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Quantum computing explained so kids understand – IBM …

November 25, 2019 | Written by: Jan Lillelund

Categorized: Innovation | Quantum Computing

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Quantum computing is buzzing these days. However, it is a very complex topic to understand even for experienced tech professionals, professors and the brightest students. I have experienced this myself during the last few years when speaking about quantum computing at several conferences and universities. But there is a way we can understand the complex implications of how we can utilize quantum computing and how remarkably it improves our lives.

The technology will for sure solve complex problems in the future that even classical super-computers will never be able to. In life sciences, supply chain management, chemistry research and much more. Therefore, it is also crucial that our generation of IT enthusiasts and even our kids get familiar with quantum computing. If more people get excited about the fascinating opportunities the technology offers, it will hopefully help to push the development of quantum computing to new heights in the future.

In this way, we can solve the unsolvable problems society faces today and eventually make the world that we live in a better place.

DID YOU READ:What Angela Merkel and IBMs CEO have in common

Are you new to quantum computing? Or just curious to learn more about it? Then check out this video from WIRED with Dr. Talia Gershon, Senior Manager of Q Experiences at IBM Research.

In the video, she explains quantum computing to make kids, a teenager, a college student and a graduate student understand, and then discusses quantum computing myths and challenges with Professor Steve Girvin from Yale University:

Whether you are a child, student or professional, I hope the video helped you to understand more about the fascinating capabilities of quantum computing. If you are hooked, you can actually try a real quantum computer via the IBM Cloud. This is done through the IBM Q Experience platform.

If you have any further questions or comments please do not hesitate to contact me at janl@dk.ibm.com (Jan Lillelund). Furthermore, you can also check out the IBM Q homepage for much more information about quantum computing at IBM.

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Atom Computing: A Quantum Computing Startup That Believes It Can Ultimately Win The Qubit Race – Forbes

Atom Computing

Atom Computing describes itself as a company obsessed with building the worlds most scalable quantum computers out of optically trapped neutral atoms. The companyrecently revealed it had spent the past two years secretly building a quantum computer using Strontium atoms as its units of computation.

Headquartered in Berkeley, California, Benjamin Bloom and Jonathan King founded the company in 2018 with $5M in seed funds. Bloom received his PhD in physics from the University of Colorado, while King received a PhD in chemical engineering from California Berkeley.

Atom Computing received $15M in Series A funding from investorsVenrock, Innovation Endeavors, and Prelude Ventures earlier this year. The company also received three grants from the National Science Foundation.

Atom Staff

Rob Hays, a former Intel, and Lenovo executive was recently named CEO of the company. Atom Computingsstaff of quantum physicists and design engineers fully complements quantum-related disciplines and applications.This month Atom Computing signaled its continued momentum by adding twoquantum veterans to key positions within the company:

Qubit technologies

While traditional computers use magnetic bits to represent a one or a zero for computation, quantum computers usequantum bits or qubits to represent a one or a zero or simultaneously any number in between.

Todays quantum computers use several different technologies for qubits. But regardless of the technology, a common requirement for all quantum computing qubits is that it must be scalable, high quality, and capable of fast quantum interaction with each other.

IBM uses superconducting qubits on its huge fleet of about twenty quantum computers. Although Amazon doesnt yet have a quantum computer, it plans to build one using superconducting hardware. Honeywell and IonQ both use trapped-ion qubits made from a rare earth metal called ytterbium. In contrast, Psi Quantum and Xanadu use photons of light.

Atom computing chose to use different technology -nuclear-spin qubits made from neutral atoms.Phoenix, the name of Atoms first-generation, gate-based quantum computer platform, uses 100 optically trapped qubits.

Atom Computings quantum platform

First-Generation Quantum Computer, Phoenix, Berkeley,

The Phoenix platform uses a specific type of nuclear-spin qubits created from an isotope of Strontium, a naturally occurring element. Strontium is a neutral atom. At the atomic level, neutral atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons. However, isotopes of Strontium have varying numbers of neutrons. These differences in neutrons produce different energy levels in the atom. Atom Computing uses the isotope Strontium-87 and takes advantage of its unique energy levels to create spin qubits.

Qubits need to remain in a quantum state long enough to complete computations. The length of time that a qubit can retain its quantum state is its coherence time. Since Atom Computings neutral atom qubits are natural rather than manufactured, no adjustments are needed to compensate for differences between qubits. That contributes to its stability and relatively long coherence time in a range greater than 40 seconds compared to a millisecond for superconducting or a few seconds for ion-trapping systems. Moreover, a neutral atom has little affinity for other atoms, making the qubits less susceptible to noise.

