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Researchers use that knowledge to build on and to make advances that further help to progress the science and thats for the benefit of both science itself and our global society. Open Access publishing facilitates and widens the dissemination of that knowledge; therefore this direct link with our charter is why we think OA is so important and so fundamental to our mission as a learned society.
Open Access has a significant role to play in the greater good that can come from Open Science more broadly. Open Science means more transparency across the whole research lifecycle, leading to greater reproducibility and trust in science. For that reason we have invested in what we think are incredibly important services for the community, for example ChemSpider, our free chemical structure database, providing the community with free access to over 92 million chemical structures from hundreds of data sources, and ChemRxiv, a dedicated preprint server for the chemical sciences. ChemRxiv is a truly global community endeavour, where we partner with a number of global chemical science societies (ACS, GDCh, CCS, CSJ).
Preprint servers allow researchers to disseminate their research as soon as possible, to establish precedence for the ideas that they've had and for the work they've done. That comes with the disclaimer that this knowledge hasn't yet been peer reviewed, though it means others can have advanced sight of new ideas and research.
We have been supporters of and investors in Open Access for a significant period of time, and have evolved our offerings in line with developments in the global landscape, the mandates we see from funding bodies etc. but also to accelerate the transition to open access for the community where we can again because of the role OA can play to disseminate and advance knowledge.
We introduced a hybrid OA option for authors on all our journals way back in 2006, so that authors who needed to publish OA, could do so, and it was over ten years ago that we acquired ChemSpider. I also want to call out the work weve done in partnership with the librarian community, who serve the researchers at their institutions, to evolve our OA products and services and accelerate the transition. In 2012: we launched our Gold 4 Gold pilot, providing institutions subscribing to our Gold package of journals with vouchers for their authors to publish OA in our hybrid journals. Gold 4 Gold eventually evolved into Read & Publish (R&P) in 2016 with the help of our European librarian customers, continuing that opportunity for authors at R&P institutions to publish OA in any of our hybrid journals. Now we have R&P agreements with institutions across the globe, the majority still in Europe, but also several in the US and elsewhere. In countries with R&P agreements, we see high proportions of content (80-90%) published OA in our hybrid journals, showing that authors value this easy route to OA publication in recognised venues.
Weve also been innovative and invested in our journals to support the transition to OA. In 2015, we flipped our flagship high-impact journal, Chemical Science, to Diamond/Platinum OA, so that it is both free to read and, importantly, free to publish in, meaning it is open and inclusive to all, and ensuring equitable publishing for those without funds. Chemical Science has now published over 6000 open access articles. In 2017, we flipped the largest journal in the chemical sciences, RSC Advances, to OA, and introduced this with a low APC to make this an inclusive venue for OA publishing.
Weve also been launching more full OA journals in different fields: Materials, Nanoscience, Environmental Science, Chemical Biology to ensure that authors have high-quality full OA venues (as well as high quality hybrid venues) for publication to enable them to meet their funder mandates, or if they are just choosing to publish in a full OA journal. All our new OA journals do not have an APC payable for the first few years of publication to ensure that authors can try out these new journals without having to worry about funds for APCs.
Open Access is at varying different degrees of progress and acceptance in the global chemical science community and I would say the chemical science community is, in general, less far along in their OA journey than, for example biomedical communities, where there are more direct links to human health.
Because it has, in general, been less of a pressing issue for the chemical science community, we see ourselves having a role in increasing its acceptance and adoption and that will continue to be a focus for us in the coming years. We have seen more awareness in the community around OA and its benefits, but we also recognise that we have a role in talking more around why it is important for knowledge dissemination and showing how it can benefit researchers work. Researchers need to show the impact of their research so, if Open Access facilitates wider dissemination, it helps their work to reach wider audiences, enabling it to gather more downloads, more views, more citations, all of which contributes to impact.
