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The Afghans have been confronting war and instability for decades. How can this question be solved? This is a big question mark. Many attempts were made in the last five decades yet it did not yield any promising outcomes. An important aspect that has always provided for instability is an imbalance on the governmental level. This imbalance has been resenting the power structure of the society on the national level and neighbouring countries on the international level due to its tilt to one country or the other that in turn always resulted in chaos.
During the premiership of Sardar Daoud from 1953 to 1963, Afghan relations with Pakistan were at its lowest ebb due to the Pashtunistan issue of which Daoud was a staunch supporter. His policies greatly resented the policymakers in Islamabad. When he took charge of the new Republic in 1973 after a bloodless coup, it alarmed Islamabad. Thus, Pakistan started hosting anti-Daoud leaders: Ahmed Shah Masoud, Burhanuddin Rabbani, Gulbadin Hikmatyar, and Abdur-Rab Rauf Siyaf among others.
In the initial years of Daouds rule as president and prime minister, he was challenged by these leaders forces, backed by Pakistan. Furthermore, his pro-Communist policies startled the religious circle of the Afghan traditional society that too went against his position. This imbalance in his policies, both domestic and foreign, resulted in the overthrow of his government by the Saur Revolution in April 1978. If he had balance in his domestic and foreign policy, the situation could have been different and even thwarted the Soviet invasion, which happened due to the weak government of the Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA).
The short period of the PDPA government, too, could not deliver and failed to produce a consensus and convince the masses due to its tilt towards the Soviets and radical changes in the system that were resented by the masses. The balance in policies once again felt missed and this further indulged the country into a chaos that provided for the Soviet invasion in late December 1979.
A balanced approach from the Ghani-led unity government is needed to help build peace and stability in Afghanistan
The Soviet invasion gave birth to the installation of Babrak Karmal as president. He was too near to the Soviets yet the situation was changed due to an indirect confrontation of the two superpowers on Afghan soil. When the Soviets were negotiating for a withdrawal, they installed Najibullah as president in 1986, who remained in government till his resignation in April 1992. This time, the country was in an internal war in the name of Jihad against the Soviets while externally, both the governments, Babrak and Najib were pro-Communist. The lack of a balanced approach towards the regional countries was missing.
The fall of the Najibullah government led to the Mujahideens fragile government, which didnt even allow the prime minister, Gulbadin Hikmatyar, to enter Kabul. The factional fighting provided a ground to the Taliban to emerge in late 1994 and followed their sweeping victories over areas resulting in taking Kabul in September 1996. The Taliban government, although quite opposite to those of the Soviet-backed Babrak and Najib governments, too lacked balanced policies. If on one hand, Talibans strict policies resented the Afghan masses, on the other hand, their tilt towards Pakistan was alarming for other neighbouring and regional states, like Russia, Iran, and India, backing the Northern Alliance, an anti-Taliban faction. The Taliban administration failed to tailor a friendly approach towards the regional countries in general and the west in particular, which met with the collapse in post-9/11 developments.
The post-9/11 setting was different from the previous eras. The government was backed by the leading powers in general and the US in particular. The real in-charge was the US that reversed the previous policies by giving India and the Northern Alliance a major role in the Afghan arena that was not acceptable for Pakistan, thus, providing for imbalance. The question was not the Indian-Northern Alliance carte blanche yet it provided for the imbalance by putting policymakers in Islamabad in the dilemma that the Afghan soil will be used by anti-Pakistan elements; putting Pakistans security at risk. No state can take risks vis--vis its security-related matters at any cost. Throwing Pakistans security concerns in the backyard by the US provided for many issues inside Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Moreover, the post-9/11 Taliban insurgency gave a tough time to the US for years that resulted in a reversal from their previous approach towards the issue. The US approach was militaristic in the first eight years of engagement in Afghanistan on one hand and the imbalance in the role of regional countries in Afghanistan on the other. Furthermore, their approach was lacking any balance both inside and outside Afghanistan. Inside Afghanistan, they relied mostly on warlords and outside, they mostly relied on military approach and Indias role in Afghanistan. If they had created any balanced policies for Afghanistan vis--vis regional and neighbouring states, the situation in Afghanistan might have been different from the current one.
The US, after one and half decades, realised the point: the path to peace in Afghanistan goes through reconciliation that can be achieved through Pakistans cooperation. Certainly, Pakistans role in Afghanistan will not exclude other powers to play their constructive role in Afghanistan but will limit any threats animating from Afghanistan against the former by shaping a balanced picture. Even a hostile relationship between Pakistan and Afghanistan is not in favour of any state. The prominent example is the peace process where Pakistan has played a key role, acknowledged by all the actors on both sides in the conflict.
