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It’s just good vibes in here. The Role Chemistry Has Played In The 2019 Seahawks’ Success – Seahawks.com

K.J. Wright has seen a lot as the Seahawks longest-tenured player, so when the nine-year veteran says theres something special going on when it comes to the chemistry of this team, its worth paying attention.

The closer the team, the better they play together, the better they play for one another, and this team is definitely close, Wright said. Its just good vibes in here.

Wright then paused to turn the tables on the reporters surround him who usually are the ones asking questions.

I dont know if you can feel the energydo yall feel the energy in locker rooms? Wright asked.

After some nods and affirmative answers, Wright continued, The energy is good in here. It feels good, everybodys happy, everybody wants to win, there aint nobody on no B.S., life is good around here, its a good locker room.

There are a lot of very measurable reasons why the Seahawks are 10-2 this season and in first place in he NFC West. Quarterback Russell Wilson is playing at an MVP level, which combined with a strong running game has given the Seahawks one of the most productive offenses in the NFL; the Bobby Wagner and Wright-led defense has made a big turn over the past month, giving the Seahawks a dangerous, ball-hawking defense; and special teams play has been a big difference maker in several games, including last weeks win over Minnesota.

Much more difficult to quantify, but imperative nonetheless if you ask players and coaches, is the team chemistry, which can fluctuate from season to season as players come and go. And this years team, carrying over what started with a young, retooling team in 2018, has found something special. With that closeness comes not just off-field comradery between players, but a belief in what theyre doing together on the field and a desire to do well for each other. That cant be measured on a stat sheet, but its powerful and a real part of this teams success.

This is the team that I think well look back on, there was this deep seeded, longstanding care for each other that comes about in terms of harmony that they really are together, Seahawks coach Pete Carroll said last month. Theyre with us on everything and theyre going along with it. Theyre pliable in a sense. Theyre growing into the belief that they can win football games. Thats really powerful knowing when you get there. Its obvious with all of the close games that weve played. The ability to do that comes from the belief that they have for themselves, what they are capable of doing, what the guys around them are capable of doing. Thats a very strongness in here. Its like, the force is strong in this room. Its pretty cool.

The chemistry this team has is particularly valuable, players say, when the Seahawks go on the road. The Seahawks are 6-0 on away from CenturyLink Field this season, matching the highest road win total in franchise history, and while that has a lot to do with the talent on the field and the coaching staff, theres also some intangibles in play.

Thats why when Wagner was asked about his teams road success, the first thing he said was, I just think it shows how close of a group we are. When we go on the road, everybodys connected, everybodys together, and I think thats what makes us a really good road teamthe connection, the chemistry, especially on the defensive side because when the offense is up its so quiet. Were able to communicate a lot better, were able to talk to one another a lot better. You can only talk to other people if you have a chemistry with them.

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It's just good vibes in here. The Role Chemistry Has Played In The 2019 Seahawks' Success - Seahawks.com

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Harvard Chemists Perform the Coldest Chemical Reaction in the Known Universe | News – Harvard Crimson

A team of Harvard chemists has succeeded in performing the coldest chemical reaction to ever occur, according to a Nov. 29 paper they published in the peer-reviewed academic journal Science.

Chemistry and Chemical Biology professor Kang-Kuen Ni leads the team, which has been working on this ultracold chemical process for four years.

The team created a technique using lasers that allowed them to set the reaction temperature just a few millionths of a Kelvin above absolute zero the lowest physically possible temperature. They used the reaction to study the process by which the chemical reactants broke down.

Ming-Guang Hu, a postdoctoral researcher in Nis lab, said the team wanted to observe the effects of the ultracold technique on a chemical reaction. Hu is one of the first authors on the paper, along with Yu Liu, a graduate student in the lab.

Our goal is to apply the ultracold molecule technique to different fields, Hu said. For this project specifically, we want to apply the ultracold molecule technique to study the chemical reaction.

Hu added that scientists have long understood the theoretical basis of the different stages of chemical reactions, but that the new experiment allows them to more directly observe intermediate stages. Hu and Ni said scientists have relatively little knowledge of the short-lived middle stages between reactants and their final products.

What we were looking for was the products of this reaction, to confirm that these chemical reactions were happening, going from reactants to product, Ni said. But a bit of a surprise was that we also see the intermediate, which is usually more transient in nature.

