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Alan Watts – Existence is Quite Weird and Why the Apple Tree Apples Fall, Philosophy and Spirituality

Posted: June 18, 2017 at 7:36 pm



Alan Watts - Existence is Quite Weird and Why the Apple Tree Apples Fall, Philosophy and Spirituality from Endocrinology Hormone Clinic on Vimeo.

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Technocalpyse Part 1, 2, 3

Posted: January 24, 2016 at 7:16 am

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The Ethics of the Future: Human Genetic Engineering and Human Immortality Medicine is Coming in 19 years!!

Posted: January 1, 2015 at 12:46 pm

The Ethics of the Future: Genetic Engineering and Immortality Medicine

2015 is Going to Be a Fascinating Year for Longevity Science

By Professor Mark

How do you feel about the potential for great advances in Human Longevity Science that have been occurring in recent years? Do you feel excited about the prospect of living a much longer life, or are you indifferent? Are you nervous about the prospects of what this sort of tinkering with genetics and human nature might bring?

Is the potential for a vastly expanded lifespan going to be something that everyone can enjoy, or will it be an advantage simply for those that can afford it? If you could live 100 years longer, would you want to? Would you care if the opportunity were afforded to you as an individual? Would such a huge opportunity lead to a new and beautiful life on earth, or would earth somehow take these momentous advantages and turn the world on its head?

My Beliefs Regarding Advanced Genetic Engineering

Many years ago, when I was an undergraduate at Penn State, our professor posited similar questions in our Genetics Class, which played a major role in affecting my beliefs toward the subject of hyper-longevity and Genetic Engineering. The class was large, with more than 100 students, and my professor asked the class what their opinions were regarding the use of genetic manipulation and engineering to alter human life.

Surprisingly, the class was completely silent. In response to this silence, the professor called up two students to debate the subject. One of my classmates volunteered to voice his opposition to genetic engineering, and I chose to volunteer, providing an argument in favor of it.

My opponent voiced his opinion to the class that genetic engineering for this purpose would be ethically wrong because it is not in man's best interest to play God. Most of our classmates seemed to agree, nodding subtly in agreement.

Personal Aesthetic: Choosing to Be Different

I felt as though I was standing upon a grand crossroads of history. As I looked around the class, it felt as though all of my classmates, for all of their cliquish differences, were being incredibly closed-minded, like they just accepted what they had been told all their lives and were afraid to think for themselves.

After the professor gauged the response of the students, I had my opportunity to argue in favor of this advanced human genetic engineering. I glanced around the class, and felt my argument come together cleanly in my mind. I saw white girls with bleached hair stretching down their backs, more than a few of which had fake breasts. I saw black girls with expensive weaves and complex and expensive hairstyles.

There were white students mimicking their hip hop and rap idols, and I even saw a young Asian student that had very obviously dyed her hair red. In my class I saw a great commingling of different styles. People both attempting to exemplify American standards of beauty and those taking on the aspects of other cultures, adopting them as their own.

As I looked around at all of this, recognizing the great diversity in my class, I had a strong feeling that there was not one person in the class that didn't have at least one thing they wanted to alter about the characteristics they were born with. I continued thinking to myself, that these students probably wanted to be different in a variety of different ways: some wanted to be smarter, some taller. Some girls wish they had larger breasts, and some guys wanted larger penises. Others probably wish that they didn't have to go through the trouble to put in contacts and hair dyes to look like the person they wish they were. For myself, I would have given anything just to be a few inches taller.

A Call for Genetic Freedom

After standing quietly for a moment, with all of these thoughts running through my at head a rapid place, I spoke from my position, in the back of the class, and suddenly stated loudly: Genetic Freedom!

I felt that just those two words spoke for themselves, but my professor threw a dejected glance in my direction, and I could detect her shaking her head almost imperceptibly. Her silence was a sign that she needed more. After the brief silence, I continued. I argued to the class that the individual should have full control to alter his DNA as he sees fit, so long as it doesn't negatively impact society or the rights of anyone else.

She seemed thoroughly unhappy with the argument, and the class began to chatter loudly, nearly in unison. After the short spate of controlled chaos, the class continued with liveliness and energy, but I felt that others in the class largely shunned me as a result of the fervent beliefs I expressed in regard to what legitimately amounted to the potential future of the human race.

Will People Be Able to Resist Genetic Alteration?

I still laugh to myself to this day about how my belief met such incredulity in the face of so many. In the future, once science makes it possible to make such powerful changes to humanity at the genetic level, I am confident that these same students, if given the actual opportunity to improve themselves through futuristic genetic methods, would absolutely jump at the chance with no second thought.

It wouldn't be Playing God. It wouldn't be unethical. It would simply be the new reality. In fact, once the time comes to pass when Genetic Alteration becomes a reality, the exact same people today that seek out plastic surgery and cosmetic surgery will clamor for these procedures as soon as they become available. In the end, I believe I made a B in the course, which is regretful, because I've always remained highly interested in genetics.

The Future of Humanity: The Organic and the Engineered

Another of my professors at Penn State, himself with a doctorate in genetics, explained an interesting aspect of human evolution, one which I had never thought of before. He explained that the many races that make up humanity as a whole developed their differences as a result of dispersing far from one another, and slowly adapting to their new environments over time.

After they migrated, geography, distance, and other factors kept them from interacting heavily with one another, which caused their minor adaptations to become more pronounced. In the same way that they developed their own habits and cultures, their aesthetic and physical makeup also changed. Some grew taller, others grew paler, and each individual culture became maximally resistant to the diseases which were prominent in their area.

Even though these physical and genetic changes were significant, any healthy woman on earth could still mate with any other healthy man, no matter how different he looked or acted. What he said that truly sparked my mind was that if the different races of human beings stayed geographically isolated from one another for longer period of time, eventually the different races could have changed enough to where they could no longer produce children with one another.

Could Genetically Engineered Humans Evolve Beyond Humanity?

This can also apply to the future of genetic engineering. The modern world is so interconnected that geography has no impact on the ability of humans to breed with one another, but genetic enhancement may lead to a point at which a human born today would not be able to mate with an individual that was the result of generations of genetically altered parents.

As Genetic Engineering becomes more advanced, humans may change enough at the genetic level to prevent interbreeding between lineages which have undergone these advancements and those that chose not to. This change would of course be gradual, first reducing the ability to conceive before denying that ability altogether. At this point, it would take genetic engineering just to create a viable child for two disparate humans. Interestingly enough, it may even come to pass that different species of humans evolve from such endeavors, as distinct from one another as they are from humans themselves.

The beginning of this story could begin sometime in the next hundred years, as scientists and medical specialists develop the ability to safely and effectively alter DNA to meet the specifications of the individual.

The Future is Coming: the Great Human Divergence and the Neo-Sapient

The people that choose to reject Genetic Modification and Advanced Longevity Treatments in the near future will create an interesting binary world. This could be the beginning of a grand human experiment. This could be the focal point of a genetic divergence so strong that it literally fragments the human race, creating a new class of post-humans that have advanced to a point where they qualify as their own unique species.

I think back to the genetics course I mentioned earlier. I remember the absolute ocean of diversity that was contained within the 100-student course, and I was able to visualize a future in which Genetic Modification leads to even greater diversity, and a uniqueness that has never existed in the history of the human race. It made me think of the diversity of the universe, and the unlimited options for diversity that it represents. As someone with an affinity for astronomy, I find it utterly inconceivable that planet earth is home to the only lifeforms in the universe.