Following Washingtons realisation of the Afghan imbroglio, their policies seem balanced: they dont blame the Taliban for terror acts without any proof as the Afghan leaders do. They acknowledge Pakistans backing of the peace process with the Taliban. The policymakers in Washington know albeit with some suspicion the Taliban are indigenous and cannot be excluded from the Afghan soil. Nonetheless, the Afghan leadership is reluctant to realise these ground realities that are placing the Afghan masses in trouble in the score of violence.
Furthermore, Kabul lacks a clear-cut policy for the peace process with the Taliban due to multiple factors: the political division and the rigid attitude of the leadership towards the Taliban. Secondly, they see the Taliban in quite different lenses: calling them Pakistans puppets. A ground realisation is the need of the hour in Kabul: acknowledge the Taliban as Afghans and indeed they are. They are not the Taliban of the 1990s, they are moderated and want to play a constructive role inside Afghanistan according to their claims. And if we go for a minus-Taliban Afghanistan, it will throw back the country into more bloodshed.
Two possible and reasonable ways can be adopted for the control of any insurgency: crushing them and negotiating with them. If the Afghan government can crush the insurgency, they should go for it but it doesnt seem possible because it was even not possible for the US. Therefore, the best way is a negotiating settlement rather than prolonging this decades-long war as the Afghans cant tolerate it further. A balanced approach from the Ghani-led unity government is needed to help build peace and stability in Afghanistan. Any propaganda tactics or bashing of any state or Taliban wont contribute to peace.
In essence, the US-backed Afghan government in the first place should draw the model from their backer, who paved the way for the conflict through negotiation, not by force. Secondly, they need a balanced approach towards its neighbours and regional countries that will help them resolve the Afghan imbroglio rather than complicating it. Although a balance in Kabuls approach doesnt seem to be in place, it needs to be. Tilt towards any regional state cannot provide security to Afghanistan. If something can make peace and stability possible, its a balanced approach at home and abroad towards the stakeholders. Further delay in the intra-Afghan talks is resulting in the suffering of the Afghan populace. The question is not of the Taliban exclusion or inclusion in the future set-up. The real question is of a balanced approach that will ensure the security of the Afghans by adopting a viable option.
Zafar Iqbal Yousafzai is an independent researcher and columnist. He tweets @yousafzaiZafar. Dr Rahat Iqbal is an Assistant Professor of International Relations, Muslim Youth University, Islamabad
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The anatomy of the Afghan imbroglio: A way forward - Daily Times
Introducing the Anatomage Table Companion App To Visualize Real Human Anatomy with an iPad – PRNewswire
Anatomage created the Anatomage Table Companion App to bring the world's most accurate digital cadaver to the iPad. All of the functionality and content is derived from the award-winning Anatomage Table platform. The Anatomage Table Companion app will introduce a real male cadaver with the functionality and content highlighted below:
Anatomage Table Companion is designed to complement the utilization of the Anatomage Table. The app is a solution to aid Table users who are unable to access their physical Table. By allowing Table users to review anatomy concepts at home, the app supplements in-class lessons that are incorporated with the Anatomage Table. Anatomage Table Companion provides essential anatomy knowledge for all medical disciplines.
For more information about the app, please visit here.
A market leader in medical imaging technology, Anatomage enables an ecosystem of 3D anatomy hardware and software, allowing users to visualize anatomy at the highest level of accuracy. Through its highly innovative products, Anatomage is transforming standard anatomy learning, medical diagnosis and treatment planning.
Media Contact:Jack Choi CEO Anatomage Inc. Phone: 1-408-885-1474, Email:[emailprotected]www.anatomage.com
Keeping it positive. While simultaneously running season 3 of Station 19 and season 16 of Greys Anatomy, Krista Vernoff took on two completely different methods.
On Greys Anatomy, I did the opposite of what we did on Station 19. There had been so many tragic deaths for so many years on Greys Anatomy that I felt like the most surprising thing I could do, repeatedly, was to not kill someone, Vernoff, 48, told Us Weekly exclusively.
The writer served as showrunner on Greys from 2007 to 2011, then came back on board in 2017; she also took over Station 19 for creator Stacy McKee for season 3. Although the spinoff killed off multiple characters during the season, Greys did not.