Hu said he hopes the study will help future researchers to better control the speed of ultracold chemical reactions.

The long-term goal is really to be able to control, or alter, the reaction rate of chemical reactions, Hu said. The ultracold technique is probably the most close to that dream.

The team is currently exploring new ways they can use the ultracold technique, according to a Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology press release. The release states that the technique may help researchers manipulate reactants during a reaction, prematurely excite them, or physically nudge them around.

Ni said she has heard very positive reactions to the experiment from other researchers.

In the very immediate community, people are very excited. It was a bit of a puzzle for at least ten years, Ni said. But, moreover, we also saw something that we didnt expect. Now we have opened up new possibilities to everybody, so the community is very excited to see what we could learn next.

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Scientists Invent Way to See Fastest Motions of Electrons That Drive Chemistry for the First Time – SciTechDaily

A SLAC-led team has invented a method, called XLEAP, that generates powerful low-energy X-ray laser pulses that are only 280 attoseconds, or billionths of a billionth of a second, long and that can reveal for the first time the fastest motions of electrons that drive chemistry. This illustration shows how the scientists use a series of magnets to transform an electron bunch (blue shape at left) at SLACs Linac Coherent Light Source into a narrow current spike (blue shape at right), which then produces a very intense attosecond X-ray flash (yellow). Credit: Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Scientists invent a way to see attosecond electron motions with an X-ray laser. Called XLEAP, the new method developed by SLAC will provide sharp views of electrons in chemical processes that take place in billionths of a billionth of a second and drive crucial aspects of life.

Researchers at the Department of Energys SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have invented a way to observe the movements of electrons with powerful X-ray laser bursts just 280 attoseconds, or billionths of a billionth of a second, long.

The technology, called X-ray laser-enhanced attosecond pulse generation (XLEAP), is a big advance that scientists have been working toward for years, and it paves the way for breakthrough studies of how electrons speeding around molecules initiate crucial processes in biology, chemistry, materials science and more.

The team presented their method December 2, 2019, in an article in Nature Photonics.

Until now, we could precisely observe the motions of atomic nuclei, but the much faster electron motions that actually drive chemical reactions were blurred out, said SLAC scientist James Cryan, one of the papers lead authors and an investigator with the Stanford PULSE Institute, a joint institute of SLAC and Stanford University. With this advance, well be able to use an X-ray laser to see how electrons move around and how that sets the stage for the chemistry that follows. It pushes the frontiers of ultrafast science.

Studies on these timescales could reveal, for example, how the absorption of light during photosynthesis almost instantaneously pushes electrons around and initiates a cascade of much slower events that ultimately generate oxygen.

With XLEAP we can create X-ray pulses with just the right energy that are more than a million times brighter than attosecond pulses of similar energy before, said SLAC scientist Agostino Marinelli, XLEAP project lead and one of the papers lead authors. Itll let us do so many things people have always wanted to do with an X-ray laser and now also on attosecond timescales.

One attosecond is an incredibly short period of time two attoseconds is to a second as one second is to the age of the universe. In recent years, scientists have made a lot of progress in creating attosecond X-ray pulses. However, these pulses were either too weak or they didnt have the right energy to home in on speedy electron motions.

Over the past three years, Marinelli and his colleagues have been figuring out how an X-ray laser method suggested 14 years ago could be used to generate pulses with the right properties an effort that resulted in XLEAP.

In experiments carried out just before crews began work on a major upgrade of SLACs Linac Coherent Lightsource (LCLS) X-ray laser, the XLEAP team demonstrated that they can produce precisely timed pairs of attosecond X-ray pulses that can set electrons in motion and then record those movements. These snapshots can be strung together into stop-action movies.

Schematic of the XLEAP experiment at SLACs Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser. LCLS sends bunches of high-energy electrons (green) through an undulator magnet, where electron energy gets converted into extremely bright X-ray pulses (blue) of a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. In the XLEAP configuration, electron bunches pass two additional sets of magnets (wiggler and chicane) that shape each electron bunch into an intense, narrow spike containing electrons with a broad range of energies. The spikes then produce attosecond X-ray pulses in the undulator. The XLEAP team also developed a customized pulse analyzer (right) to measure the extremely short pulse lengths. Credit: Greg Stewart/SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

Linda Young, an expert in X-ray science at DOEs Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago who was not involved in the study, said, XLEAP is a truly great advance. Its attosecond X-ray pulses of unprecedented intensity and flexibility are a breakthrough tool to observe and control electron motion at individual atomic sites in complex systems.

