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Category Archives: Chemistry
Most people carry remnants of a chemical pollutant ultrasound technology can help clean it up – The Conversation UK
Theres a type of synthetic chemical which has been so widely used over the last 70 years that its remnants can be found in 99% of humans. Even low level exposure to this pollutant is known to increase the risks of several cancers (including breast, testicular and kidney) birth defects and potentially around 800 other diseases, as was recently highlighted in the film Dark Waters.
Yet per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) continue to be found in a huge range of consumer products, from Teflon cookware and Gore-Tex waterproof clothing to pizza boxes, dental floss and firefighting foams. Unfortunately, the same properties that make PFAS so useful, such as their durability, also make them infuriatingly stubborn to safely and sustainably dispose of. As a result, they are often nicknamed forever chemicals.
Scientists are working on a variety of ways to treat PFAS pollution, but many of these cannot completely destroy the carbon-fluorine chain. However, we and others are developing an ultrasound method that can completely degrade PFAS into relatively harmless carbon dioxide and fluoride.
Teflon (or polytetrafluoroethylene) was the first PFAS invented, created accidentally by Roy Plunkett in 1938. Since then, some 4,729 other PFAS have been produced. They all contain the same defining molecular feature, the perfluoroalkyl group, which is a string of carbon atoms surrounded by fluorine atoms.
PFAS are surfactants, meaning they act like soap to help mix substances that would normally separate, like oil and water. They also show outstanding resistance to typical pollution treatments, such as the use of ozone, bacteria or heating to temperatures of several hundred degrees.
PFAS are usually found in very low concentrations in the environment but they tend to accumulate in the human body and can become stuck in the liver and surrounding organs. As the concentration increases, PFAS cause damage to genes and liver cells, which contributes to several diseases.
Despite knowing the dangers of these substances since the 1950s, manufacturers were dumping waste PFAS into the environment until the early 2000s. Thankfully, the scandal was uncovered, largely due to American lawyer, Rob Bilott, as described in a New York Times article that inspired the 2019 Hollywood film Dark Waters. But the continued widespread use of PFAS in manufacturing means these compounds are still entering the environment when products are thrown away.
Estimates place total pollution at around 53,000 tonnes and annual production at 42,000 tonnes . Another 30,000 tonnes of PFAS-containing firefighting foams are stockpiled globally.
But we dont really know how big a problem waste PFAS is, for several reasons. First, no records exist for the quantities dumped or emitted in firefighting foams and millions of household goods over the decades. In fact, manufacturers still arent required to report small-scale usage in thousands of products.
Second, PFAS pollution is quickly distributed and diluted throughout the global water cycle, ecosphere and atmosphere, making detection challenging. Finally, testing for all known and unknown PFAS molecules, which are constantly being developed, is immensely time consuming.
Activists are now pressuring corporations and governments to remove PFAS from consumer goods. But even if we stop the running tap of PFAS production, we still need to mop up our historical emissions.
Its possible to capture PFAS molecules from water on the surface of chemically charged or porous carbon-based materials. PFAS can also be evaporated from contaminated soils using thermal desorption. Thermal desorption works like a clothes dryer for soil, heating and spinning the soil to evaporate off and collect the pollutants.
But you also need a way to break down the PFAS once collected. Until recently, this was only possible with incineration, which is expensive (especially for water-based pollution), highly polluting and often simply re-disperses the PFAS into the air.
So, researchers are working on new techniques such as photochemical oxidation (destruction using light), plasma and electrochemical treatments. Some scientists have even tried grinding PFAS like wheat. But many of these methods ultimately produce smaller PFAS molecules that resist further treatment.
However, ultrasonic degradation or sonolysis can completely degrade all PFAS so far tested. The carbon-fluorine chain in PFAS molecules are hydrophobic, meaning when you put them in water they tend to congregate around any gas bubbles present. When you bombard them with high pitched soundwaves, these bubbles undergo extraordinarily fast cycles of compression and expansion, tens of thousands (even millions) of times per second.
This causes the bubbles to grow and then violently collapse under the next incoming soundwave. The collapsing gas momentarily reaches temperatures exceeding the surface of the sun and pressures around a thousand times higher than our atmosphere. This creates a small, localised pocket of plasma inside the bubble that effectively breaks down the PFAS underwater, without the same noxious gases associated with incineration.
We at the University of Surrey are developing ultrasound technology that we have tested against one of the most difficult-to-destroy PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). PFOS was once commonly used in fabric stain repellents but is now restricted because of its link with kidney disease.
We hope to develop a large reactor capable of treating contaminated domestic water supplies or firefighting foams, as well as adapting the process for soils. If made into a mobile process, this could even be used to decontaminate remote farmlands, lakes and airbases, which are common sites of contamination.
