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Category Archives: Cryonics
Cryonics is the practice of preserving human bodies in extremely cold temperatures with the hope of reviving them sometime in the future. The idea is that, if someone has "died" from a disease that is incurable today, he or she can be "frozen" and then revived in the future when a cure has been discovered. A person preserved this way is said to be in cryonic suspension.
To understand the technology behind cryonics, think about the news stories you've heard of people who have fallen into an icy lake and have been submerged for up to an hour in the frigid water before being rescued. The ones who survived did so because the icy water put their body into a sort of suspended animation, slowing down their metabolism and brain function to the point where they needed almost no oxygen.
Cryonics is a bit different from being resuscitated after falling into an icy lake, though. First of all, it's illegal to perform cryonic suspension on someone who is still alive. People who undergo this procedure must first be pronounced legally dead -- that is, their heart must have stopped beating. But if they're dead, how can they ever be revived? According to scientists who perform cryonics, "legally dead" is not the same as "totally dead." Total death, they say, is the point at which all brain function ceases. Legal death occurs when the heart has stopped beating, but some cellular brain function remains. Cryonics preserves the little cell function that remains so that, theoretically, the person can be resuscitated in the future.
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What Is Cryonics? - How Cryonics Works | HowStuffWorks
I woke up on Saturday to a heartbreaking front-page article in the New York Times about a terminally ill young woman who chooses to freeze her brain. She is drawn into a cottage industry spurred by transhumanist principles that offers to preserve people in liquid nitrogen immediately after death and store their bodies (or at least their heads) in hopes that they can be reanimated or digitally replicated in a technologically advanced future.
Proponents have added a patina of scientific plausibility to this idea by citing the promise of new technologies in neuroscience, particularly recent work in connectomicsa field that maps the connections between neurons. The suggestion is that a detailed map of neural connections could be enough to restore a persons mind, memories, and personality by uploading it into a computer simulation.
Science tells us that a map of connections is not sufficient to simulate, let alone replicate, a nervous system, and that there are enormous barriers to achieving immortality in silico. First, what information is required to replicate a human mind? Second, do current or foreseeable freezing methods preserve the necessary information, and how will this information be recovered? Third, and most confounding to our intuition, would a simulation really be you?
I study a small roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, which is by far the best-described animal in all of biology. We know all of its genes and all of its cells (a little over 1,000). We know the identity and complete synaptic connectivity of its 302 neurons, and we have known it for 30 years.
If we could upload or roughly simulate any brain, it should be that of C. elegans. Yet even with the full connectome in hand, a static model of this network of connections lacks most of the information necessary to simulate the mind of the worm. In short, brain activity cannot be inferred from synaptic neuroanatomy.
Synapses are the physical contacts between neurons where a special form of chemoelectric signalingneurotransmissionoccurs, and they come in many varieties. They are complex molecular machines made of thousands of proteins and specialized lipid structures. It is the precise molecular composition of synapses and the membranes they are embedded in that confers their properties. The presence or absence of a synapse, which is all that current connectomics methods tell us, suggests that a possible functional relationship between two neurons exists, but little or nothing about the nature of this relationshipprecisely what you need to know to simulate it.
Additionally, neurons and other cells in the brain are in constant communication through signaling pathways that do not act through synapses. Many of the signals that regulate fundamental behaviors such as eating, sleeping, mood, mating, and social bonding are mediated by chemical cues acting through networks that are invisible to us anatomically. We know that the same set of synaptic connections can function very differently depending on what mix of these signals is present at a given time. These issues highlight an important distinction: the colossally hard problem of simulating any brain as opposed to the stupendously more difficult task of replicating a particular brain, which is required for the promised personal immortality of uploading.
The features of your neurons (and other cells) and synapses that make you you are not generic. The vast array of subtle chemical modifications, states of gene regulation, and subcellular distributions of molecular complexes are all part of the dynamic flux of a living brain. These things are not details that average out in a large nervous system; rather, they are the very things that engrams (the physical constituents of memories) are made of.
While it might be theoretically possible to preserve these features in dead tissue, that certainly is not happening now. The technology to do so, let alone the ability to read this information back out of such a specimen, does not yet exist even in principle. It is this purposeful conflation of what is theoretically conceivable with what is ever practically possible that exploits peoples vulnerability.
Finally, would an upload really be you? This is unanswerable, but we can dip our toes in. Whatever our subjective sense of self is, lets assume it arises from the operation of the physical matter of the brain. We could also tentatively conclude that such awareness is substrate-neutral: if brains can be conscious, a computer program that does everything a brain does should be conscious, too. If one is also willing to imagine arbitrarily complex technology, then we can also think about simulating a brain down to the synaptic or molecular or (why not?) atomic or quantum level.