Neutral atom qubits offer many advantages that make them suitable for quantum computing. Here are just a few:

How neutral atom quantum processors work

Atom Computing

The Phoenix quantum platform uses lasers as proxies for high-precision, wireless control of the Strontium-87 qubits. Atoms are trapped in a vacuum chamber using optical tweezers controlledby lasers at very specific wavelengths, creatingan array of highly stable qubits captured in free space.

First, a beam of hot strontium moves the atoms into the vacuum chamber. Next, multiple lasers bombard each atom with photons to slow their momentum to a near motionless state, causing its temperature to fall to near absolute zero. This process is called laser cooling and it eliminates the requirement for cryogenics and makes it easier to scale qubits.

Then, optical tweezers are formed in a glass vacuum chamber, where qubits are assembled and optically trapped in an array. One advantage of neutral atoms is that the processors array is not limited to any specific shape, and it can be either 2D or 3D. Additional lasers create a quantum interaction between the atoms (called entanglement) in preparation for the actual computation. After initial quantum states are set and circuits are established, then the computation is performed.

The heart of Phoenix, showing where the Atom Computings qubits entangle. (First-Generation Quantum ... [+] Computer, Phoenix - Berkeley, California)

Going forward

Atom Computing is working with several technology partners. It is also running tests with a small number of undisclosed customers. The Series A funding has allowed it to expand its research and begin working on the second generation of its quantum platform. Its a good sign that Rob Hays, CEO, believes Atom Computing will begin generating revenue in mid-2023.

Atom Computing is a young and aggressive company with promising technology. I spoke with Denise Ruffner shortly after she joined Atom. Her remarks seem to reflect the optimism of the entire company:

"I am joining the dream team - a dynamic CEO with experience in computer development and sales, including an incredible Chief Product Officer, as well as a great scientific team. I am amazed at how many corporations have already reached out to us to try our hardware. This is a team to bet on."

Analyst notes

Note: Moor Insights & Strategy writers and editors may have contributed to this article.

Moor Insights & Strategy, like all research and tech industry analyst firms, provides or has provided paid services to technology companies. These services include research, analysis, advising, consulting, benchmarking, acquisition matchmaking, or speaking sponsorships. The company has had or currently has paid business relationships with 88,A10 Networks,Advanced Micro Devices, Amazon,Ambient Scientific,AnutaNetworks,Applied Micro,Apstra,Arm, Aruba Networks (now HPE), AT&T, AWS, A-10 Strategies,Bitfusion, Blaize, Box, Broadcom, Calix, Cisco Systems, Clear Software, Cloudera,Clumio, Cognitive Systems, CompuCom,CyberArk,Dell, Dell EMC, Dell Technologies, Diablo Technologies,Dialogue Group,Digital Optics,DreamiumLabs, Echelon, Ericsson, Extreme Networks, Flex, Foxconn, Frame (now VMware), Fujitsu, Gen Z Consortium, Glue Networks, GlobalFoundries, Revolve (now Google), Google Cloud,Graphcore,Groq,Hiregenics,HP Inc., Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Honeywell, Huawei Technologies, IBM,IonVR,Inseego, Infosys,Infiot,Intel, Interdigital, Jabil Circuit, Konica Minolta, Lattice Semiconductor, Lenovo,Linux Foundation,Luminar,MapBox, Marvell Technology,Mavenir, Marseille Inc, Mayfair Equity, Meraki (Cisco),Mesophere, Microsoft, Mojo Networks, National Instruments, NetApp, Nightwatch, NOKIA (Alcatel-Lucent), Nortek,Novumind, NVIDIA,Nutanix,Nuvia (now Qualcomm), ON Semiconductor, ONUG, OpenStack Foundation, Oracle, Panasas,Peraso, Pexip, Pixelworks, Plume Design, Poly (formerly Plantronics),Portworx, Pure Storage, Qualcomm, Rackspace, Rambus,RayvoltE-Bikes, Red Hat,Residio, Samsung Electronics, SAP, SAS, Scale Computing, Schneider Electric, Silver Peak (now Aruba-HPE), SONY Optical Storage,Springpath(now Cisco), Spirent, Splunk, Sprint (now T-Mobile), Stratus Technologies, Symantec, Synaptics, Syniverse, Synopsys, Tanium, TE Connectivity,TensTorrent,TobiiTechnology, T-Mobile, Twitter, Unity Technologies, UiPath, Verizon Communications,Vidyo, VMware, Wave Computing,Wellsmith, Xilinx,Zayo,Zebra,Zededa, Zoho, andZscaler.Moor Insights & Strategy founder, CEO, and Chief Analyst Patrick Moorhead is a personal investor in technology companiesdMYTechnology Group Inc. VI andDreamiumLabs.

