology

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Nature Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, International Journal of Nanotechnology, eilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, Recent Patents on Nanotechnology.

Nanomaterials are one of the main objects or structures that are designed and produced by Nanotechnologies at the size level of approximately 1-100 nanometers. Nanomaterial research is a field that takes a materials science-based approach on nanotechnology.

Journals related to Nanomaterials

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, Journal of Nanomaterials, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Nature Materials, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Advanced Materials, Advanced Energy Materials, Applied Physics Letters.

Nanoparticles are small objects, behaves as a whole unit in terms of its properties and transport. Fine particle ranges from 100 to 2500 nanometers whereas ultrafine particles size range from 1 to 100.

Journals related to Nanoparticle

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, International Journal of Nanoparticles, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Solid State Sciences, Single Molecules, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures.

Graphene is allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. Graphene has unwittingly produced small quantities for centuries through the use of pencils and other similar applications of graphite.

Journals related to Graphene

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nano Letters, ACS Nano, Nature Nanotechnology, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Nanoscale,Nano Today, Nano Research,Nanoscale Research Letters, Nanomedicine, Journal of Nanoparticle Research.

Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical Nano structure. Carbon nanotubes are long hollow structures and have mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and chemical properties and these nanotubes are constructed with length to diameter ratio of 132,000,000:1.

Journals related to Carbon Nanotubes

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, International Journal of Nanotechnology, eilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, Recent Patents on Nanotechnology,International Journal of Green Nanotechnology,RSC Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, International Journal of Green Nanotechnology: Materials Science and Engineering, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology.

Nanomedicine is medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine will employ molecular machine system to address medical problems. Nanomedicine will have extraordinary and far-reaching implications for the medical profession.

Journals related to Nanomedicine

Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, Nanomedicine, International Journal of Nanomedicine, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, European Journal of Nanomedicine, Open Nanomedicine Journal.

Nanobiotechnology term refers to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. Bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. It helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology.

Journals related to Nanobiotechnology

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Journal of Nanobiotechnology, IET Nanobiotechnology, Nanobiotechnology.

Quantum dots are nanocrystals or nanostructures made of semiconductor materials those are small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties and that confines motion of conduction band electrons valance band holes, or excitations in all three Spatial directions exhibiting unique electrical and optical properties which are useful potentially in biomedical imaging and other energy applications.

Journals related to Quantum Dots

Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, International Journal of Nanotechnology, eilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics, Recent Patents on Nanotechnology,International Journal of Green Nanotechnology,RSC Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nano Letters, ACS Nano, Nature Nanotechnology, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Nanoscale,Nano Today, Nano Research,Nanoscale Research Letters, Nanomedicine, Journal of Nanoparticle Research.

Molecular nanotechnology is a technology using molecular manufacturing, based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specification by means of mechanosynthesis. It would involve combining physical principles demonstrated by chemistry, nanotechnologies, and the molecular machinery of life with the systems engineering principles found in modern macroscale factories.

Journals related to Molecular nanotechnology

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, Nanotechnology, Science and Applications, Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology Law and Business, 2003 Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show – Nanotech 2003, 2004 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show – NSTI Nanotech 2004, Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine, Nami Jishu yu Jingmi Gongcheng/Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering, IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine, Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, Cancer Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanotechnology.

Polymer nanocomposites consist of a polymer or copolymer having Nano particles dispersed in the polymer matrix. Polymer nanotechnology group will develop enabling techniques for the patterning of functional surfaces.

Journals related to Polymer Nanotechnology

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, Nanomedicine, International Journal of Nanomedicine, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine and Nanotechnology, European Journal of Nanomedicine, Open Nanomedicine Journal, Nature Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, International Journal of Nanotechnology, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology.

Nanoelectronics refers to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components and it covers a diverse set of devices and materials. They are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively.

Journals related to Nanoelectronics

Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering.

Nanodevices are the critical enablers that allow mankind to exploit the ultimate technological capabilities of magnetic, electronic, mechanical, and biological systems. Nanodevices will ultimately have an enormous impact on our ability to enhance energy conversion, produce food, control pollution, and improve human health and longevity.

Journals related to Nanodevices

Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering.

Nanosensors are chemical and mechanical sensors that can be used to detect the presence of chemical species and nanoparticles. These are any biological or surgery sensory points used to convey information about nanoparticles to the macroscopic world.

Journals related to Nanosensors

Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nano Research & Applications.

Nanorobotics is the technology of creating robots or machines at or close to the scale of nanometer. Nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering of designing and building nanorobots. Nanomachines are largely in the research and development phase.

Journasl related to Nanorobotics

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering.

Nanofabrication is the design and manufacture of devices with dimensions measured in nanometers. One nanometer is a millionth of millimeter. Topics of interest for Nanofabrication are all aspects of lithographic methods aiming at the submicron- to nanoscale, and the application of the created structures and devices in physical and biomedical experiments.

Journals related to Nanofabrication

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering.

Nanolithography is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanometer-scale structures and art of etching, writing, or printing at the microscopic level. The dimensions of characters are on the order of nanometers.

Journals related to Nanolithography

Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Journal of Electrical Engineering and Electronic Technology, Nano Research & Applications.

Nanotoxicology is a branch of bioscience deals with the study and applications of toxicity of nanomaterials.Because of quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. Nanotoxicity is toxic effect of nanomaterial on biological system and environment.

Journals related to Nanotoxicology

Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs, Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery.

Green nanotechnology is technology used to enhance the environmental sustainability of process producing negative externalities that include green nano products used in support of sustainability. This green nanotechnology described as the development of clean technologies to minimize potential environment and human health risks with the use of nanotechnology products.

Journals related to Green Nanotechnology

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs, Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery

Nanotechnology is being employed in the pharmaceutical field for many reasons. The leading goals are to improve drug solubility or bioavailability or delivery to various sites of action. It provides two basic types of nanotools, those are nanomaterials and nanodevices.

Journals related to Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs, Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery

Nanoethics is a emerging field of study that concerns with the study of ethical and social implications of nanoscale science and technology. With these implications of Nanotechnologies, there has always been the need of regulation concerned with the associated risks. Nanoethics focus on these public and policy issues related to the Nanotechnology research and development.

Journals related to Nanoethics

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs, Journal of Regenerative Medicine, Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery

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Nanotechnology Journals | Scholarly articles list | Nanomaterials

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

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