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Quantum Computing and the Cryptography Conundrum –

By: Anand Patil

On October 23, 2019, researchers from Google made an official announcement of a major breakthrough one that scientists compared to the Wright Brothers first flight, or even mans first moon landing. They said to have achieved Quantum Supremacy, meaning that they had created a Quantum Computer that could perform a calculation that is considered impossible by the classical computers of today. The announcement was a landmark, highlighting the possibilities of Quantum Computing.

The concept of Quantum Computing itself isnt new. It is a field that has been a point of interest of physicists and computer researchers since the 1980s. Googles announcement, however, has brought it to the mainstream, and shone a spotlight on the promise that this niche field of innovation holds. Of course, like someone once said, with great power comes with great responsibility, so this field isnt without complexities.

The Possibilities of Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing is a branch of computer science that is focused on leveraging the principles of quantum physics to develop computer technology. Quantum Computers hold the promise to power major advances in various fields that require complex calculations from materials science and pharmaceuticals to aerospace and artificial intelligence (AI).

So far, Quantum Computers have been nothing more than fancy laboratory experiments large and expensive but they have successfully demonstrated that the underlying principles are sound and have the potential to transform industries and accelerate innovation like never before. This has spurred scientific and industrial interest in this nascent field, giving rise to multiple projects across the world in pursuit of creating a viable, general-use Quantum Computer. That said, it may still be many years before Quantum Computers are commercially and generally available.

So Why Does It Matter Today?The possibility of Quantum Computers poses a serious challenge to cryptographic algorithms deployed widely today. Todays key-exchange algorithms, like RSA, Diffie-Hellman, and others, rely on very difficult mathematical problems such as prime factorization for their security, which a Quantum computer would be able to solve much faster than a classical computer.

For example, it would take a classical computer centuries or even longer, to break modern algorithms like DH, RSA-2048 etc. by using brute-force methods. However, given the power and efficiency of quantum machines in calculations such as finding prime factors of large numbers it may be possible for a quantum computer to break current asymmetric algorithms in a matter of days

So, while the encrypted internet is not at risk at the moment, all that a bad actor has to do is capture the encrypted data today including the initial key exchange, and then wait until a powerful enough quantum computer is available to decrypt it. This is particularly a problem for organizations that have large amounts of sensitive data that they need to protect over the long term such as Banks, Governments and Defense agencies.

What Can I Do Now?For organizations that could be at risk in the future, this is the best time to start evaluating post-quantum cryptography. Simply put, this means moving to algorithms and/or keys that are a lot more robust and can withstand a brute-force attack by a quantum computer i.e. quantum resistant.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the US is leading the effort towards the standardization of post-quantum secure algorithms. However, given the lengthy process involved, this may take many years to fructify.

An alternative is to use Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) techniques with existing algorithms that are considered quantum-safe. This involves using a dedicated optical channel to exchange keys using the quantum properties of photons. Any attempt to tap this secure channel will lead to a change in the quantum state of the photon and can be immediately detected and therefore the key is unhackable. One of the limitations of QKD in this method is the need for a dedicated optical channel that cannot span more than 50km between the two terminals. Of course, this also means that the existing encryption devices or routers should be capable of ingesting such Quantum-Generated keys.

Post-Quantum Cryptography and CiscoCisco is an active contributor to the efforts to standardize post-quantum algorithms. However, recognizing that an implementable standard may be some years away, there is work ongoing to ensure that organizations are able to implement quantum-resistant encryption techniques in the interim, that leverage existing network devices like routers which are most commonly used as encryptors.

To start with, a team of veteran technical leaders and cryptography experts from Cisco US David McGrew, Scott Fluhrer, Lionel Florit and the engineering team in Cisco India lead by Amjad Inamdar and Ramas Rangaswamy developed an API interface called the Secure Key Import Protocol or SKIP through which Cisco routers can securely ingest keys from an external post-quantum key source. This allows existing Cisco routers to be quantum-ready, with just the addition of an external QKD system. Going forward, this team is working on a way to deliver quantum-safe encryption keys without the need for short-range point-to-point connections.

The advantage of this method is that organizations can integrate post-quantum key sources with existing networking gear in a modular fashion without the need to replace anything already installed. In this manner, you could create a quantum-ready network for all traffic with minimal effort.

Getting Ready for the Post-Quantum WorldQuantum Supremacy is an event which demonstrates that a quantum machine is able to solve a problem that no classical computer can solve in a feasible amount of time. This race has gathered momentum in the recent past with several companies joining the bandwagon, and some even claiming to have achieved it.

There is an unprecedented amount of attention focused on making a commercially viable quantum computer. Many believe it is inevitable, and only a question of time. When it does happen, the currently used cryptography techniques will become vulnerable, and therefore be limited in their security. The good news is, there are methods available to adopt strong encryption techniques that will remain secure even after quantum computers are generally available.

If you are an organization that wants to protect its sensitive data over the long term, you should start to evaluate post-quantum secure encryption techniques today. By leveraging existing networking infrastructure and adding suitable post-quantum key distribution techniques, it is possible to take a quantum leap in securing your data.