But what is this replica? Is it subjectively you or is it a new, separate being? The idea that you can be conscious in two places at the same time defies our intuition. Parsimony suggests that replication will result in two different conscious entities. Simulation, if it were to occur, would result in a new person who is like you but whose conscious experience you dont have access to.
That means that any suggestion that you can come back to life is simply snake oil. Transhumanists have responses to these issues. In my experience, they consist of alternating demands that we trust our intuition about nonexistent technology (uploading could work) but deny our intuition about consciousness (it would not be me).
No one who has experienced the disbelief of losing a loved one can help but sympathize with someone who pays $80,000 to freeze their brain. But reanimation or simulation is an abjectly false hope that is beyond the promise of technology and is certainly impossible with the frozen, dead tissue offered by the cryonics industry. Those who profit from this hope deserve our anger and contempt.
Michael Hendricks is a neuroscientist and assistant professor of biology at McGill University.
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The False Science of Cryonics - MIT Technology Review
Cryonics Technology Market Growth Rate, Demands, Status And Application Forecast To 2025 – Expedition 99
Cryonics Technology Market research report 2019 gives detailed information of major players like manufacturers, suppliers, distributors, traders, customers, investors and etc. Cryonics Technology market Report presents a professional and deep analysis on the present state of Cryonics Technology Market that Includes major types, major applications, Data type include capacity, production, market share, price, revenue, cost, gross, gross margin, growth rate, consumption, import, export and etc. Industry chain, manufacturing process, cost structure, marketing channel are also analyzed in this report.The growth trajectory of the Global Cryonics Technology Market over the assessment period is shaped by several prevalent and emerging regional and global trends, a granular assessment of which is offered in the report. The study on analyzing the global Cryonics Technology Market dynamics takes a critical look at the business regulatory framework, technological advances in associated industries, and the strategic avenues.
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Prominent Manufacturers in Cryonics Technology Market includes PraxairCellulisCryologicsCryothermKrioRusVWRThermo Fisher ScientificCustom Biogenic SystemsOregon CryonicsAlcor Life Extension FoundationOsiris CryonicsSigma-AldrichSouthern Cryoni
Market Segment by Product Types Slow freezingVitrificationUltra-rapid
Market Segment by Applications/End Users Animal husbandryFishery scienceMedical sciencePreservation of microbiology cultureConserving plant biodiversity
In order to identify growth opportunities in the market, the report has been segmented into regions that are growing faster than the overall market. These regions have been potholed against the areas that have been showing a slower growth rate than the market over the global. Each geographic segment of the Cryonics Technology market has been independently surveyed along with pricing, distribution and demand data for geographic market notably: North America (United States, Canada and Mexico), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia), South America (Brazil, Argentina, Colombia etc.), Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa).
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Massive Growth in Medical Device Cleaning Service Market by 2026 with Top Key Players Arrow Cryogenics – VOICE of Wisconsin Rapids
Medical Device Cleaning Service Market research report explores the current outlook in global and key regions from the perspective of players, countries, product types and end industries. This report analyzes top players in the global market and divides the Global Medical Device Cleaning Service Market into several parameters.
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Significant Regions with leading countries ofMedical Device Cleaning ServiceMarket covered in this report: Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia), Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.), North America (United States, Mexico, and Canada.), South America (Brazil etc.), The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt.)
In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Medical Device Cleaning ServiceMarket are as follows:
History Year: 2015-2020
Base Year: 2020
Estimated Year: 2020
Forecast Year 2020 to 2026
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Table of Contents:
Chapter 1 Global Medical Device Cleaning Service Market Overview
Chapter 2 Economic Impact on Industry
Chapter 3 Market Competition by Manufacturers
Chapter 4 Production, Revenue (Value) by Region
Chapter 5 Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions
Chapter 6 Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type
Chapter 7 Market Analysis by Application
Chapter 8 Cost Analysis
Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis
Chapter 12 Global Medical Device Cleaning Service Market Forecast
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Have you thought about what to do with your body when you die? More Americans arechoosing cremation over traditional burials, says a new survey.
A new report by insurance firm Choice Mutual found 44% of Americans plan on being cremated, a 40% increase from the 1960s. Traditional burials were the second most popular choice, with 35% of Americanspreferring the method.
Choice Mutual surveyed 1,500 people in the U.S. on their burial preferences and practices.
Other burial preferences includedonating their bodies to science at 6%and natural burials being buried without a casket in the ground at 4%.
Cremation is becoming a popular choice for people in Florida.(Photo: Getty Images/iStockphoto)
"People donate their bodies to science now because they want to help improve medical practices, and with the eco-friendly burials people are a lot more conscious of the environment," said Morgen Henderson, researcher at Choice Mutual, in a statement.