Of course, along with my great optimism, I do recognize that there are risks and unknowns related to the future of Genetic Modification. There is even the potential that the science behind Genetic Modification could be used for Genetic Warfare. There is certainly the potential that the same science that creates a new humanity could be used to destroy large swathes of it. I can imagine an apocalypse that is not nuclear and grandiose, but genetic and nanoscopic.

Post-Humanism and the Search For Other Worlds

In the end, will humans be able to develop interplanetary travel and colonization in order to insure itself against such potential apocalyptic scenarios? It's a subject that I am particularly concerned with, and is the core reason why I support NASA and the United States Space Program. As the world moves faster and the dangers become greater, it is imperative that we are able to save humanity even in the case of a state of mutually assured destruction.

If there truly is a Genetic Revolution on the horizon, it is vitally important that we use all of the resources we have available in order to make our dreams of space colonization a reality. Imagine a future so spectacular: A future where a multitude of post-human species advance outward from earth in order to colonize space like a rainbow across the galaxy.

This journey will be arduous and epic, as earthlings spread across the cosmos in order to find new viable homes and potentially interact with other life forms.

What Would Aliens Be Like?

Can you imagine how literally otherworldly that would be? If we found advanced aliens, would they have unlocked the key to eternity? Would we have done the same? There is no doubt that the first time that we make contact with an extraterrestrial species, they will come from worlds and cultures which are absolutely unimaginable in the face of everything that we have experienced.

I may have delved a bit into the realm of science fiction, but the future of humanity in the face of Genetic Modification has the potential to be every bit as exciting and otherworldly as the potential future that I just described. It instills a tremendous sense of fear, awe, and most importantly, unlimited potential.

Do You Think That You Could Handle Immortality?

If you ask the average person out on the street about the potential future afforded by Genetic Engineering, Advanced Longevity, and Immortality medicine, you'll likely get a number of different responses, some positive, some negative, others simply incredulous. If you surveyed 100 people, I believe that you would find that the majority would ultimately reject the idea of immortality.

Some people think that eternity would take the excitement out of life. Others fear that they would eventually just become a broken shell of their former selves as their bodies physically decline in spite of science's ability to prevent death. For many, the concept of eternity is just as fearsome as the concept of death itself. It's not all that different from the way that people feel about retirement these days. They are frustrated because they have to work so hard all through the healthiest part of their lives only to be too frail and broken down by the time they retire to enjoy it.

Longevity Medicine and the Future

That's why Longevity Medicine is so important. We want our retirement years to last as long as possible, and we want to be able to enjoy them. Maybe one day, we will be retired as long in our lives as we are at work, or longer! That's what the approach to immortality will be like!

There are a growing number of people that are optimistic about a lengthy future. They understand that even with regard to a concept like immortality, life is the sum of individual experience. Some will take advantage of a life bordering on immortality, while others would simply choose to be boring. People that live lives full of happiness and vitality shouldn't be deprived the opportunity to extend that joy, simply because there are others who wouldn't appreciate it!

The arguments stemming from the subject of Human Immortality continue to become both more interesting and more complex, both for those that long for such a fate, and those that oppose the concept. No matter how you feel about the idea of Advanced Longevity, there is no doubt that such opportunities to live lives we now consider unimaginable will eventually come to pass.

As long as human beings are able to engage in scientific advancement without destroying ourselves or sending ourselves back to the stone age, such opportunities will present themselves to the human race in the near future.

Gene Therapy and Stem Cell Therapy: The First Steps to Hyperlongevity

The seeds of these future endeavors are being planted today, in the fields of gene therapy, genetic medicine, and stem cell therapy. This is also the core concept behind medical treatments which seek to optimize hormone production in the body in order to alleviate the medical conditions associated with hormone imbalance and aging.

Hormone Replacement Therapy: Streamline Your Body for the Future!

Treatments such as Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Sermorelin Acetate Therapy, and Bio-Identical Human Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy seek to correct common hormonal imbalances that occur as a result of the aging process. There is even a strong argument that these hormone imbalances are actually the root cause of many symptoms of aging, including frailty, osteoporosis, and cognitive decline.

There are many Health, Wellness, and Longevity Physicians that believe that these forms of Hormone Replacement Therapy are some of the must effective means to prolong a healthy and active life when used in combination with a healthy and conscientious lifestyle. These medical treatments are the best way to decrease your mortality risk so that you are more likely to experience the next great advancement in Anti-Aging Medicine.

If you feel that your quality of life has been on the decline as a result of changes in your body and mind resulting from the aging process, I strongly encourage you to get your hormone levels checked, because there is a significant chance that you may be suffering from a reversible form of hormone deficiency.

The Future of Human Genetic Engineering

This is truly an exciting time to be alive. We are quickly approaching the point at which scientific breakthroughs in health science will continue to occur at an ever-increasing pace, with groundbreaking new health advances occurring on a regular basis. The following years will be incredibly interesting, because there are a multitude of clinical trials regarding the promise and potential effectiveness of both gene therapy and stem cell therapy.

By 2012, these studies, and other similar studies, were already displaying high levels of potential to both treat and protect both animals and humans from disease. Beyond Hormone Optimization and Genetic Therapy, the next stage of advancement will most likely be in the field of nanomedicine. Beyond nanomedicine is femtomedicine.

At this stage of scientific inquiry, this is as far as even the most forward-thinking physician or philosopher could imagine, but there is no doubt as we create new medical treatments and expend our knowledge of medical science, new opportunities for advancement will be conceptualized that could be even more life-altering and fantastic than those that we just mentioned.

When you consider the future of medicine and longevity, you realize that human beings as they are now aren't simply the end result of millions of years of evolution, but also a gateway to the next state of terrestrial life, a transitional state between what was and what will be, an opportunity to experience even greater consciousness and enlightenment by conquering time, itself.

What is the Idea Behind Human Immortality?

When we discuss the idea of human immortality, it doesn't just mean allowing a human being to live forever, human immortality represents the idea that it will be possible, with future biomedical and genetic enhancements, for human beings to experience a practical immortality in which one is able to live as they were in the prime of their life, for all of their life.

It seems just as you master your body and your mind in the late twenties and early thirties, your body and mind start to enter a slow and unstoppable decline. What if you could preserve that period of physical and psychological perfection forever? It is during this period that the average person reaches his or her functional peak as an individual, with regard to strength, cognitive ability, immunity, and overall health.

How Much Better Would Life Be if You Lived to 200?

Think about how different and exciting that life would be if you could have the body and mind of a 29 year old for 120 years. There are a number of people that think that humans should not have this opportunity, but it sounds much better than spending the whole sum of those years in slow and steady decline.

How Much Better Would Life Be if You Could Live Indefinitely?

Immortalists subscribe to the belief that individuals that truly enjoy life and are creative or passionate enough to find interesting or fulfilling things to do would be able to easily take advantage of a significantly lengthened lifespan. I do understand how such a long life would feel to someone that lacks passion or imagination, however. I can imagine two hundred years of absolutely drudgery. If one does not have the propensity to invest or save to create wealth, I can imagine two hundred years of hard work with nothing to show for it.

With luck, a more automated world would allow us to enjoy our lives while actually working less. Imagine a world of eco-friendly machines could do the work of one hundred men. This could be a wonderful world of leisure for all, but it could also lead to a world where machines are used as a method of control and domination, like in Frank Herbert's dystopian novel Dune.

The Temptation of Human Immortality

Whether the opportunity for Human Immortality comes in twenty years or two hundred years, there will be those that seek out the opportunity for such a life, and there will be those that choose to reject the opportunity for immortality.

The central question that Immortalists posit is a simple one: Why would anyone actually want to die or grow old? When you think of it that way, it sounds absolutely silly. Who would ever want to do such things? But in reality, it seems as though most human beings are resigned to such a fate.