Time after time, no matter how many times Ive done it, everyone, every time expects that the person whos in danger or threatened in some way is going to die, she explained to Us. On [Greys Anatomy] everyone was so used to the shock death that they were always looking for shock death! So I felt like the more surprising thing was to bring the joy and turn up the humor and the playfulness that had, a little bit, fallen out of the show in the wake of Dereks death. That is how I feel like Greys has changed a little since I came back a lot of characters who might have been dead by now are still alive!
Derek, portrayed by Patrick Dempsey, was killed in season 11 after a car accident and was only one of the many heartbreaking deaths on the series.
During the interview, the Shameless writer also hinted at the future for DeLuca (Giacomo Gianniotti), who was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Although Vernoff hasnt begun mapping out season 17, she has some ideas for the characters arc.
I think that people with mental health diagnoses participate as productive members of society all the time, she told Us. I dont think that a mental health diagnosis prevents a person from being a surgeon as long as hes willing to treat it. And thats the big question mark.
The first time I did a pelvic exam on a real patient, that patient was also my instructor. In the exam room, a bathroom and hospital gown draped the upright exam chair; and staring straight at me hung a laminated photo of the external female anatomy. The paper towel, speculum and two bottles of lubricant had been arranged perfectly on the counter. Another medical student and I had three hours to spend with our educator, someone who was not an M.D. or a med school professor, but rather a professional who has been trained in how to teach about her own body.
Hi, my name is Liz and I am your educator today. Im going to walk you through how to do a pelvic exam, which you will do on my body. Ill guide you through the entire process. At this point, I felt nervous in my chest. I had read the curriculum pre-notes before the session but had no idea what I was supposed to do once my hand was in the vagina.
After Liz gave us a quick overview, we entered into the portion of physically conducting the exam. First, youre going to inspect my external genitalia. Tell me what you see. She instructs me to cinch the center of the white cloth draped over the lower half of her body and hand her the bunched-up cloth. Here I am, eye-level with her vagina, the educator slightly elevated on the examination table such that she can follow my actions.
Awkwardly, I began to describe the anatomical features, the distribution of hair, any signs of a rash or redness. I felt self-conscious that my patient could hear my observations of her own anatomy described in highly medical terms. She seemed unfazed, though, and expanded on my words.
In fact, if you look here, this patient had a Brazilian wax and what might be mistaken for an ingrown hair or a cyst. If you see this, palpate the area and ask the patient about any recent changes to their body.
Liz described herself as this patient, which at first made me feel confused. Why didnt she just use first person pronouns? As the encounter continued, I began to see why. The language allowed herself to separate the two roles of educator and patient. She, the educator, could tell me from a professional standpoint how to accurately and effectively examine the anatomy. She, the patient, could also give me real-time feedback on how to make her more comfortable and what hurt and didnt hurt.
Now youll go ahead and palpate, making concentric circles to feel for any masses. Then youll trace down the labia majora and the labia minora until you reach the introitus, making a piano keylike motion.
As I placed my hands on the educator for the first time, I realized how this was the first time I had encountered female anatomy from a purely educational standpoint. The interaction was clearly not sexual. It was not personal. I only felt extreme gratitude she would allow medical students to learn from her body.
Should I take my hand out while youre answering my questions? I asked. I felt strangely uncomfortable talking to her with my hand inside.
No, she stated, its totally fine. My fingers sat in her vaginal canal while she gave extensive answers and feedback, often for five to 10 minutes at a time.
As we moved on the speculum portion of the exam, my fear of causing her any discomfort was quelled by her calming tone. She knew her anatomy. She knew how to guide students to find different anatomical landmarks. The death trap of a speculum somehow made it to its place, but I still couldnt locate the cervix. I tilted the speculum 10 degrees to the right, still trying to visualize the cervix, when Liz declared, One thing to note is not to move around in there like the speculum is a telescope.
Ah, Im sorry if that hurt. Liz shook her head denoting that it was okay. On the flip side, I did find your cervix!
She immediate broke character. WHAT? No way. Wait, let me see! She pulled up a mirror to look at her own cervix. Students often have a really hard time seeing my cervix, so I never get to see it. Good job, you go girl! She quickly remembered how she had to be in professional character, and gently switched back to a confident, but beaming, tone. We both smiled.