X-ray lasers like LCLS routinely generate light flashes that last a few millionths of a billionth of a second, or femtoseconds. The process starts with creating a beam of electrons, which are bundled into short bunches and sent through a linear particle accelerator, where they gain energy. Traveling at almost the speed of light, they pass through a magnet known as an undulator, where some of their energy is converted into X-ray bursts.

The shorter and brighter the electron bunches, the shorter the X-ray bursts they create, so one approach for making attosecond X-ray pulses is to compress the electrons into smaller and smaller bunches with high peak brightness. XLEAP is a clever way to do just that.

At LCLS, the team inserted two sets of magnets in front of the undulator that allowed them to mold each electron bunch into the required shape: an intense, narrow spike containing electrons with a broad range of energies.

When we send these spikes, which have pulse lengths of about a femtosecond, through the undulator, they produce X-ray pulses that are much shorter than that, said Joseph Duris, a SLAC staff scientist and paper co-first-author. The pulses are also extremely powerful, he said, with some of them reaching half a terawatt peak power.

To measure these incredibly short X-ray pulses, the scientists designed a special device in which the X-rays shoot through a gas and strip off some of its electrons, creating an electron cloud. Circularly polarized light from an infrared laser interacts with the cloud and gives the electrons a kick. Because of the lights particular polarization, some of the electrons end up moving faster than others.

The technique works similar to another idea implemented at LCLS, which maps time onto angles like the arms of a clock, said Siqi Li, a paper co-first-author and recent Stanford PhD. It allows us to measure the distribution of the electron speeds and directions, and from that we can calculate the X-ray pulse length.

Next, the XLEAP team will further optimize their method, which could lead to even more intense and possibly shorter pulses. They are also preparing for LCLS-II, the upgrade of LCLS that will fire up to a million X-ray pulses per second 8,000 times faster than before. This will allow researchers to do experiments they have long dreamed of, such as studies of individual molecules and their behavior on natures fastest timescales.

Reference: Tunable isolated attosecond X-ray pulses with gigawatt peak power from a free-electron laser by Joseph Duris, Siqi Li, Taran Driver, Elio G. Champenois, James P. MacArthur, Alberto A. Lutman, Zhen Zhang, Philipp Rosenberger, Jeff W. Aldrich, Ryan Coffee, Giacomo Coslovich, Franz-Josef Decker, James M. Glownia, Gregor Hartmann, Wolfram Helml, Andrei Kamalov, Jonas Knurr, Jacek Krzywinski, Ming-Fu Lin, Jon P. Marangos, Megan Nantel, Adi Natan, Jordan T. ONeal, Niranjan Shivaram, Peter Walter, Anna Li Wang, James J. Welch, Thomas J. A. Wolf, Joseph Z. Xu, Matthias F. Kling, Philip H. Bucksbaum, Alexander Zholents, Zhirong Huang, James P. Cryan and Agostino Marinelli, 2 December 2019, Nature Photonics.DOI: 10.1038/s41566-019-0549-5

The XLEAP team included researchers from SLAC; Stanford University; Imperial College, UK; Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Kassel University, Technical University Dortmund and Technical University Munich in Germany; and DOEs Argonne National Laboratory. Large portions of this project were funded by the DOE Office of Science and through DOEs Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program. LCLS is a DOE Office of Science user facility.

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Lakers chemistry on full display in photos from team plane following Portland win – LeBron Wire

The three most successful teams that LeBron James has ever played for were the 2015-16 Cleveland Cavaliers along with both the 2011-12 and 2012-13 Miami Heat. While each of those teams were able to secure an NBA championship and stack wins during the regular-season, one key characteristic they also shared was chemistry throughout the locker room while in pursuit of those rings.

LeBrons three title teams got along well with each other off the court during those seasons and won big because of it. If you followed those groups closely, its difficult to dismiss the similarities they seem to share so far with this years Los Angeles Lakers from that same chemistry perspective. After the 136-113 win over the Portland Trail Blazers on Friday that extended L.A.s record to 20-3, for example, veteran forward Jared Dudley posted the following pictures from the team plane that seemed to highlight a genuine camaraderie.