Who Really Wants to Grow Old?

More than simply growing old, who wants to lose their lust for life or their libido? Who wants to experience their own body slowly deteriorate as they are beaten down by illness and disease? Human Immortalists are those that are willing to fight against what is perceived as inevitable by society at large. They believe that those that have resigned themselves to decay and death are simply not willing to imagine a post-human age where they could evolve beyond the inevitability of death.

It seems that many humans think of Human Immortalists as harbingers of doom which are going to bring about a new genocide. They believe that Immortalists are going against the will of God by altering the Human Genetic Code in an attempt to foster extreme lifespans, improved aesthetic, and vastly improved health outcomes.

The Great Schism of Humanity

There is a strong chance that a rift will develop between those that choose genetic alteration and those that choose to forgo such opportunities. In the end, it is likely that humanity will rift into two distinct groups. Over time, greater and greater numbers will opt for Genetic Modification, and those that opt out of such procedures may potentially lose footing in society as a result of their choice.

If modification indeed has the ability to create such disparity, genetically modified humans will spread their genes with one another, and their offspring may have greater potential for both prosperity and intellect, which will create a socioeconomic rift between GM Humans and Unmodified Humans.

Will Post-Humans be able to act ethically under these circumstances? Will Unmodified Humans be able to accept a place in the world where they are unequivocally inferior to their GM counterparts? This new world will be different and exciting, and it's up to us to create a civil world where we can act in the best interest of all.

What Other Strange Opportunities May Become Available in the Future?

On top of our ability to vastly extend and improve our long-term health, the future will also provide us with enhanced opportunities with regard to personal aesthetic. We will not only be able to cure conditions such as psoriasis which plague millions in the world today, but many may choose to move beyond mere optimization and may choose to fully customize their appearance. Perhaps one may choose not to have olive or alabaster skin as many in society desire today, but go for a different color all together.

What if someone chose to color their skin orange, green, or blue? What if they wanted to be leopard print or covered in zebra stripes? This may appear otherworldly and unnatural to our minds, but when presented with an entire array of customization, what would be so strange about doing something like that to stand out? How different would it be to dying your hair blue or rainbow, if there were no dangers in undergoing such a change?

But, given enough time and scientific innovation, skin color and other basic augmentations like genetic breast and penis enlargement will be just another evolution in the concept of general aesthetic. The potential for more extreme changes would eventually become possible. What if humans wanted to take on the characteristics of animals? What if someone wanted the ears or tail of a cat, for example? There would even be the potential to do even more drastic things that we can barely imagine today.

Genetically Engineered Pets

These genetic advancements won't occur in a human vacuum. They will also apply to animals as well. Today people are paying top dollar for basic genetically modified hypo-allergenic dogs, and glow-in-the-dark mammals have even been developed in laboratories.

In the future, it is likely that scientists will come up with scientific modifications which significantly enhance both the aesthetic and intelligence of animals. It's even likely that animals will experience the benefits of genetic engineering more quickly than humans, as this future will largely be facilitated by means of animal testing.

The Post-Human Era Starts with Basic Genetic Engineering and Ends with Post-Humanism, Hyperlongevity, and Potential Immortality

You may not be able to tell, but we are already in the midst of the first phase of the Post-Human era. The beginning of this era was marked by the first time that egg and sperm from two different individuals was combined and implanted into an adoptive mother. It was such a grand event in retrospect, but the passing into this new era was not met with massive celebrations, but simply with concerns over the ethics of the new future.

Post-Humanity will have a litany of moral conundrums to unravel, some that we can imagine, and others that are unfathomable to us today. The state of the mortal mind is simply not equipped to handle the moral and ethical quandaries that the genetically modified mind will face. What if there are other lifeforms just like us in other parts of the galaxy, that have also learned to take control of their very existence on the cellular level? What if the number of unique alien civilizations in the universe is unlimited? What if we as earthlings are just one form of intelligent life among a countless litany of others?

The Current State of Genetic Modification and Gene Therapy

Today, scientists, researchers, and physicians are taking the first step into this future, with the quickly growing field of genetic therapy. We are on the cusp of doing some truly amazing things, like genetically altering viruses in order to protect humans from genetic disorders and conditions. At first, these initial treatments have been risky, reserved for those in most dire need, but as medical science becomes more well-versed in these therapeutic advancements, they will become safer and more widely available to the general public. Could you imagine reducing your risk of cancer by 80% just with a single injection? That may be the future for you.

The Current State of Organ Regeneration and Stem Cell Therapy

Another aspect of genetic therapy has to do with the advancing field of Stem Cell Therapy. There are new, state of the art treatments available which utilize stem cells in order to improve the health of the heart. Patients that have experienced heart attack or heart disease can be treated with stem cells which have the ability to develop into new and healthy muscle tissue.

Similar techniques have also been used in order to regenerate other parts of the body or parts of individual organs. In one famous case, scientists biomanufactured a windpipe for a patient with the patient's own cells. They were able to do this by taking the stem cells and allowing them to grow in culture before pouring them over a scaffold in the shape of a windpipe. Just by providing the cells with the nutrients to grow, they were able to recreate a human windpipe in the laboratory just in a matter of days.

Because the windpipe was created from the patient's own cells, the body did not reject the windpipe when it was surgically implanted into the body. This is one of the first successful cases where a patient's life was changed through the scientific advancements of genetic organ replacement.

Stem Cell Therapy Will Be Available in the Near Future: Hormone Replacement Therapy is Here Today!

Stem Cell Therapy is exciting and will become increasingly common and popular over the next century in the United States. Today, there are a few places where Stem Cell Therapy is available internationally, especially in Asia, but they have yet to be medically certified, and there are still a number of pertinent risks involved. In the Western World, Stem Cell Treatments are currently going through clinical trials. Although the results are mixed, continual progress is being made.

There are many scientists that believe that Stem Cell Research will lead to a new future in medicine, but policies enacted during the presidency of George W. Bush have set the United States behind by at least a decade, and other nations in Europe and Asia are currently taking advantage of their head start, and may one day eclipse us in these new and futuristic medical therapies.

In just a few short years, genetic testing will become affordable enough that it will become a common and recommended part of prenatal care as well as regular checkups throughout the lifespan. Over time, more and more Genetic Disorders will be able to be effectively treated with Gene Therapy, and with every breakthrough, people will be that much more likely to live a longer and healthier life.

Once the clinical science is sound, it won't even be a difficult ordeal for the patient. It would simply be like going to visit the pharmacist, or making a call to a specialist pharmacy. After receiving the medication, one will be able to administer the medication on his or her own and without the frequent oversight of a medical professional.

Not long after these Genetic Treatments are made available to the public, Stem Cell Therapies will quickly become more and more advanced as well. There are even companies that have expressed a desire to take your stem cells and develop them in a laboratory environment. The goal of this treatment would be to take your own stem cells and foster the healthiest cells to multiply. After these cultures are developed, they would be mailed back to you in order for you to inject them to alleviate health conditions and other symptoms related to the aging process.

Beyond Genetic Engineering and Stem Cell Therapies, will come new forms of medical treatment that we are just beginning to research today, but will surely flourish in the coming decades: nanomedicine and femtomedicine.

Nanoscience and the Healthcare of the Future

These are tiny, genetically engineered cellular machines that will be able to improve your health by altering the functions of your body in a positive manner. They will be able to repair and alter particular forms of cells so that they function optimally, even after a period of long life in which you would expect to see physiological breakdown. It is even believed that these treatments can also preserve and repair the brain itself! Isn't that exciting?