We would also need to combine the treatment with one of the mentioned technologies to collect and separate PFAS from the environment. But we are optimistic that, through changes to the law and research on effective cleanup technologies, we might one day not have to worry about the problem of PFAS pollution.
The Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market is expected to grow from USD 6,199.49 Million in 2019 to USD 11,393.64 Million by the end of 2025 at a…
New York, July 08, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Reportlinker.com announces the release of the report "Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market Research Report by Type, by Application - Global Forecast to 2025 - Cumulative Impact of COVID-19" - https://www.reportlinker.com/p05913578/?utm_source=GNW
On the basis of Type, the Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market is studied across C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5, and C-6. The C-2 further studied across Acetic Acid and Ethanol. The C-3 further studied across 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid, Lactic Acid, Propanol, and Propionic Acid. The C-4 further studied across Butanol, Butyric acid, Fumaric, Malic, and Succinic acid. The C-5 further studied across Itaconic Acid, Levulinic, and Xylitol. The C-6 further studied across Glucaric acid and Phenol.
On the basis of Application, the Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market is studied across Agriculture, Bio Fuels, Bio Plastics, Food Applications, Industrial Chemicals, and Pharmaceuticals.
On the basis of Geography, the Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market is studied across Americas, Asia-Pacific, and Europe, Middle East & Africa. The Americas region is studied across Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, and United States. The Asia-Pacific region is studied across Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand. The Europe, Middle East & Africa region is studied across France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, United Arab Emirates, and United Kingdom.
Company Usability Profiles:The report deeply explores the recent significant developments by the leading vendors and innovation profiles in the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market including AZoNetwork, BioAmber Inc., Cargill Incorporated, DSM, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Myriant Corporation, Novamont S.p.A., Razen Energia S.A., Tianjin GreenBio Materials Co., Ltd., and Zhejiang Hisun Biomaterials Co., Ltd.
FPNV Positioning Matrix:The FPNV Positioning Matrix evaluates and categorizes the vendors in the Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market on the basis of Business Strategy (Business Growth, Industry Coverage, Financial Viability, and Channel Support) and Product Satisfaction (Value for Money, Ease of Use, Product Features, and Customer Support) that aids businesses in better decision making and understanding the competitive landscape.
Competitive Strategic Window:The Competitive Strategic Window analyses the competitive landscape in terms of markets, applications, and geographies. The Competitive Strategic Window helps the vendor define an alignment or fit between their capabilities and opportunities for future growth prospects. During a forecast period, it defines the optimal or favorable fit for the vendors to adopt successive merger and acquisition strategies, geography expansion, research & development, and new product introduction strategies to execute further business expansion and growth.
Cumulative Impact of COVID-19:COVID-19 is an incomparable global public health emergency that has affected almost every industry, so for and, the long-term effects projected to impact the industry growth during the forecast period. Our ongoing research amplifies our research framework to ensure the inclusion of underlaying COVID-19 issues and potential paths forward. The report is delivering insights on COVID-19 considering the changes in consumer behavior and demand, purchasing patterns, re-routing of the supply chain, dynamics of current market forces, and the significant interventions of governments. The updated study provides insights, analysis, estimations, and forecast, considering the COVID-19 impact on the market.
The report provides insights on the following pointers:1. Market Penetration: Provides comprehensive information on sulfuric acid offered by the key players2. Market Development: Provides in-depth information about lucrative emerging markets and analyzes the markets3. Market Diversification: Provides detailed information about new product launches, untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments4. Competitive Assessment & Intelligence: Provides an exhaustive assessment of market shares, strategies, products, and manufacturing capabilities of the leading players5. Product Development & Innovation: Provides intelligent insights on future technologies, R&D activities, and new product developments
The report answers questions such as:1. What is the market size and forecast of the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market?2. What are the inhibiting factors and impact of COVID-19 shaping the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market during the forecast period?3. Which are the products/segments/applications/areas to invest in over the forecast period in the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market?4. What is the competitive strategic window for opportunities in the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market?5. What are the technology trends and regulatory frameworks in the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market?6. What are the modes and strategic moves considered suitable for entering the Global Bio-Based Platform Chemical Market?Read the full report: https://www.reportlinker.com/p05913578/?utm_source=GNW
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As a dated and experienced manufacturer of glass machinery, R.C.N. SOLUTIONS has come to the conclusion the chemical tempering of the glass is open to several advantages and different applications.
CT900 - Chemical tempering plant,"RIVA by RCN"
The process is preferred for all those jobs where thin tempered glass is demanded, a limitation the thermal tempering ovens cannot overcome, albeit some manufacturers have recently extended the thermal tempering to thin glass as well. However, the optical quality is far to be equal to the glass chemically tempered, because the chemical process does not provoke distorsion on the glass surface, not a minor detail , and not the only benefit.
The chemical process consists of submerging the glass into fused potassium salt bath and exposing the glass to an ion exchange process, at a temperature of 450C.