We have seen funders driving the transition to OA and Open Science with mandates around research publications and outputs. This is particularly the case in Europe and the UK, where such requirements have been in place for a number of years and, for that reason, we generally see a higher level of engagement with OA from these researchers. With the advent of Plan S, meaning that Coalition S-funded researchers might only be able to publish in hybrid journals if they're part of transformative agreements that's quite a significant change, as it might close off renowned and reputable, well-known venues to authors for OA publication, including their usual preferred journals.
So our proposition for Europe and the UK is twofold we're looking at full Gold OA journals and having transformative Read & Publish agreements in place with as many institutions as possible to ensure that as many publication venues as possible are as accessible to authors.
In the rest of the world, it's less clear cut, with fewer national funder mandates in place around OA and less demand from librarians for Read & Publish agreements as a result. Evolving these agreements to make them relevant for librarians/institutions and authors in other regions and countries will be the next step for us.
In the US, while the NIH and key agencies in the US have specific Green OA policies, we are seeing a drive for Gold only from specific institutions who have fully invested in OA. We have Read & Publish agreements with several North American institutions but, as yet, have seen no significant community demand for it.
India are perhaps less far along in their OA journey than the other countries from where we have large volumes of authors. Acknowledging that researchers may have less funds available to pay APCs, we have specific discounted rates for Indian researchers in RSC Advances, our largest OA journal, to make this more accessible.
In China, we tend to see authors publishing more within our Gold OA journals, than OA in hybrid. The new China Research Assessment policy has specific provisions around OA and a potential APC cap for representative works that researchers wish to publish OA - with a reasonable APC rate our journals are well within this and offer high quality venues for publication.
Science is collaborative it's a global endeavour, with researchers who are based all over the world working together. This is fantastic, but then they have complex and varied requirements or recommendations that they have to navigate from funders or institutions or even countries. As a publisher, therefore, its our role to make this as easily navigable for researchers as possible and provide them with all the options they need for publication. For example, our Read & Publish workflow makes it really simple for authors: the system automatically identifies if an author is at an institution with an agreement and highlights that they can publish their article OA in a certain journal.
For this reason, weve tried to keep the conversation going with our global community wherever possible around OA, both via our day to day publishing activities and the various touchpoints the Society has with the global chemistry community. Weve also reached out in different ways - when Plan S arrived, we produced an animation aiming to increase awareness of it with the community and find out their thoughts about it. We also conducted a livestream debate to bring researchers voices directly into the debate. And weve conducted surveys with researchers around the world.
Recognising that some researchers have concerns around OA because of predatory journals, our activities try to showcase to the community that the quality of our journals is the same, whether it's OA or hybrid they have the same editorial standards and they all uphold high quality standards.
This isnt the end of the journey: were committed to increasing our Open Access and Open Science products and services, and continuing to make improvements so that the route to Open Science is as seamless as possible. Our belief in Open Access and Open Science is based on that foundation of one of our core Charter objectives, knowledge dissemination: to have as much knowledge as accessible as possible to members of the community, and more widely. Recent events have made the need for this all the more clear.
Open Science contributes to the integrity of the scientific record. Openness and transparency aids reproducibility and trust not only can people see more of the science, they can use more of it, to move science and Society forward.
Any idea how youd make a recipe for glass? Sculptor Omer Arbel, who, when not busy with his personal projects, is the brains behind design-forward lighting manufacturer Bocci,brought in chemists to reformulate the substance and master glassblowers to shape it. Then he could get to the showstopping part: quickly pouring a molten copper alloy into the newly formed vessel, causing the metal to wash around in its still-hot container. When both harden, the glass cracks, and its altered chemical makeup causes it to fall off the alloy, leaving behind a frozen metal wave, caught mid-spatter within a bottle that no longer exists. I wanted these pieces to, as much as possible, be a pure reflection of a chemical reaction, Arbel says. Materials are the artist here.
And react it does. Because one side of the copper is exposed to the glass in the process and the other to open air, half of the final product oxidizes, while the other does not. The former is smooth and iridescent, while the latter becomes black and coarse, almost like charcoal.