There are countless people in the world that have a litany of big dreams, more than they could ever hope to accomplish in a single lifetime in some cases. They have these long checklists of things they want to do in their life, a whole wide world they want to explore. Some have an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, and want to read thousands of books or learn dozens of languages in their life.

There are countless more people that have spent their early lives living on the edge, and suffer from issues such as alcohol dependency or drug addiction which have harmed their bodies and their brains. With these forms of genetic and nanomedicine, it will be possible to repair the bodies and minds of these individuals, allowing them to make a fresh start. It is possible that addiction itself may become a historical curiosity as a result of these medical advances.

What Would Do If You Had 200 More Years to Live?

  • Would you learn to play multiple musical instruments?

  • Would you research for decades in order to write the perfect novel?

  • Would you visit every country on earth?

The number of dreams that humans have yearned for is nearly infinite, and most never live to achieve all of their dreams, if they achieve any of their dreams at all. If you are still alive in the near future, around 2032, you will be able to take full advantage of what Longevity Medicine and Anti-Aging Therapy have to offer!

Some time in the future, we will finally overcome the condition of aging. We will be able to prevent all illness and be able to live in perpetuity, as long as we don't succumb to an accident or similar fate. This is the extreme vision of Immortality Medicine.

The First Immortals Could be Alive Today!

By the time we make it to the 22nd century, there will already be individuals that have taken the road to Hyperlongevity, and there will likely be millions of humans that have taken part in this great leap forward into Post-Humanism. They will not only be healthier, but smarter too, with further advances in Genetic Science that allow us to amplify the capacity of our brains.

As people continue to develop down this evolutionary road, will we even consider them humans anymore? They will represent a new version of humanity, and they will likely use a new term to define themselves, whether that be Neohuman or some other clever word or phrase.

I believe that this advance into Neohumanism will also lead to a new era in space travel and human colonization. With these extensive lifespans, many Neohumans will inevitably turn their eyes to the stars in a desire to find new worlds and discover new lands and extraterrestrial lifeforms. Brave Neohumans from all over the planet will take to interplanetary space vessels in order to colonize and experience new worlds and lands that are beyond the scope of human imagination.

Can I Live to Experience This New Era of Humanity?

All of the things we've discussed may seem incredibly exciting to you, but we understand that these innovations are going to come in the near future. If you want to take part in this grand human experiment, it's important that you live long enough to seize these innovations as they come! There are steps you can take now to alleviate the negative symptoms of the aging process and increase your odds of experiencing the new, human revolution.

My suggestions will not ensure that you will live for the next twenty years or longer, but they will potentially drastically decrease your mortality risk so that you are able to seek out this new and exciting future that we have laid before you.

Today, the door to Neo-Humanism, Hyperlongevity, and even Human Immortality is slightly open, and there are many alive today that will experience these magnificent and life-altering advances.

Will You Take Advantage of the Advances of Hyper-Longevity and Anti-Aging Medicine? Are You Willing to Commit to a Longer and more Youthful Life?

It's quite plain to see that we are at the crest of an event horizon, beyond which it will truly be possible to lengthen lifespans indefinitely. The most important thing is to breach that horizon. By taking steps to increase health and lifespan now, you allow yourself the opportunity to take care of further, greater medical enhancements down the road.

The most modern advances available today are in the form of Recombinant Hormone Replacement Therapies. By optimizing your hormone balance, you increase the odds that you will live long enough to experience the new, up-and-coming breakthroughs of the mid-21st century.

If you live just a few more years, new genetic medical treatments will become available which will significantly increase your lifespan. While you are enjoying the benefit of genetic medicine, researchers and medical scientists will advance and perfect Genetic Therapy and Stem Cell Therapy, allowing you to live even longer!

There are a number of Stem Cell and Gene Therapies going through clinical trials as you read this, which show great promise in preventing or treating serious illnesses which severely inhibit lifespan today. As the medical community becomes more adept at using these new tools for the purpose of treatment, they will begin to utilize these treatments as forms of Positive Medicine.

They will be able to treat patients before they even get sick in order to optimize their health and greatly improve lifespans as a result, because the incidence of illness will decline significantly. In addition, these same treatments will be able to streamline existing physiological processes, keeping the body physiologically stronger and more youthful. They will be able to tailor these treatments uniquely to the individual in order to give the best care to each individual patient.

Stay on the Cutting Edge of Longevity Medicine to Perpetually Extend the Human Lifespan

With each of these breakthroughs and treatments, we will come one step closer to Immortality. Eventually, scientists and researchers will crack the code of human life, and finally figure out how to allow us to truly live indefinitely. It may take 100 years or it may take 500 years to achieve true Immortality, but each life-extending advance will allow people to survive until the next great advance. Hyper-Longevity will eventually become a universal reality, barring accident, war, or any other form of life-ending catastrophe.

You may feel that this is a science fiction world that I am describing, but it very well may be possible for you to experience this all for yourself. It is estimated that at some point between 2032 and 2052 we will have perfected medical practices which allow us to live significantly longer lives than we do today. Those that are optimistic feel that we are just twenty years away from this era, while those that are more cautious suggest that fifty years would be a more reasonable estimate.

Twenty to fifty years may not seem like that long in scientific study, but in terms of your own life, it is a significant period of time. Are you willing to make the sacrifices now in order to experience Hyperlongevity in the near future?

Eight Ways to Extend Your Lifespan

There are a lot of steps that you can take in your life today in order to significantly increase the odds that you survive to experience this new and amazing future. If you follow the suggestions below, conscientiously, you will maximize your potential to extend your life until further longevity advances develop in the coming decades.

These eight factors have been shown to be most important when determining the length of an individual's lifespan:

  • Nutrition

  • Exercise

  • Environment

  • Social Circles

  • Vice

  • Climate

  • Calorie-Restricted Diet

  • Hormone Replacement Therapy

The Diet of the 21st Century: Caloric Restriction and Fasting for a Longer Life

A recent article in Newsmax Health explained that the future of longevity isn't fad dieting or strenuous exercise, but a Calorie-Restricted diet which manages metabolism and ensures a long and healthy life.

Over the last century, there have been more than twenty thousand studies regarding caloric restriction in animal species from around the globe. All of these studies have unequivocally shown that restricting the calories in an animal's diet has the ability to significantly increase the lifespan, and the same appears to apply to human beings..

This may sound like a starvation diet at first, but conscientiously and significantly restricting calories in the human diet is a powerful means to a longer life. Of course, most people consume at least 1500 calories per day and some consume several thousand! But, it appears that the sweet spot for human longevity is quite a bit lower than that 1500 calorie threshold.

For those that are struggling with Caloric Restriction, especially those that are currently overweight, HCG Injections can help relieve the feeling of hunger associated with the initial phase of the diet in order to acclimate to their new dietary lifestyle more effectively.

At first it may seem counter-intuitive, that too much of the Bread of Life can actually shorten the lifespan, but that absolutely seems to be the case. A diet that provides high levels of nutrients through the consumption of a small number of calories is the number one way to increase human longevity effectively. Intermittent Fasting and Caloric Restriction slow down aging and also reduce the incidence of a wide variety of illnesses that plague so many in America today.

The Modern Media and the Culture of Food in the West

In the United States, as well as other countries in the West including the United Kingdom, children were raised in a reality in which starvation was one of the greatest evils of the 19th and 20th century. The various forms of media available all showed the terrible fates of so many who were denied the food needed to live. Nowhere is this imagery more vivid in Western Civilization than in the footage captured after the end of World War II as the true horrors of the Holocaust were revealed to the world at large.