And that was the moment. Up to that point, medical school had been: Physician dumps information on students. Physician brings in a patient. Patient gets stereotyped as the one with this certain disease. Rinse-Lather-Repeat. The patient and the teacher were roles held by different people. Yet this was the first time I had seen how merging the roles of patient and teacher into one could equalize the playing field, opening the door for a more meaningful doctor-patient relationship. It requires a trust for the patient, trusting that patients know their body bestsomething not always acknowledged in the practice of medicine today. The opportunity to build that trust happens every time a patient walks into an exam room and the doctor is willing to listen. And from what Ive learned administering my first pelvic exam with Liz, that can make all the difference.
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How It Felt to Give My First Pelvic Exam - Scientific American
‘Grey’s Anatomy’: Were Jackson and April Meant to Be Together? Justin Bruening Doesn’t Think So – Showbiz Cheat Sheet
Nobody does romance quite like Greys Anatomy, and the love story between Jackson Avery (Jesse Williams) and April Kepner (Sarah Drew) is the only proof you need. The couple formed a relationship after developing a strong friendship. They also faced numerous hardships, including the heartwrenching loss of Samuel Norbert Avery. So when Jackson and April did not end up together upon the trauma surgeons exit in Greys Anatomy Season 14, some fans were left in an outrage.
Now, its been a hot minute since April decided to leave Grey Sloan Memorial with Matthew Taylor (Justin Bruening). So with time, the fandom has calmed down in regards to Japril. But Bruening recently revealed viewers are still caught up with the relationship. And while the actor admitted April and Jackson had an epic romance, he believes April received her happily ever after with Matthew.
RELATED: Greys Anatomy: Are Jesse Williams and Sarah Drew Friends in Real Life?
Greys Anatomy fans were introduced to April and Jackson when Mercy West merged with Seattle Grace. The pair formed a close friendship until they slept together before taking their medical boards exam.
As time went by, April and Jackson had a few ups and downs. There was clearly a spark. But after a pregnancy scare, it seemed the two would go their separate ways. Then eventually, April met Matthew and the couple got engaged.
At April and Matthews wedding, Jackson confessed his love for his ex. Then in a turn of events, April left her fianc at the altar to run away with Jackson. They eloped.
Later, April and Jackson revealed they were expecting a child. They named the baby Samuel. However, he was born at 24 weeks and only lived a few short hours. This caused the couple to spiral and April even left Seattle. In the end, the lovers decided to divorce.
Nevertheless, this wasnt the end of Japril. When signing the divorce papers, Greys Anatomy fans learned April was pregnant. Naturally, when Jackson found out, there was some drama. But when that subsided, the couple decided to co-parent their daughter, Harriet Kepner-Avery.
As mentioned, Greys Anatomy Season 14 was Aprils final season. But she did not end up with Jackson. Instead, the ABC medical drama brought back Aprils first fianc, Matthew. The two reconnected, started dating, and got married. April also left Grey Sloan Memorial. But she continues to reside in Seattle and co-parents Harriet with Jackson just offscreen.
When speaking with Entertainment Weekly, Bruening opened up about his experience playing Matthew on Greys Anatomy. The actor has since moved on to other projects, such as Sweet Magnolias, but fans still bring up his time on Greys. Nevertheless, Bruening revealed viewers often tell him they preferred seeing April and Jackson together.
Its funny, the show has such a wide-reaching fan base, Bruening said. I got stopped at a grocery store recently. They cant place where they recognize me from. Ill say, Well, its probably Greys, and then theyll get wide-eyed and ask, Who are you? Ill say Matthew. And theyre like, Oh yeah, we love you but to be honest, we want Jackson and April together.
He continued, I take it as a compliment. I did my job. My purpose the first time was to get Jackson and April back together, and my purpose the second time was to give April the happy ending she truly deserved.
Bruening then admitted Jackson and April had a great love story on Greys Anatomy. He also acknowledged Aprils relationship with Matthew didnt hold up to the Japril romance.
I know where I stand, all right, Bruening said. I guess there was some Mapril people. Theres a lot of sympathy for my character because he is so nice. In their minds, Matthew did all the right things. But an attraction is an attraction. You cant fight that. Im more than happy to take the back burner to Japril. Thats the love story.
But just because April and Jackson had an epic romance, doesnt necessarily mean they should have ended up together.
Its Romeo and Juliet, Bruening said. Two people that shouldnt be together want to be together, and thats completely fine, even though Im married to her now. So technically, I won.
RELATED: Greys Anatomy: Will April and Matthew Ever Return? The Door Is Still Open