The process provokes a space reduction between the glass particles that are compressed by the bigger size of the potassium ions. The glass surface is under compression (300/400 N/mq) while the core is not in compensating tension.
Thou the chemical tempering requires more time process than the thermal one, the advantages are significant: glass chemically tempered can be processed later -drilling, cutting, edging, polishing, sandblasting; curved glass can also be tempered, special curves in particular. The absolute flatness is essential for the lamination process and the lack of distorsion is a crucial matter in some architectural projects too.
For this reasons RCN, in cooperation with an expert having more than 40 years experience in manufacturing chemical tempering plants, has developped its new chemical tempering line, "Riva by RCN" and it is not by chance that international companies such as AGC, Schott, Europtec and Luxottica have chosen RCNas supplier.
This new line perfectly matches with the other RCN machinescombining a full production "team": bending, tempering and lamination. The winning solution resonding to the latest market requirements, but also granting a free access to several, different applications, giving your products the high added value you are looking for.
R.C.N. SOLUTIONS SRL - Italy
Insights into the Chemical Protective Clothing Global Market to 2025 – Featuring Ansell, 3M & Delta Plus Group Among Others -…
DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Chemical Protective Clothing Market: Global Industry Trends, Share, Size, Growth, Opportunity and Forecast 2020-2025" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.
The global chemical protective clothing market is currently witnessing a healthy growth. Looking forward, the publisher expects the market to register a CAGR of around 5% during 2020-2025.
Chemical protective clothing refers to the personal protective equipment that is used to shield or isolate wearers from various chemical, biological, thermal, nuclear and radiation hazards. Some of the commonly used chemical protective clothing include helmets, high visibility vests, eye protectors, facemasks, gloves, safety boots, steel toe caps and respiratory aids.
It also consists of various single-use clothing, reusable industrial workwear and fire protective gear that are fortified with additional protective layers to minimize the exposure to invisible and toxic chemicals. Owing to this, these clothes find extensive applications across various industries, including oil and gas, construction, mining, manufacturing and defense.
Rapid industrialization across the globe is one of the key factors driving the growth of the market. Furthermore, increasing awareness regarding the importance of workplace safety, coupled with the rising product adoption across various industry verticals, is also providing a boost to the market growth. This can be attributed to the blends of aramid, polyolefin, polybenzimidazole, cotton fibers and laminated polyesters, which are used in the manufacturing of these clothes and have properties, such as inherent non-flammability, high durability and resistance to chemicals and heat.
Various product innovations, such as the development of nanotechnology-based materials that are light in weight and offer superior protection against various hazards, are acting as another major growth-inducing factor. Apart from this, the rising deployment of chemical compounds in biological weapons is also resulting in the increasing utilization of these products in the defense and military sector. Other factors, including extensive research and development (R&D) activities, along with significant growth in the construction and manufacturing sectors, are projected to drive the market in the upcoming years.
Key Questions Answered in this Report:
Key Topics Covered:
2 Scope and Methodology
2.1 Objectives of the Study
2.3 Data Sources
2.3.1 Primary Sources
2.3.2 Secondary Sources
2.4 Market Estimation
2.4.1 Bottom-Up Approach
2.4.2 Top-Down Approach
2.5 Forecasting Methodology
3 Executive Summary
4.2 Key Industry Trends
5 Global Chemical Protective Clothing Market
5.1 Market Overview
5.2 Market Performance
5.3 Market Forecast
6 Market Breakup by Product Type
6.2 Hand wear
6.3 Face wear
6.4 Foot wear
7 Market Breakup by Raw Material Type
7.1 Aramid Fiber & Blends
7.2 PBI and Polyamide
7.3 Cotton Fibers
7.4 Laminated Polyester
7.5 Polyolefin & Blends
7.6 UHMW Polyethylene
8 Market Breakup by Source
8.1 Natural Fiber
8.2 Synthetic Fiber
9 Market Breakup by Usability
9.1 Usability Single-Use Protective Clothing
9.2 Reusable Protective Clothing
10 Market Breakup by End-Use Industry
10.1 Construction and Manufacturing
10.2 Oil & Gas
10.4 Firefighting & Law Enforcement
11 Market Breakup by Region
11.1 North America
11.2 Asia Pacific
11.4 Latin America
11.5 Middle East and Africa
12 SWOT Analysis
13 Value Chain Analysis
14 Porters Five Forces Analysis
15 Price Indicators
16 Competitive Landscape
16.1 Market Structure
16.2 Key Players
16.3 Profiles of Key Players
For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/ik8x3l
Chemical Vapor Deposition Industry Report 2020 – Global Market to Reach a Revised Size of $47.4 Billion by 2027 due to COVID-19 -…
DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The "Chemical Vapor Deposition - Global Market Trajectory & Analytics" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.