During the Cold War we also experienced further evidence of the horrors of famine as communist Russia and China struggled with providing their populations with proper nutrition, leading countless to die of starvation over many decades. Today, on modern television, there are advertisements for charities throughout Africa and Asia which show the plight of the starving in these third world nations.

I do not mean to discount the real and significant struggles that those that came before us experienced in the not so distant past, but it had a powerful impact on food culture in the West, particularly the idea that it is better to eat too much than too little. In our elementary education and beyond, we are confronted with story after story of mass famine, and it seems that part of the way that we culturally appreciate our current abundance is by partaking in it.

This appreciation for our abundance has led directly to a culture of overeating that borders on obsession. In the West, we simply love our food too much, and the expansion of cuisine in the West has allowed anyone to get whatever they want, when they want it, whether they go to the grocery store, the pizza parlor, or the Chinese buffet.

A Culture of Overeating Develops into a Culture of Force Feeding

Throughout the twentieth century, we have always been taught that we need to eat every last bite on our plates. Often times, we were also strongly encouraged, if not forced, to go back for a second portion. In addition to this, the proliferation of soda drinks has led directly to a significant increase in the empty calories that the average American consumes.

As the twentieth century barreled on, parents on average had less time to cook and prepare meals at home, which led to the greater proliferation of both fast food and microwavable dinners, loaded with sugars, salts, and carbohydrates which increased our caloric consumption even more!

During this age, restaurants like Burger King and McDonald's became the captains of the fast food industry, generating billions of dollars in profit funneling cheap calories into the mouths of men, women, and children all across the country.

Because of all these pressures to overeat, the longevity gains that people in the West experienced as a result of modernization all began to slip away, the combination of unhealthy eating and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle is threatening today's generation with the prospect of living shorter lives than their parents on average!

The United States would be stronger in every way, if it could foster greater consciousness about the importance of eating smarter to eat longer. If we all just made the proactive decision to engage in a lifestyle of at least mild caloric restriction, it would both decrease the price of health care and allow the citizens of this nation to live longer, happier, and healthier lives.

Do You Dream of a Healthier, Happier Life? Contact the Conscious Evolution Institute Today!

If you are a man or woman over the age of thirty and currently live in the United States, the Conscious Evolution Institute can help you improve your health and longevity. We provide Doctor-Monitored Bio-Identical Hormone Replacement Therapy to patients all across the United States.

With just a simple phone call, we can arrange for you to meet with one of our affiliate physicians in order to set you on the road to a new you. We offer a variety of Hormone Replacement options, including Testosterone Replacement Therapy, Human Growth Hormone Injections, Sermorelin Acetate Injections, and HCG Injection Therapy for Weight Loss.

We also provide nutrition and lifestyle counseling in order to help you maximize the results of your treatment by choosing foods, supplements, and exercises that will get your body running on all cylinders!

If you feel that you may be a candidate for Hormone Replacement Therapy, don't hesitate, call us today, and one of our friendly specialists will walk you through the process and answer any and all questions that you may have.

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Caribbean Medical School | Windsor University School of …

Posted: March 18, 2019 at 4:47 am

Have you decided to learn medicine outside of the United States or Canada? An American Caribbean medical school is undoubtedly the best choice for those who are looking to pursue a lucrative career in medicine. Windsor University School of Medicine is located on an island in the Caribbean, St. Kitts, perfect for those who are aiming to pursue accredited MD program and a lucrative career in medicine. WUSOM welcomes students from all over the globe and gives them an opportunity to gain medical knowledge and advanced clinical skills. You will enjoy the perfect weather, beaches, sunshine, outdoor activities, that will help you maintain a study-life balance at campus.

While you will inevitably spend a better part of your waking hours studying, or in the hospital or classroom, you can spare some time to delve in a wide array of local cultures prevalent across the Caribbean.Additionally, the campus groups at most medical schools in the Caribbean are quite involved in local global health outreach. Student groups can cultivate long-term relationships with the Rotary club, clinics, orphanages, and local churches.When you step out of your comfort zone to include people with diverse cultural and economic backgrounds that are poles apart from your own, you set out to become a better physician down the road. When students strive to elevate the level of care they provide to their patients by depicting empathy, it adds to their experience pool.

Windsor University School of Medicine is an accredited Caribbean medical school that is struggling hard to produce talented and qualified doctors by offering quality education, advanced clinical training, and prepare their graduates to practice medicine in different states of the United States and Canada.WUSOM is accredited by the Medical Council and Board of Government of St. Kitts that ensures that medical universities meet and maintain the standards of providing quality education. caribbean medical university is accredited by the Accreditation Board of St. Kitts & Nevis.Windsor University School of Medicine is licensed and chartered by the Ministry of Education and listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools in partnership with FAIMER. It is listed in the World Health Organization Directory of Medical Schools. The ECFMG has also accredited WUSOM. Windsor University has been approved by the Medical Council of Canada and the Medical Council of India.Windsor graduates are eligible to be Education Commission of Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certified and can take the United States Medical Examination (USMLE) and Medical Council of Canada Evaluating Examination (MCCEE). Graduates of WUSOM can also avail the opportunity of participating in the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) and the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS).

Caribbean medical university is one of the best medical schools in the Caribbean region that focus on providing an advanced educational curriculum, state-of-the-art learning technologies, digital classrooms, clinical training, and extensive hands-on patient care that give you a breadth of knowledge and skills that you can apply in real-world settings.If you want to fulfill your dream of becoming a qualified doctor and seeking admission to an American Caribbean medical school, WUSOM would be the best choice!From flexible admission requirements to an easy and hassle-free admission process, affordable tuition fee to financial aid, student career counseling to transportation and on-site psychologist facility, Caribbean medical university provides a lot of facilities that make it one of the best Caribbean medical schools.

In order to gain admission to Caribbean medical university, applicants are required to complete the undergraduate degree from an accredited institution. You should complete a minimum of 90 hours of undergraduate coursework before matriculation.You are required to complete coursework in general biology or zoology, inorganic or general chemistry, organic chemistry or biochemistry, physics, English or the humanities, and mathematics. You are also expected to submit a personal statement, two letters of recommendation, personal activities and achievements.Here is an application checklist you need to apply to WUSOM:Official transcriptCompleted application formMedical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores or similar test (Optional)Two official letters of recommendationPersonal statementCurriculum vitaeTwo passport-sized photos

Official credential evaluation report of transcript through World Education Services (WES)Official report of scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or International English Language Testing System (IELTS)Refundable Security Deposit of $2,000 USD

Did you know that the acceptance rate in Caribbean medical universities is four times more than the acceptance rate in USA? The MCAT scores are a major gatekeeper of US medical admissions. Too many future physicians have witnessed the death of their career due to an over-reliance on the exam.Caribbean medical University believe that a low MCAT score could be due to a plethora of circumstantial reasons and shouldnt be a death sentence for a career in medicine. Even though medical schools in the Caribbean consider these exams as a valuable tool to gauge experience and past performance, they dont snub off applicants just because of their MCAT scores. If you want to study medicine, apply to a Caribbean medical university with no MCAT.

One of the major benefits of applying to a Caribbean medical school that offers rolling admissions is that applications are evaluated in the order in which they are received. At Caribbean medical university, Pre-med and MD program applications are accepted in January, May, and September.

Windsor University School of Medicine is a Caribbean medical school that offers scholarships and special funding support to our brilliant students. We have a number of scholarship opportunities that we offer to suitably qualified students to improve their academic performance such as academic scholarship, clinical academic scholarship, U.S. military veterans scholarship, medical professional scholarship, international student scholarship, and organizational scholarship.