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QCE21 Home IEEE Quantum Week

IEEE Quantum Week the IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering (QCE) is bridging the gap between the science of quantum computing and the development of an industry surrounding it. As such, this event brings a perspective to the quantum industry different from academic or business conferences. IEEE Quantum Week is a multidisciplinary quantum computing and engineering venue that gives attendees the unique opportunity to discuss challenges and opportunities with quantum researchers, scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, developers, students, practitioners, educators, programmers, and newcomers.

IEEE Quantum Week 2021 received outstanding contributions from the international quantum community forming anexceptional programwithexciting exhibitsfeaturing technologies from quantum companies, start-ups and research labs.QCE21, the second IEEE International Conference on Quantum Computing and Engineering, provides over 300 hours of quantum and engineering programming featuring10 world-class keynote speakers,19 workfoce-building tutorials,23 community-building workshops,48 technical papers,30 innovative posters,18 stimulating panels, andBirds-of a Feather sessions. The QCE21 program is structured into 10 parallel tracks over six days, October 17-22, 2021 and is available on-demand for registered participants until the end of the year.

The QCE conference grew out of theIEEE Future Directions Quantum Initiativein 2019 and held itsinaugural IEEE Quantum Week event in October 2020.IEEE Quantum Week 2020was tremendous success with over 800 attendees from 45 countries and 270+ hours of quantum computing and engineering programming in nine parallel tracks over five days.

With your contributions and your participation, together we are building a premier meeting of quantum minds to help advance the fields of quantum computing and engineering. As a virtual event, Quantum Week provides ample opportunities to network with your peers and explore partnerships with industry, government, and academia.Quantum Week 2021 aims to bring together quantum professionals, researchers, educators, entrepreneurs, champions and enthusiasts to exchange and share their experiences, challenges, research results, innovations, applications, pathways and enthusiasm on all aspects of quantum computing and engineering.

IEEE Quantum Week aims to showcase quantum research, practice, applications, education, and training including programming systems, software engineering methods & tools, algorithms, benchmarks & performance metrics, hardware engineering, architectures, & topologies, software infrastructure, hybrid quantum-classical computing, architectures and algorithms, as well as many applications including simulation of chemical, physical and biological systems, optimization problems, techniques and solutions, and quantum machine learning.

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On the Path to Exascale, Q-Exa Consortium Tightens the Bonds Between Quantum Computers and Traditional Supercomputing – HPCwire

Nov. 15, 2021 During a press conference on Nov. 15, 2021, German Federal Minister for Education and Research Anja Karliczek announced the beginning of the Q-Exa consortium, an ambitious project aimed at accelerating European quantum computing technologies with the assistance of traditional high-performance computing (HPC).

Q-Exa brings together experts from academia and industry to deploy a 20-qbit quantum demonstrator at the end of 2023 and integrate it into the Leibniz Supercomputing Centres (LRZs) HPC ecosystem. LRZ, one of the 3 centers comprising the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing, is partnering with quantum computer hardware company IQM, software developer HQS, and supercomputer manufacturer Atos. The project is funded with 40 million and will run for 3 years.

LRZ Director Prof. Dr. Dieter Kranzlmller indicated that in addition to developing applications for quantum computing, Q-Exa also serves as an important milestone on the path to exascale computingthe next major milestone is traditional HPC, representing a 40-fold increase in supercomputing power from LRZs current flagship computer, SuperMUC-NG.

At LRZ, we are focused on more than just faster computerswe are looking at new ways of computing, and have been developing and implementing our integrated supercomputing architecture, he said. The Q-Exa project fits in perfectly with our goals in that regard, and also serves as a foundational piece to our Quantum Integration Centre and the Munich Quantum Valley. With Q-Exa, we are able to enhance our current large-scale computing resources with this quantum demonstrator.

Kranzlmller also emphasized that by participating in a co-design project with IQM and HQS, LRZ would be able to bring its decades of experience in bringing new computing technologies to science and industry to a new disruptive computing technology, ensuring that these systems are designed with users from academia and industry in mind and that applications can be ported and scaledto take advantage of the promise of quantum computers.

For more information on the Q-Exa project, read the BMBFpress release(in German) or watch thelivestreamof the event.