Americans arealso opting for moreunique arrangements for their cremated remains, including launching them into space or having them compressed into a diamond.
The most popular option among Americans was having their ashes spread in a specific location (40%),followed by their ashes being kept by a family member (36%). Onein 10 Americans who plan to be cremated want to be planted as a tree.
As burial preferences have changed significantly over the years,more Americans are shifting towardmore non-traditional plans such as sea burial or plastination, a process that involves removingall fluids from the body and replacingit with a polymer or plastic-like substance.
"With the improvements and developments in technology that has opened up a lot of different burial options," said Henderson.
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Burial Preferences: Cremation is making death a little cheaper
These alternative burial methods aren't cheap, however.
The costliest, mummification, which involves the preservation of the skin and the flesh of a corpse, starts at $67,000, says Choice Mutual.By contrast, the average cost fortraditional burials is$7,360, which doesn't include a burial plot or headstone. Cremations start around $500 but could cost thousands more with viewing or memorial services.
And, for those looking to be frozen rather than burned, cryonics freezing the bodyto a temperature low enough that it wont decompose starts at an average cost of $28,000.
The survey found 47% of Americans opt for burial plans based on personal beliefs, while 24% say family traditions influence their decision. Only 14% of Americans ascribe financial reasons as the determining factor for their choice.
The choices vary across generations, with family traditions becoming increasingly more important to younger generations while financial reasons are more important to older generations, said the survey.
According to a report by National Funeral Directors Association,62.5%of Americansfelt it was very important to communicate their funeral plans and wishes to family members before their own death, yet only 21.4% had done so.
Follow Jazmin Goodwin on Twitter: @jazminkgoodwin.
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More Americans are choosing cremation over traditional burials, survey finds - USA TODAY
The specific look of MCU superheroes can often become such a habit in the minds of fans that any makeover usually brings a shock. Anyone who initially thought Disney+s upcoming The Falcon and the Winter Soldier had a major death involved should be relieved its really a makeover problem with Bucky (Sebastian Stan).
Yes, the look of Bucky Barnes always involved long hair, and fans found it a cool look through recent MCU movies. Actors cant always keep the same guise, though. As new movie roles pop up, keeping long hair (and beards) for years is virtually impossible.
Because there was a significant break between Avengers: Endgame and when The Falcon and the Winter Soldier started filming, Sebastian Stan now has a clean appearance to kick off the series.
Bucky Barnes appearance was supposed to be a bit scraggy as seen in the comic books. Its no surprise then that Sebastian Stan had to grow a beard and wear long hair to properly play the part of The Winter Soldier as he looked in the modern era.
As the best friend of Steve Rogers during WWII, both would eventually meet up again in the 21st century due to each essentially being frozen in ice. Rogers was frozen in ice and revived, as everyone knows.
Bucky would also be frozen through cryogenics by Russians who captured him and turned him into a semi-bionic man with a cybernetic arm.
Over time, he was able to overcome his brainwashing and become one of the Avengers team. He also regained his memory in being Steve Rogers best friend, even though Rogers ultimately passed on his shield to Sam Wilson.
At the same time, Bucky knew Rogers intent of staying back in time to reunite with Peggy Carter. He also had to witness the tragedy of events unfold during Endgame, making the new Disney+ series a fresh new start with an apparent new haircut.
Having to wear long hair is already problematic for most actors. After all, consider how much of a burden it is to care for, especially when theres a lull between TV/movie projects.
In-between the time of filming Endgame and Winter Soldier, Stan has filmed over four movies, obviously requiring him to cut his hair. One of those was a romantic role in a 2019 indie called Endings, Beginnings.
Having to grow out his hair and a beard for the new Disney+ series probably wasnt something he wanted to do so he could be freed up to do movies at a given chance. Not that its inappropriate for Bucky to maybe want a reboot of his appearance since the series will be an all-new phase for these characters.
Where The Falcon and the Winter Soldier will go in its plot is also worth noting. Stan himself has said the show is going to be different from anything else done in the MCU so far.
Considering The Falcon and the Winter Soldier will be the first out of the chute at Disney+ for Marvel, they likely wanted a new appearance to reset things. Bucky and Sam are both going to be looking to get their lives and superhero duties into different gear after all past events.
Of course, Sam is going to have more focus since he has to earn the Captain American title.
Is it possible Bucky will have some envy there, hence affecting their relationship? What if the U.S. government decides to make Bucky the new Captain America over Sam, creating discord?
Anything could happen since the plot is mostly being kept secret. One thing for sure is all the new Marvel shows will likely bring new horizons to each character. Dont be surprised to see all of them looking different, perhaps by decree of Marvel suits.