Most medical institutions around the world come with a hefty fee structure that becomes unaffordable for students. On the other hand, Caribbean Medical school of medicine pose an entirely different story. While most believe that federal loan is the best option for borrowers, it is not always a luxury for students who are seeking to support themselves. Therefore, Caribbean universities have established programs that offer medical courses that are easier on the pocket as compared to renowned universities from around the world.WUSOM offers quality medication education at highly affordable tuition cost that make it easier for students all around the globe to fulfill their dream of enrolling in medical education programs. The average tuition cost of Caribbean medical university is $3,990 per semester for the pre-medical program, $4,990 per semester for the basic sciences program, and $6,490 per semester for the clinical sciences program.

WUSOM offers Premedical Science Program that takes four years to complete the premedical Science program. Upon successful completion of 4 semesters of premedical courses, students are eligible to complete the Basic Medical Science program.In Pre-Med I, students will take biology with lab, general chemistry with lab, physics, English, mathematics and pre-calculus.In Pre-Med II, students of WUSOM will learn about cell and molecular biology, inorganic chemistry, calculus, organic chemistry, physics, and history of medicine and DPC -I.In Pre-Med III, students will get the opportunity to learn in-depth medical concept and take courses in biostatistics, organic chemistry with lab, food and nutrition, humanities, cell and molecular biology with lab.In Pre-Med IV, students will prepare for the intensive MD courses and learn about psychology, microbiology and immunology, biochemistry, anatomy and physiology, genetics and nutrition and history of medicine.

After completing Pre-Med Science program, students are eligible to take Basic Science program and strengthen all the concepts they have learned in their Pre-Med courses.In MD I, students will take courses in histology, structural and development anatomy, introduction to clinical medicine and role of physicians in global society.Our MD II curriculum is designed to provide students with an in-depth understanding of medical biochemistry and genetics, principles of bio-medical research and introduction to clinical medicine.The MD III curriculum is based on clinical practice and lab-based learning, providing students to learn about microbiology, pathology, neuroscience, principles of biol-medical research and clinical medicine.In MD IV, students of Windsor University School of Medicine will have the opportunity to study pathology, pharmacology, behavioral sciences and bioethics, preventive medicine and clinical medicine.MD V curriculum prepares students for hospital clerkship so that they will be able to apply the techniques and theories learned throughout MD courses in real-world environment. The will take electives to foster a well-rounded medical education.

One other great benefit of getting educated at a Caribbean medical university is that it offers Offshore Clinical Rotations to all students who are attending college within their respective institutions. They offer them a chance to travel abroad, so that they can gain more hands-on experience from hospitals across recognized countries, such as USA and Canada. Now, if you are a native, what more do you want other than traveling back to your hometown and getting the exact clinical rotation that a Harvard university graduate is getting from a local medical facility.Windsor students have to complete 48 weeks of clinical core clerkships and 24 weeks of elective. They can take clinical clerkship in medicine, surgery, psychiatry, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine to gain an in-depth understanding of the basic areas of the medical field.Students are also required to complete 24 additional weeks of elective clerkships and compulsory selective clerkships. During 24 weeks of elective rotations, students will take rotations in a myriad range of medical specialties such as Cardiology, Nephrology, Neurology, Geriatrics, Hematology & Oncology, Infectious Disease, Pain Management, Geriatrics, Emergency Medicine, Radiology, Dermatology, Pulmonology, Urgent Care, Gastroenterology, Pathology, and Anesthesiology.They will also take clerkships in different surgical specialties inducing Orthopedics, Urology, Neurosurgery, Trauma Surgery, Cardiothoracic surgery, Vascular Surgery, Plastic surgery, ENT, & Ophthalmology.While in selective rotations, student will take clinical clerkships in community medicine, preventive medicine, hospital emergency patient care and research.

Studying in a top medical school in the Caribbean will prepare you for a number of residency positions in competitive medical specialties. Graduating from Windsor University School of medicine will make you eligible to apply for residency programs in almost every medical specialty and subspecialty at renowned teaching hospitals of U.S., Canada and different other countries.Our graduates secure residency placements in medical specialties such as surgery, pediatrics, internal medicine, neurology, psychiatry, family medicine, anesthesiology, obstetrics and gynecology and different other competitive programs.

Besides providing an excellent academic experience and clinical training, Caribbean medical university provide a myriad of student support services to make your time at our campus spectacular. We provide a range of support, advice and other facilities to make your experience about living in St. Kitts.From housing and transportation facilities to career and psychological counselling, we will make sure to provide student support services to our students that will them continue their education and achieve academic excellence. All of these student support services are designed to enhance the overall experience of studying medicine in a Caribbean medical school.

Windsor University School of Medicine is one of the best Caribbean medical schools that strives to provide its students with the latest learning techniques, digital classrooms, video training and interactive course content. Our students have access to an innovative learning environment including hundreds of videos, digital books, tutorials that enable them to learn the intricate medical concepts and enhance their skills.In addition, our state-of-the-art clinical simulation center facilitates interactive learning through medical simulation that helps students to hone their clinical skills. The ultimate goal of providing this cutting-edge facility is to provide our students with realist learning opportunities and prepare them to apply their knowledge and skills in real health care setting.We believe in providing innovative educational curriculum, research opportunities, interactive learning, standardized patient programs and early clinical exposure to provide necessary skills, knowledge and competency for a medical career.

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Jiaogulan: The Little-known Herb That May be the Secret to …

Posted: March 18, 2019 at 4:45 am

Standing on a verdant hillside far north in Thailands Chiang Rai region, I gaze out at rolling hills of jiaogulan, also known as the immortality herb. This name derives from the purported longevity of people living in the mountainous Guizhou province of southwest China, who consume a tea made of steeped jiaogulan leaves on a regular basis. The plant may actually hold a key to longer and healthier life.

Despite its possible benefits for stemming the tide of aging and enhancing youthful health, the plant is not so well known.

Jiaogulan, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, is in the same family of plants as cucumbers and gourds, though the plant bears no fruits. The plant is a climbing vine, and from my vantage point I see the wire fencing supporting the vast quantity of jiaogulan before me, covering perhaps 20 acres or so. The vines have climbed up and over the fencing, covering it all in a thick layering of bright green leaves.

Its the leaves of this plant that are made primarily into tea, and drunk the way one would drink any other infused tea. Known also as amachazuru, jiaoguan is endemic to the southern regions of China, and to parts of Thailand, Vietnam, Korea, Japan. The herb has never really had its day in the sun, as it has never been distributed as widely as other popular botanicals like ginseng.More on this...

This brings up a connection between jiaogulan, the lesser known herb of immortality, and ginseng, the very well-known, longevity-promoting herb. Thanks to some canny scientific inquiry conducted in the 1970s, we know that the two unrelated plants actually share similar compounds known to offer benefits to many aspects of health. We can thank Japanese chemists Masahiro Nagai and Tsunematsu Takemoto for this knowledge. The former made groundbreaking discoveries that the two plants both contained saponins of particular types known to enhance health. The latter identified a very large number of these healthy saponins.

In ginseng, the 28 active saponin compounds in the root are called ginsenosides. In jiaogulan the 82 known saponins are referred to as gypenosides. The former can actually be converted into the latter, and in the human body both groups promote diverse beneficial effects, improving the health of key organ systems.

Jiaogulan offers potent antioxidant protection. When you consume jiaogulan tea, your body increases its production of its own super antioxidant, known as SOD, or superoxide dismutase. This defends and protects the cells of the body from premature destruction due to exposure to harmful agents of all kinds.