Dudley didnt just post the final photo that featured each of his teammates who made the trip to Rip City. In a move that might have been similarly made by a 2015-16 Cavalier named Richard Jefferson, Dudley kept it light and fun by also posting a picture of his teammates preparing to take the shot that eventually hit social media.

Its one small example of a characteristic like team chemistry that is impossible to quantify except for the fact that youre able to recognize it sometimes if youre paying attention. For anyone who has paid attention to LeBrons teams over the years, this iteration of the James Gang appears to have those positive team chemistry characteristics for days. Just how far it will take them remains to be seen, but theres a number of reasons to be bullish on this years Lakers so far including the simple fact that they appear to like each other.

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Study links hair dyes and chemical straighteners to higher breast cancer risk, particularly among black women – CNN

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Study links hair dyes and chemical straighteners to higher breast cancer risk, particularly among black women - CNN

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Londinium Romans’ blood lead levels so high they may have lowered birth rates – Chemistry World

A team of archaeologists and health scientists has found that lead poisoning could have afflicted city dwellers in Londinium, the Roman settlement on the site of modern London, during the Roman occupation of ancient Britain.1 The levels of lead they found in Londinium Roman bones were so high that they would have exceeded limits considered toxic.

Environmental health scientist Sean Scott of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and colleagues found that lead levels in bones taken from three cemeteries in Londinium may be more than 70 times higher than those in remains from pre-Roman Iron Age Britain. And an analysis of the lead isotope composition fits with that seen previously in Roman-age lead pollution in Britain. The researchers say that the lead levels are high enough to have had a possible effect on health, perhaps even reducing birth rates.

Lead pollution during Roman times has been demonstrated previously,2 but generally has been associated with lead mining. It hasnt been clear whether serious lead pollution could have afflicted ordinary citizens in Roman urban settlements.

The researchers used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure the amount of lead, as well as a host of metallic trace elements, in the bone samples. The pre-Roman samples came from burial sites in Hampshire and Yorkshire.

The Roman samples have lead concentrations ranging from 8g/g to 123g/g, with a median value of 26.5g/g whereas those of the pre-Roman samples are generally no greater than 0.5g/g.

There are several possible sources of this lead. The Romans made extensive use of lead plumbing in their settlements but theres not much evidence of it in Londinium. However, they also used lead to made drinking vessels, and even added lead acetate, made by reacting lead with grape juice, to foods as a sweetener sugar of lead.

Its well known that urban areas tend to concentrate pollution today, and Scott says that it is possible that something similar could have happened in ancient urban areas. He adds that there was no single source of lead pollution, but rather widespread and probably numerous societal practices that led to the high levels of exposure. The researchers anticipate that similar levels of lead might have been common in cities throughout the Roman Empire.

This isnt the first time high lead levels have been found in people within the Roman Empire relatively high lead levels have been reported in tooth-enamel.3,4 The health consequences are still a matter of speculation though. From their findings, Scott and colleagues estimate that most citizens of Londinium would have had blood lead levels above the threshold designated as toxic by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This, they say, could have decreased sperm counts and led to premature or stillbirths. Some researchers have even suggested that lead poisoning contributed to the collapse of the Roman Empire, although this is a controversial idea.

However, archaeologist Janet Montgomery of the University of Durham in the UK, who has previously studied lead levels in Roman teeth, cautions against being too hasty to accept the new results. She says that bone is well known to absorb lead and other metals from the soil, so it is hard to rule out post-burial contamination. For the same reason, she is wary of using trace-element measurements to gauge the extent of such alteration. Also, she adds, you do not know if the lead you are measuring [in bone] has accumulated from fairly low level exposure over a long time, or derives from one period of high exposure many years in the past, or something in between.

1 S R Scott et al, Archaeometry, 2019, DOI: 10.1111/arcm.12513

2 J R McConnell et al, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 2018, 115, 5726 (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1721818115)

3 J Montgomery et al, J. Roman Archaeol., Suppl., 2010, 78, 199 ISBN-13: 978-1-887829-78-6

4 G D Kamenov and B L Gulson, Sci. Tot. Environ. 2014, 490, 861 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.085)

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Londinium Romans' blood lead levels so high they may have lowered birth rates - Chemistry World

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