(The author is Director, Systems Engineering, Cisco India and SAARC and the views expressed in this article are his own)

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Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market Trends and Forecast to 2028 – TechnoWeekly

Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense

COVID-19 Industry impact

The market research extensively explores the effect of the COVID-19 outbreak on the market for Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market. Limits resulting in low sales and sector operators dominating the hospitality industry are at risk due to the lockdowns imposed to contain the spread of the virus, as cafes and restaurants have closed temporarily. Demand from food service providers is expected to recover, as the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions are easy. However, some participants may be forced to leave the sector.

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Features of Key Market Research

Overview of the Market Study:

The market research also analyses methods such as PORTER analysis, PEST analysis, and SWOT analysis to provide companies with quality evaluation. It helps arrange and inspire companies investment strategies for a particular business segment in the near future. The review of market attributes, market overview, industry chain, historical and future data by categories, applications, and regions, and competition landscape are included in this market research. Industry research involves analyzing the global environment in order to estimate the markets vulnerabilities, assets, opportunities, and risks.

Insights on the Market

The purpose of the market study is to include evidence, estimates, statistics, historical data, and market data verified by the industry, as well as the appropriate methodology and evaluation for a full market evaluation. The market research also helps understand the structure by evaluating the dynamics of the market segments. Market segmentation is split on the basis of content, form, end-user, and region.

Segmentation of the Market

This detailed market analysis of Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market also provides a thorough summary and description of every segment offered in the analysis. Based on their market size, growth rate, and general attractiveness in terms of investment information and incremental value growth, the main segments are benchmarked. Market segmentation is divided into sub-groups, based on certain significant common attributes, into a wide customer or business market.

Segmented By Component (Hardware, Software, Services), By Application (QKD, Quantum Cryptanalysis, Quantum Sensing, Naval)

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Regional Estimation:

In terms of different geographies, the Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market report provides a comprehensive perspective on industry growth over the projected period, including Asia Pacific ( APAC), Europe (EU), North America (NA), Latin America (LATAM), and Middle East & Africa (MEA) revenue estimates.

Business Competitive Background:

The competitive market for Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense is measured by the number of domestic and foreign players participating in the market. The main focus is on the companys growth, merger, acquisition, and alliance, along with new product creation as measured strategies implemented by influential corporations to improve their customer market presence. D-Wave Systems Inc, Qxbranch LLC, IBM Corporation, Cambridge Quantum Computing Ltd, 1qb Information Technologies Inc., QC Ware Corp., Magiq Technologies Inc., Station Q-Microsoft Corporation, and Rigetti Computing are the prominent market participants examined and profiled in this study.

Highlights of the Market

The market study presents information on key manufacturers of Quantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market and revenues, profits, recent growth, and market share of key players. In order to evaluate the global and key regionsQuantum Computing in Aerospace and Defense Market advantages, potentials, opportunity, constraints, threat, and risks, the report has divided the breakdown data by category, regions, businesses, and applications.

By covering all markets, offering quality analysis, and insights to help our customers make the right choices, the market study offers solutions. The latest trends, niche areas, and leading company profiles are included in the study. To provide reliable and useful information, the market research database consists of numerous reports updated on a regular basis.

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New York needs to be reimagined with technology and job training – Crain’s New York Business

Our response to Covid-19 offers a similar opportunity. Although theres no doubt we must focus on addressing immediate problems (schools, contact tracing, saving small businesses), we also should put thought into New Yorks future. Repairing is one thing, but designing a foundation is another. The new street grid, transit reforms and development policies that came out of 9/11 attest to the importance of the latter.

New York leaders should therefore take a few steps to chart the 21st century. In addition to controlling the virus and helping people in need, we must develop a grand strategy that recognizes the economic changes that were already happening before the pandemic, and leverage them in a way that benefits everyone.

Step one: capitalizing on emerging industries. Here the tech sector is a good starting point. Not only will tech companies continue to grow, but so too will tech aid and fuel the growth of every other kind of business. The areas that we should invest in include cybersecurity, quantum computing, artificial intelligence, transportation and smart manufacturing. Not only are they slated to create many jobs, but they also will increasingly undergird every other industry. A recent study on the projected impact of quantum computing on the New York economy, for instance, found that more than 57,000 new jobs will be generated in this area during the next five years, with that number expected to continue to grow as the technology advances. Policymakers and entrepreneurs need to work together to ensure that momentum keeps moving into the next decade, and create the right business conditions for New York to become an emerging tech hub.

Another way of putting this is reinvention by necessity. With more and more of our lives happening in a virtual world, the safety and efficiency challenges facing organizations have changed. Cyber threats, for example, are now a regular vulnerability for businesses and governments alike. Companies need rapid data processing like never before. Quantum computing and advanced malware detection are crucial for the economy. Not only will emerging tech generate growth, but it will also be a necessary component for the economy of tomorrow.