The designer has long used substances in unexpected ways: concrete that resembles a slice of a tree stump, aluminum shaped into the coral-like arms of a chandelier and fabric pleats that replace the seat cushion of a chair. This latest series of copper-alloy vessels, dubbed 113 because, well, its Arbels 113th idea, will be displayed at Carwan Gallery in Athens, Greece, through November 7.
The pieces will be displayed on a large table in the middle of the gallery, so people can walk around and observe them from all sides. Theyre arranged in a way that I can only describe as being as intuitive as a constellation is, says Arbel. Its not a grid, it doesnt have any other order other than my own idea of which pieces look better than others.
Check out more of Omer Arbels work below:
"The Writing On The Wall" art installation projects writings by incarcerated people onto the sides of buildings, such as The New York State Supreme Court Building, above. Chemistry Creative hide caption
"The Writing On The Wall" art installation projects writings by incarcerated people onto the sides of buildings, such as The New York State Supreme Court Building, above.
With millions of people behind bars in the U.S., artist Hank Willis Thomas thinks about all of the ideas that are locked away with them. "Look at all the wisdom, look at all the heart that is imprisoned in our society," he says.
He and professor Baz Dreisinger are the co-founders of The Writing on the Wall, a project that takes the words of incarcerated people beyond prison and jail walls. "There was so much poetry in there, just so much beauty, drawings, thoughts, so much reflection of humanity," says Dreisinger.
Dreisinger also founded the Incarceration Nations Network, a coalition of prison reformers, and she teaches English at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. "Technically I was teaching English classes, but really I was teaching criminal justice through the lens of the humanities and that to me is what The Writing on the Wall is," she says.
The project began small and grew to institutional proportions through projections of those words on the sides of buildings in the U.S. and Mexico.
Initially, Dreisinger and Thomas enlisted architects to design a mobile installation booth that resembled a prison cell with the words of the incarcerated on the walls, floor and ceiling. The idea was to take the booth to cities around the U.S. and Canada, but after its New York debut, the pandemic hit.
With the tour canceled, the organizers got the idea of projecting those words on public buildings, often ones that are part of the criminal justice system. A company called Chemistry Creative came up with a projection system. The Writing on the Wall has been seen in Detroit, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Columbus, Ohio and Mexico City. Their last installation was at Brooklyn Public Library.
A poem projected onto the Brooklyn Public Library. Chemistry Creative hide caption
"There is nothing that I as an artist or anyone can really do or say that is more extraordinary than the things these artists were doing ..." says Thomas. "Some of them had not thought of themselves as artists but it was clear that they were."
One of those artists, Devon Simmons, served 15 years in New York prisons, graduated from the Prison-to-College Pipeline program, and is now working as a paid curator and tour guide for the project.
"People who are incarcerated are not only talking about issues that they're enduring in prison, but talking about issues which impact everybody ..." Simmons says. "It's really powerful for the Writing on the Wall to be in these public spaces to create the dialogue in pursuant to create the change that we need to see."
In the coming weeks, The Writing on the Wall will be projected on buildings in East Harlem, Boise, Idaho and the San Francisco Bay Area.