Source: Gauss Centre for Supercomputing

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What Europe can learn from France when it comes to quantum computing – Sifted

The French ambition to become a world leader in deeptech is one of Europes worst-kept secrets.

Not only does the country have one of the biggest deeptech funds in Europe, Bpifrance,but more importantly it has the people and the pipeline of talent through a best-in-breed university system, which is helping the country become a hotbed for innovation.

Quantum is one segment of deeptech where the French are leaving the rest of Europe, and in fact most other nations, far behind. The ambition to set up a quantum hub in the Paris region, linking large corporations and startups, is truly impressive and far-reaching.

Not only is the region focusing on nurturing homegrown talents, but they are also actively scouting for overseas companies to set up European headquarters in the cluster. How would we know? Well, we were one of the very few UK companies targeted.

France has always been at the forefront of cryptography and has one of the richest ecosystems for quantum pioneers. That history includes individuals ranging from the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics, Albert Fert and Serge Haroche, to French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) Gold Medallist Alain Aspects pioneering research on quantum entanglement and quantum simulators.

To build on this, earlier this year the French government announced a 1.8bn strategy to boost research in quantum technologies over five years. This will see public investment in the field increase from 60m to 200m a year.

Not only is investment increasing, but the often overlooked part is that funding is being funnelled into various fields of quantum computing.France recognises that quantum computing is not a homogenous industry and that various aspects require attention outside the development of actual quantum computers.

France is building a frameworkto make the country a key player across the entire quantum ecosystem

For example, one such area is security. Once a functioning quantum computer emerges, the cryptography that is used to secure all data and communications will become obsolete overnight.

Compounding this risk is the harvest now, decrypt later threat. Nefarious hackers might intercept data today and then hold onto it until quantum computers are advanced enough to decrypt it. To tackle this, new encryption methods are being developed that can stand against these new powerful computers, also known as post-quantum cryptography (PQC).

Its clear France recognises this threat, with plans to put 150 million directly to R&D in the field of PQC. This is in addition to the 780 million that is being devoted to developing computing alone, and the 870 million that is being set aside for sensor research, quantum communications and other related technologies.

Taken together, France is building a framework for industrial and research forces to make the country a key player across the entire quantum ecosystem, from computing development to post-quantum security.

So how does the rest of Europe compare? The short answer is that its lagging far behind.

Frances closest competitor is Germany, with its government recently pledging to invest 2bn in quantum computing and related technologies over five years. Thats a larger number than Frances commitment but it appears the scope is to only build a competitive quantum computer in five years while growing a network of companies to develop applications.

France is well on its way to protecting itself against the very real security threats quantum computers will pose

Investments by other individual governments across the rest of Europe are minimal, with many relying on the EUs Quantum Technologies Flagship programme to lead the way. However, with $1.1bn earmarked to cover 27 countries, little attention is being placed beyond computing R&D into adjacent fields like quantum security and communications.

Even if we focus on the security side of the coin, France is well on its way to protecting itself against the very real security threats quantum computers will pose, with the rest of Europe leaving themselves vulnerable.

It is also the case that France, in my opinion, is keeping pace with the traditional leaders the US, China and Canada and even pushing ahead in some areas.

While the US, Canadian and Chinese governments have committed impressive amounts to quantum, much of the focus in these countries is on developing a functioning computer, without recognising that a successful quantum strategy needs to be much broader. For example, although it has now developed a broad security roadmap, the US Department of Homeland Securitys budget for next year makes scant reference to quantum computing and the technology that is going to underpin post-quantum security.

If we measure success in quantum by not only how quickly we can develop such computers, but also how effectively they can be applied and how robust our protection is against the darker side of the technology, then Id argue that France has the worlds most balanced and systemic approach.

France is firmly Europes trailblazing nation; the rest of the continent ought to take note.

Andersen Cheng is CEO of Post-Quantum and Nomidio

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Atos and NVIDIA to Advance Climate and Healthcare Research With Exascale Computing – HPCwire

Nov. 15, 2021 Atos and NVIDIA today announced the Excellence AI Lab (EXAIL), which brings together scientists and researchers to help advance European computing technologies, education and research.

The labs first research projects will focus on five key areas enabled by advances in high performance computing and AI: climate research, healthcare and genomics, hybridization with quantum computing, edge AI/computer vision and cybersecurity.

Atos will develop an exascale-class BullSequana X supercomputer with NVIDIAs Arm-based Grace CPU, NVIDIAs next-generation GPU, Atos BXI Exascale Interconnect andNVIDIA Quantum-2 InfiniBand networking platform.