Jiaogulan has shown benefits for heart health, enhancing the muscular activity of the heart and improving overall bloodflow. It also helps to reduce LDL cholesterol, while providing a boost to healthy HDL. Jiaogulan proves a top-rated blood pressure control agent, reducing high blood pressure about half as well as the drug indapamide, which is marketed by Servier.

As an adaptogen, jiaogulan increases energy, endurance, stamina, and recovery time, while reducing all forms of mental and emotional stress. It may also help to mitigate jet lag. The tea also appears to help stabilize blood sugar, and is a source of the popular flavonol ampelopsin, which is used to soothe hangovers. As if that were insufficient, jiaogulan is also liver-protective.

Among the 50,000 or so medicinal plants in the world, only a few hundred are popular outside of their native regions. Jiaogulan is now ready to make its way into the global health market on a larger scale, for all the right reasons.

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Jiaogulan: The Little-known Herb That May be the Secret to ...

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Actuaries Longevity Illustrator – Enter Your Information

Posted: March 18, 2019 at 4:44 am

The Longevity Illustrator calculates "Nearest Age" as the whole age you are closest to. For half the year, Nearest Age will be greater than your age on your last birthday. Please set your Illustration Age at least as great as your Nearest Age. If you leave the Illustration Age box blank, the tool automatically calculates longevity information from your Nearest Age. The Illustration Age will be rejected if it exceeds 99 or if the selection would cause Person 2 to be older than 99.

If you are already retired, or are considering retiring soon, you might choose to leave the Illustration Age box blank. However, if you expect to retire at a later date, or you are curious to know what your longevity might look like at some point in the future, you may enter a later age for the illustration to begin. In this case, the tool will assume you will survive to that later age.

For example, if your Nearest Age is 40 and you plan to retire at age 66, then entering age 66 as the age for the illustration to start will forecast results assuming you survive from now until age 66. The Longevity Illustrator allows you to experiment with different possibilities you might find interesting (if, for example, you are considering several different ages at which you might retire).

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Actuaries Longevity Illustrator - Enter Your Information

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

CRISPR: A game-changing genetic engineering technique …

Posted: March 17, 2019 at 5:43 am

Have you heard? A revolution has seized the scientific community. Within only a few years, research labs worldwide have adopted a new technology that facilitates making specific changes in the DNA of humans, other animals, and plants. Compared to previous techniques for modifying DNA, this new approach is much faster and easier. This technology is referred to as CRISPR, and it has changed not only the way basic research is conducted, but also the way we can now think about treating diseases [1,2].

CRISPR is an acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat. This name refers to the unique organization of short, partially palindromic repeated DNA sequences found in the genomes of bacteria and other microorganisms. While seemingly innocuous, CRISPR sequences are a crucial component of the immune systems [3] of these simple life forms. The immune system is responsible for protecting an organisms health and well-being. Just like us, bacterial cells can be invaded by viruses, which are small, infectious agents. If a viral infection threatens a bacterial cell, the CRISPR immune system can thwart the attack by destroying the genome of the invading virus [4]. The genome of the virus includes genetic material that is necessary for the virus to continue replicating. Thus, by destroying the viral genome, the CRISPR immune system protects bacteria from ongoing viral infection.

Figure 1 ~ The steps of CRISPR-mediated immunity. CRISPRs are regions in the bacterial genome that help defend against invading viruses. These regions are composed of short DNA repeats (black diamonds) and spacers (colored boxes). When a previously unseen virus infects a bacterium, a new spacer derived from the virus is incorporated amongst existing spacers. The CRISPR sequence is transcribed and processed to generate short CRISPR RNA molecules. The CRISPR RNA associates with and guides bacterial molecular machinery to a matching target sequence in the invading virus. The molecular machinery cuts up and destroys the invading viral genome. Figure adapted from Molecular Cell 54, April 24, 2014 [5].

Interspersed between the short DNA repeats of bacterial CRISPRs are similarly short variable sequences called spacers (FIGURE 1). These spacers are derived from DNA of viruses that have previously attacked the host bacterium [3]. Hence, spacers serve as a genetic memory of previous infections. If another infection by the same virus should occur, the CRISPR defense system will cut up any viral DNA sequence matching the spacer sequence and thus protect the bacterium from viral attack. If a previously unseen virus attacks, a new spacer is made and added to the chain of spacers and repeats.

The CRISPR immune system works to protect bacteria from repeated viral attack via three basic steps [5]:

Step 1) Adaptation DNA from an invading virus is processed into short segments that are inserted into the CRISPR sequence as new spacers.

Step 2) Production of CRISPR RNA CRISPR repeats and spacers in the bacterial DNA undergo transcription, the process of copying DNA into RNA (ribonucleic acid). Unlike the double-chain helix structure of DNA, the resulting RNA is a single-chain molecule. This RNA chain is cut into short pieces called CRISPR RNAs.

Step 3) Targeting CRISPR RNAs guide bacterial molecular machinery to destroy the viral material. Because CRISPR RNA sequences are copied from the viral DNA sequences acquired during adaptation, they are exact matches to the viral genome and thus serve as excellent guides.

The specificity of CRISPR-based immunity in recognizing and destroying invading viruses is not just useful for bacteria. Creative applications of this primitive yet elegant defense system have emerged in disciplines as diverse as industry, basic research, and medicine.

In Industry

The inherent functions of the CRISPR system are advantageous for industrial processes that utilize bacterial cultures. CRISPR-based immunity can be employed to make these cultures more resistant to viral attack, which would otherwise impede productivity. In fact, the original discovery of CRISPR immunity came from researchers at Danisco, a company in the food production industry [2,3]. Danisco scientists were studying a bacterium called Streptococcus thermophilus, which is used to make yogurts and cheeses. Certain viruses can infect this bacterium and damage the quality or quantity of the food. It was discovered that CRISPR sequences equipped S. thermophilus with immunity against such viral attack. Expanding beyond S. thermophilus to other useful bacteria, manufacturers can apply the same principles to improve culture sustainability and lifespan.

In the Lab

Beyond applications encompassing bacterial immune defenses, scientists have learned how to harness CRISPR technology in the lab [6] to make precise changes in the genes of organisms as diverse as fruit flies, fish, mice, plants and even human cells. Genes are defined by their specific sequences, which provide instructions on how to build and maintain an organisms cells. A change in the sequence of even one gene can significantly affect the biology of the cell and in turn may affect the health of an organism. CRISPR techniques allow scientists to modify specific genes while sparing all others, thus clarifying the association between a given gene and its consequence to the organism.

Rather than relying on bacteria to generate CRISPR RNAs, scientists first design and synthesize short RNA molecules that match a specific DNA sequencefor example, in a human cell. Then, like in the targeting step of the bacterial system, this guide RNA shuttles molecular machinery to the intended DNA target. Once localized to the DNA region of interest, the molecular machinery can silence a gene or even change the sequence of a gene (Figure 2)! This type of gene editing can be likened to editing a sentence with a word processor to delete words or correct spelling mistakes. One important application of such technology is to facilitate making animal models with precise genetic changes to study the progress and treatment of human diseases.

Figure 2 ~ Gene silencing and editing with CRISPR. Guide RNA designed to match the DNA region of interest directs molecular machinery to cut both strands of the targeted DNA. During gene silencing, the cell attempts to repair the broken DNA, but often does so with errors that disrupt the geneeffectively silencing it. For gene editing, a repair template with a specified change in sequence is added to the cell and incorporated into the DNA during the repair process. The targeted DNA is now altered to carry this new sequence.