Chemical Metal Storage Tank Market Industry Outline, Global and United States Executive Manufacturers, Interpretation and Benefit Growth 2026 by ZCL…
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CSTZCL CompositesSnyder Industrial TanksBELCOPoly ProcessingContainment SolutionsSynalloy(Palmer)Highland TankL.F. ManufacturingRed EwaldTF Warren(Tarsco)HolvriekaEnduroPolymasterAssmannTuffa
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Carbon Steel TankStainless Steel TankAluminum TankOther
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Ordinary ChemicalFuel and OilWastewater
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Chemical Grinding Fluid Market Industry Outline, Global and United States Executive Manufacturers, Interpretation and Benefit Growth 2026 by Fujimi…
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Major Market Manufacturers indulged in this report are:
Cabot MicroelectronicsDow Electronic MaterialsFujimi IncorporatedFujifilmHitachi ChemicalSaint-GobainAsahi GlassAce NanochemUWiZ TechnologyWEC GroupAnji Microelectronics
Chemical Grinding Fluid Market 2020 segments by product types:
Mechanical Action Polishing FluidChemical Action Polishing Fluid
The Application of Global and United States Chemical Grinding Fluid Market 2020-2026 as follows:
Silicon WafersOptical SubstrateDisk Drive ComponentsOther
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The report forecast Global and United States Chemical Grinding Fluid market to grow to reach xxx Million USD in 2019 with a CAGR of xx% during the period 2020-2026 due to coronavirus situation. The market report provides a detailed analysis of Global and United States market size, regional and country-level market size, segmentation market growth, market share, competitive landscape, sales analysis, value chain optimization, recent developments, opportunities analysis and strategic market growth analysis. The Global and United States market report covers extensive analysis of emerging trends and competitive landscape. The report explains the flow of the Global and United States Chemical Grinding Fluid supply and demand.
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In the 119-year history of the Nobel Prize, only five women have won in the chemistry category. Now, two female scientists on Oct. 7 made history by being the first women to jointly win the Nobel Prize in chemistry.
Washington D.C. native Dr. Jennifer A. Doudna and Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier from France were awarded for their 2012 work with the gene-editing tool CRISPR-Cas9. Not only were they the first female scientists to receive the award together, but they also won without a male collaborator.
Their first paper, A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity, was published in 2012. Their research showed that CRISPR could be used to cut DNA in an artificial environment, such as a test tube or petri dish.
Now, eight years later, their written idea has come to life in the form of CRISPR-Cas9 and the technology has become more widespread.
CRISPR, which stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, was a major breakthrough for genome editing. The tool allows bacteria to use parts of DNA from invading viruses, which are in turn used to create DNA segments called CRISPR arrays.
These DNA segments, allow the bacteria to remember the viruses or any closely related ones, according to The US Library of Medicine.
If the viruses attack again, the bacteria produce RNA segments from the CRISPR arrays to target the viruses' DNA. The bacteria then use Cas9 or a similar enzyme to cut the DNA apart, which disables the virus.
Now, the technology is being employed in finding cures for genetic diseases. In fact, so far results show that CRISPR is working. In summer 2020, Victoria Gray became the first patient with sickle cell disease to undergo CRISPR editing, according to National Public Radio. They also reported that even post the gene editing procedure, Gray is thriving.
Additionally, Doudna and a team of researchers have developed a test using CRISPR that can be used to detect COVID-19 in only five minutes. This test could be useful for countries with a high number of coronavirus cases who do not have enough resources to test the entire population.
Also known as genetic scissors, the CRISPR gene-editing tool has been used for agricultural means as well. Plant researchers use the tool to change crops DNA, making them pest and drought resistant, according to Scientific American. If successful, this would in turn lead to an increase in crop production and food worldwide.
This tool, however, has also caused controversy. The science community and the world were shocked when scientist He Jiankui announced he had used CRISPR on human embryos to produce two twin girls.
Though he claims to have done so to disable the gene for HIV, there is no way to know how his actions will impact the rest of the girls genes. Chinese authorities have barred him from practicing medicine however, the damage could already be done to the girls DNA along with the perception of gene and stem cell science as a whole.
Regardless of the controversy surrounding the use of CRISPR, scientists are praising Doudna and Charpentier for the achievements their research has brought so far.
The ability to cut DNA where you want has revolutionized the life sciences. The genetic scissors were discovered 8 years ago, but have already benefited humankind greatly, said Pernilla Wittung Stafshede, a chemical biologist at the Chalmers University of Technology.
Doudna and Charpentier have not only given the world a means of rewriting DNA, but also have rewritten history by breaking the male streak of Nobel Prize in chemistry recipients.