Predicting and Addressing Climate Change

In an effort to more accurately predict climate change, researchers from Atos and NVIDIA will run new AI and deep learning models on Europes fastest supercomputer at the Jlich Supercomputing Center. Such giant-scale models can be used to predict the evolution of extreme weather events and their changing behavior due to global warming, and they will benefit greatly from exascale-class computing.

The JUWELS Booster system, based on AtosBullSequana XH2000 platform, with nearly 2.5 exaflops of AI and 3,744NVIDIA A100 Tensor Core GPUsand NVIDIA Quantum InfiniBand networking, will help provide deeper understanding of climate change and more accurate long-term predictions of events, such as hurricanes, extreme precipitation, and heat and cold waves.

Atos is strongly committed to itsdecarbonization objectives, which are to offset all of our residual emissions by 2028 to reach net zero, and to reach the SBTi target to reduce our global carbon emissions under our control and influence by 50 percent by 2025, said Andy Grant, vice president of global sales for HPC, AI and Quantum at Atos. Many leading climate modeling centers, such asMeteo France,DKRZ, KNMI andAEMet, are using our BullSequana supercomputers to run their large weather and climate models, and the current EXAIL announcement is a clear demonstration of our commitment, one year after the creation of ourCenter of Excellence in Weather and Climate Modellingwith ECMWF.

Climate change intensifies and increases the frequency of extreme weather events that disrupt entire regions, costing governments and economies hundreds of billions each year, said Ian Buck, vice president and general manager of Accelerated Computing at NVIDIA. The goal for EXAIL is to advance vital research to address pressing global challenges surrounding climate change.

Accelerating Medical Research With HPC, Quantum and AI

Supercharging medical breakthroughs with computational genomics is revolutionizing drug discovery and healthcare.Atos Life Sciences Center of Excellencehas partnered with 40 leading institutions to leverage HPC, quantum computing and AI to advance medical imaging, genomics and pharmaceuticals. TheNVIDIA Clara healthcare application frameworkprovides supercomputing performance for genomics, healthcare imaging and computational chemistry applications.

EXAIL will harness Atos advanced computing solutions and NVIDIA Clara to help healthcare researchers and providers accelerate drug discovery and design advanced diagnostic solutions using embedded, edge, data center and cloud platforms.

Advancing Quantum Research

Quantum computing holds the potential to solve complex problems in fields like drug discovery, climate research, machine learning, logistics and finance. But much research remains before quantum computers become viable.

AtosQuantum Learning Machine, a quantum software development and simulation appliance for the coming quantum computer era, enables researchers and engineers to develop and experiment with quantum software. It will use NVIDIA GPUs to help dramatically increase the speed and scale of quantum simulations. This will speed the research in quantum algorithms, quantum information science, new quantum processor architectures and hybrid quantum-GPU system architectures.

Accelerating Computer Vision

Using Atos edge appliances, such as itsBullSequana Edgewhich runs onNVIDIA BlueField DPUs, the research teams at EXAIL will work together to accelerate computer vision and 5G wireless infrastructure. Six Atos labs around the world dedicated to computer vision will be equipped with the latestNVIDIA Fleet Command technologyfor secure deployment and management of AI applications across distributed edge infrastructure.

Advancing Zero-Trust Cybersecurity

Furthermore, the EXAIL research teams will develop a new data-center-to-edge, zero-trust cybersecurity platform leveraging theNVIDIA Morpheus open AI framework, as well as new AI models to instantly detect new cybersecurity threats.

About Atos

Atos is a global leader in digital transformation with 107,000 employees and annual revenue of over 11 billion. European number one in cybersecurity, cloud and high performance computing, the Group provides tailored end-to-end solutions for all industries in 71 countries. A pioneer in decarbonization services and products, Atos is committed to a secure and decarbonized digital for its clients. Atos is a SE (Societas Europaea), listed on Euronext Paris and included on the CAC 40 ESG and Next 20 Paris Stock Indexes. Thepurpose of Atosis to help design the future of the information space. Its expertise and services support the development of knowledge, education and research in a multicultural approach and contribute to the development of scientific and technological excellence. Across the world, the Group enables its customers and employees, and members of societies at large to live, work and develop sustainably, in a safe and secure information space.

About NVIDIA

NVIDIAs invention of the GPU in 1999 sparked the growth of the PC gaming market and has redefined modern computer graphics, high performance computing and artificial intelligence. The companys pioneering work in accelerated computing and AI is reshaping trillion-dollar industries, such as transportation, healthcare and manufacturing, and fueling the growth of many others. More information at https://nvidianews.nvidia.com/.

Source: NVIDIA

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