In Medicine

With early successes in the lab, many are looking toward medical applications of CRISPR technology. One application is for the treatment of genetic diseases. The first evidence that CRISPR can be used to correct a mutant gene and reverse disease symptoms in a living animal was published earlier this year [7]. By replacing the mutant form of a gene with its correct sequence in adult mice, researchers demonstrated a cure for a rare liver disorder that could be achieved with a single treatment. In addition to treating heritable diseases, CRISPR can be used in the realm of infectious diseases, possibly providing a way to make more specific antibiotics that target only disease-causing bacterial strains while sparing beneficial bacteria [8]. A recent SITN Waves article discusses how this technique was also used to make white blood cells resistant to HIV infection [9].

Of course, any new technology takes some time to understand and perfect. It will be important to verify that a particular guide RNA is specific for its target gene, so that the CRISPR system does not mistakenly attack other genes. It will also be important to find a way to deliver CRISPR therapies into the body before they can become widely used in medicine. Although a lot remains to be discovered, there is no doubt that CRISPR has become a valuable tool in research. In fact, there is enough excitement in the field to warrant the launch of several Biotech start-ups that hope to use CRISPR-inspired technology to treat human diseases [8].

Ekaterina Pak is a Ph.D. student in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences program at Harvard Medical School.

1. Palca, J. A CRISPR way to fix faulty genes. (26 June 2014) NPR [29 June 2014]

2. Pennisi, E. The CRISPR Craze. (2013) Science, 341 (6148): 833-836.

3. Barrangou, R., Fremaux, C., Deveau, H., Richards, M., Boyaval, P., Moineau, S., Romero, D.A., and Horvath, P. (2007). CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. Science 315, 17091712.

4. Brouns, S.J., Jore, M.M., Lundgren, M., Westra, E.R., Slijkhuis, R.J., Snijders, A.P., Dickman, M.J., Makarova, K.S., Koonin, E.V., and van der Oost, J. (2008). Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes. Science 321, 960964.

5. Barrangou, R. and Marraffini, L. CRISPR-Cas Systems: Prokaryotes Upgrade to Adaptive Immunity (2014). Molecular Cell 54, 234-244.

6. Jinkek, M. et al. A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. (2012) 337(6096):816-21.

7. CRISPR reverses disease symptoms in living animals for first time. (31 March 2014). Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. [27 July 2014]

8. Pollack, A. A powerful new way to edit DNA. (3 March 2014). NYTimes [16 July 2014]

9. Gene editing technique allows for HIV resistance? [13 June 2014]

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Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine – Dove Press

Posted: March 15, 2019 at 5:45 pm

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Original Research

Galvez JM, Restrepo CM, Contreras NC, Alvarado C, Caldern-Ospina CA, Pea N, Cifuentes RA, Duarte D, Laissue P, Fonseca DJ

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2018, 11:169-178

Published Date: 16 October 2018

Sychev DA, Levanov AN, Shelekhova TV, Bochkov PO, Denisenko NP, Ryzhikova KA, Mirzaev KB, Grishina EA, Gavrilov MA, Ramenskaya GV, Kozlov AV, Bogoslovsky T

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2018, 11:167-168

Published Date: 26 September 2018

Sychev DA, Levanov AN, Shelekhova TV, Bochkov PO, Denisenko NP, Ryzhikova KA, Mirzaev KB, Grishina EA, Gavrilov MA, Ramenskaya GV, Kozlov AV, Bogoslovsky T

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2018, 11:127-137

Published Date: 25 July 2018

Hernandez-Suarez DF, Botton MR, Scott SA, Tomey MI, Garcia MJ, Wiley J, Villablanca PA, Melin K, Lopez-Candales A, Renta JY, Duconge J

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2018, 11:95-106

Published Date: 8 June 2018

Kryukov AV, Sychev DA, Andreev DA, Ryzhikova KA, Grishina EA, Ryabova AV, Loskutnikov MA, Smirnov VV, Konova OD, Matsneva IA, Bochkov PO

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2018, 11:43-49

Published Date: 22 March 2018

Original Research

St Sauver JL, Olson JE, Roger VL, Nicholson WT, Black III JL, Takahashi PY, Caraballo PJ, Bell EJ, Jacobson DJ, Larson NB, Bielinski SJ

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:217-227

Published Date: 24 July 2017

Zastrozhin MS, Brodyansky VM, Skryabin VY, Grishina EA, Ivashchenko DV, Ryzhikova KA, Savchenko LM, Kibitov AO, Bryun EA, Sychev DA

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:209-215

Published Date: 7 July 2017

Chidambaran V, Zhang X, Martin LJ, Ding L, Weirauch MT, Geisler K, Stubbeman BL, Sadhasivam S, Ji H

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:157-168

Published Date: 9 May 2017

Mirzaev KB, Zelenskaya EM, Barbarash OL, Ganyukov VI, Apartsin KA, Saraeva NO, Nikolaev KY, Ryzhikova KA, Lifshits GI, Sychev DA

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:107-114

Published Date: 12 April 2017

Original Research

Sychev DA, Shuev GN, Suleymanov SS, Ryzhikova KA, Mirzaev KB, Grishina EA, Snalina NE, Sozaeva ZA, Grabuzdov AM, Matsneva IA

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:93-99

Published Date: 31 March 2017

Review

Prince AER, Cadigan RJ, Henderson GE, Evans JP, Adams M, Coker-Schwimmer E, Penn DC, Van Riper M, Corbie-Smith G, Jonas DE

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:49-60

Published Date: 20 February 2017

Original Research

Takahashi PY, Ryu E, Pathak J, Jenkins GD, Batzler A, Hathcock MA, Black JL, Olson JE, Cerhan JR, Bielinski SJ

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2017, 10:39-47

Published Date: 14 February 2017

Original Research

Frick A, Fedoriw Y, Richards K, Damania B, Parks B, Suzuki O, Benton CS, Chan E, Thomas RS, Wiltshire T

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2015, 8:81-98

Published Date: 26 February 2015

Original Research

Penney RB, Lundgreen A, Yao-Borengasser A, Edavana VK, Williams S, Dhakal I, Wolff RK, Kadlubar S, Slattery ML

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2014, 7:163-171

Published Date: 14 July 2014

Review

Sechler M, Cizmic AD, Avasarala S, Van Scoyk M, Brzezinski C, Kelley N, Bikkavilli RK, Winn RA

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 2013, 6:25-36

Published Date: 4 April 2013

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Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine - Dove Press

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

1st Mediterranean Congress of Anti-aging Medicine 13-14 …

Posted: March 14, 2019 at 9:45 pm

Dear friends and colleagues,

On behalf of the European Society of Preventive, Regenerative and Anti-Aging Medicine, the Larnaca Medical Association and the National Gerontology Center, we are excited to invite you to join us for the 1st Mediterranean Congress of Anti-aging Medicine, taking place in Larnaca, between 13th and 14th of April 2019.

This is the first time a conference with such a wide-ranging theme on ageing is held in Cyprus. The health of older people is a crucial subject which involves a multidisciplinary approach in order to offer effective treatments against age-related diseases. The conference is compact, comprehensive and practical, involving both basic science and clinical therapies. Lectures, presentations and seminars will be delivered by world-class academics, and by clinicians of European prestige. It will be attended by scientists working in the biology of ageing both from Cyprus and from Europe/Middle East, as well as clinicians, nurses, carers, health professionals and others with interest in applied, effective interventions which may help reduce the impact of ageing on society. We expect wide media coverage as well as publicity reaching beyond Cyprus in countries such as Russia, Israel, Middle East as well as the mainland Europe.

Dr Marios KyriazisConference Chair

The Congress is under the auspices of the Minister of Health Mr Constandinos Ioannou

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1st Mediterranean Congress of Anti-aging Medicine 13-14 ...

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith


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