Global Chemical Vapor Deposition Market to Reach US$47.4 Billion by the Year 2027
Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Chemical Vapor Deposition estimated at US$26.9 Billion in the year 2020, is projected to reach a revised size of US$47.4 Billion by 2027, growing at a CAGR of 8.4% over the analysis period 2020-2027.
Materials, one of the segments analyzed in the report, is projected to grow at a 8.6% CAGR to reach US$25.1 Billion by the end of the analysis period. After an early analysis of the business implications of the pandemic and its induced economic crisis, growth in the Equipment segment is readjusted to a revised 7.8% CAGR for the next 7-year period. This segment currently accounts for a 30.7% share of the global Chemical Vapor Deposition market.
The U.S. Accounts for Over 27% of Global Market Size in 2020, While China is Forecast to Grow at a 11.3% CAGR for the Period of 2020-2027
The Chemical Vapor Deposition market in the U. S. is estimated at US$7.3 Billion in the year 2020. The country currently accounts for a 27.05% share in the global market. China, the world second largest economy, is forecast to reach an estimated market size of US$9.8 Billion in the year 2027 trailing a CAGR of 11.3% through 2027. Among the other noteworthy geographic markets are Japan and Canada, each forecast to grow at 5.6% and 7.1% respectively over the 2020-2027 period. Within Europe, Germany is forecast to grow at approximately 6.5% CAGR while Rest of European market (as defined in the study) will reach US$9.8 Billion by the year 2027.
Services Segment Corners a 17% Share in 2020
In the global Services segment, USA, Canada, Japan, China and Europe will drive the 8.3% CAGR estimated for this segment. These regional markets accounting for a combined market size of US$3.4 Billion in the year 2020 will reach a projected size of US$6 Billion by the close of the analysis period. China will remain among the fastest growing in this cluster of regional markets. Led by countries such as Australia, India, and South Korea, the market in Asia-Pacific is forecast to reach US$6.7 Billion by the year 2027, while Latin America will expand at a 10.3% CAGR through the analysis period.
The publisher brings years of research experience to this 9th edition of the report. The 286-page report presents concise insights into how the pandemic has impacted production and the buy side for 2020 and 2021. A short-term phased recovery by key geography is also addressed.
Competitors identified in this market include, among others:
Total Companies Profiled: 46
For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/r/etdq0q
PolyU discovers the effect of chemical compound PTU on autophagy in zebrafish embryos, sheds light on cancer medication research – PR Web
Professor YIP Shea-ping (right), Head of PolyUs Department of HTI said that this ground-breaking discovery will be included in the new guidelines on autophagy research this year.
HONG KONG (PRWEB) July 09, 2020
In most research using the zebrafish model, a chemical compound called 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU) is commonly used to suppress pigment formation in zebrafish embryos, maintaining optical transparency to facilitate microscopic imaging. Over the past three years, the PolyU research team led by Dr MA has been using the zebrafish model to investigate the causes of leukaemia and its relationship with autophagy (self-eating) a mechanism of metabolism that involves the degradation of cells by lysosomes and the process of cell renewal and regeneration. It is a cellular reaction to various physiological and pathological conditions regulating important processes, including intracellular material turnover, cell death, proliferation, development, ageing and tumourigenesis.
According to Dr Ma, Upon 0.003% PTU treatment, aberrant autophagosome and autolysosome formation, accumulation of lysosomes and elevated autophagic flux were observed in various tissues and organs of the zebrafish, He pointed out that Autophagy is crucial in the process of drug resistance of various cells and over-activation of autophagy may potentially interfere with the efficacy of drugs. The research finding means that when we are using this prominent model to study any autophagy-related processes like cancer, the results may not be truly reflected. These studies could have produced skewed results. Researchers should avoid using PTU in autophagy-related research in the future. Dr MA added that the team has already suspended the use of PTU in zebrafish research. Light-sheet microscopy, which offers greater imaging depth, will be employed as an alternative, for image autophagy in the zebrafish embryo with pigment for their study on leukaemia.
Furthermore, the new research findings also provide a direct mechanistic link between autophagy and melanoma, suggesting autophagy probably regulates melanoma development and drug resistance through interaction with tyrosinase, a key rate-limited regulator of melanin synthesis. Investigation into details of the molecular mechanism between autophagy and melanoma is expected in the future.
Professor YIP Shea-ping, Head of Department of Health Technology and Informatics, said, We are pleased to see our research teams recent discovery published in Autophagy, the highest impact journal in the field. Dr MA has also been invited as co-author for new guidelines on autophagy research using zebrafish embryos, a revision that takes place every four years. With the new guidelines in place, we will be able to modify the way we conduct autophagy-related studies with the zebrafish model and, hopefully, to open the door to new treatments for various deadly diseases.
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