The next steps are doubling down on workforce development and ensuring that people can actually break into the sectors. Job openings in AI and cybersecurity dont mean much if New Yorkers arent qualified for them. We, therefore, need to expand our roster of digital skills programmingwhich includes computer science in the classroom, boot camps for aspiring coders, and a bevy of private training classes for entrepreneurs and workers. If the tech economy is to be inclusive, well need to put as much emphasis on teaching people the requisite skills as we do teaching them arithmetic.

Closing the digital divide is another step. Before Covid-19, we were already spending a lot of time online. In the midst of the pandemic, that trend has been amplified. People now need speedy, affordable internet connections to do their job, go to school, pay bills and get through each day. The fact that there are disparities in internet access is an impediment to the economy and only exacerbates existing inequalities. A strong 5G network throughout the city and state would help solve that issue and ultimately allow workers to take the necessary steps to move into the tech sector.

The good news is we already have parts of the foundation. New York has nearly unlimited investment resources, and state and local leaders have shown their appreciation for what tech can do.

The key is tying all the parts together and creating a new economy that offers opportunities to all.

Lynn McMahon is themanaging director of Accentures metro New York office. Julie Samuels is the executive director of Tech:NYC.

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Forum Teratec 2020 Gathered Experts in Simulation, HPC, Big Data and AI – HPCwire

Oct. 19, 2020 Held in digital format on October 13 and 14, 2020, given the circumstances of COVID-19, Forum Teratec gathered over 1200 experts in Simulation, HPC, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence. It brought together industrialists, users, suppliers and political decision-makers around the essential issue of digital. As President of Teratec Daniel Verwaerde said in his introduction: This crisis demonstrates the fundamental importance of digital, and especially HPC and HPDA in our lives and in our economy.

The Forum Teratec 2020 was up to the challenge of previous years editions, welcoming more than 1,200 participants. It brought together major European decision-makers virtually, including Thierry Breton, the European Commissioner, Florence Parly, the French Minister of the Armed Forces and many industrialists. More than sixty companies and innovative projects presented their latest results with the ability for participants to share experiences during business meetings. In addition, six thematic workshops attended by national and international experts provided an opportunity to review the latest technological advances, in the fields of digital-twin in medicine, quantum computing, satellite data and the environment, AI and scientific computing, Cloud computing and HPC or Exascale.

One strategic stake, both political and economical

In all economic fields, these technologies will be essential and companies able to master them will be the leaders of tomorrow. Thierry Breton, European Commissioner for the Internal Market clearly stated: High-Performance Computing represents a major strategic challenge for Europe as much industrial, technological and, of course, scientific. It is also one of the pillars of our digital autonomy.

Digital autonomy for European States will require the implementation of a network of supercomputers on their territory for all users in industry, research and the public sector.

The European Commission has identified HPC as one of key pillars of the digital decade and decided to invest, together with Member States and industry, more than 8 billion in new-generation supercomputers under the EuroHPC Joint Undertaking.

Beyond supercomputers, European sovereignty is also conditioned by Europes ability to produce processors at best global scope, in order to reduce its dependence in this strategic area. It is also in the process of bringing together all the players involved (research organizations, small and large enterprises, public authorities) within digital ecosystems capable of mastering those technologies that will guarantee Europes competitiveness in the global economy.

Key technologies for all economic sectors

For Florence Parly, French Minister of the Armed Forces: Artificial Intelligence, High-Performance Computing, Quantum computing and, more generally, breakthrough innovations linked to data are subjects of prime importance for the Ministry of the Armed Forces. They are therefore at the heart of innovation and investment strategies, with the aim of devoting them 1 billion a year from 2022.

HPC in the COVID-19 era

During the roundtable discussion How can digital technology serve health in the age of COVID-19?, major sponsors of the Forum Teratec discussed the contribution of HPC and HPDA to the health sector, with obvious particular focus on the COVID-19 pandemic. They were thus able to demonstrate the value of these technologies in the management of the pandemic and in research for treatments and vaccines.

Innovation is core for the 6th Trophies for Simulation and AI 2020

The 6th Simulation and AI 2020 Trophies, organized with LUsine Digitale in partnership with Ansys, the CEA, Inria and Smart 4D, rewarded innovative projects or companies that have carried out an outstanding operation in the field of digital simulation, high-performance computing, Big Data or AI, or their application to healthcare. For each category, the winners are:

Closing the Forum Teratec, Daniel Verwaerde concluded: The Forum Teratec 2020 has shown the major importance of HPC and HPDA for the management of the health crisis and for industrial recovery. I would like to thank over than 1,200 participants who made it a remarkable success, and I look forward to seeing them again at the Forum Teratec 2021 next June, 22 and 23.

Source: Teratec

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The Week of October 19, 2020 – FYI: Science Policy News

DOE Selects Reactor Projects for New Demonstration Program

On Oct. 13, the Department of Energy announced awards of $80 million each for two nuclear reactor development projects, funding the first year of new cost-sharing partnerships that aim to demonstrate working prototypes. One of the recipients is TerraPower, a venture backed by Microsoft founder Bill Gates that is developing a reactor design known as Natrium, which uses molten salt as a coolant and aims to be more economical than traditional nuclear power plants. The other recipient is X-energy, which is developing a reactor called Xe-100 that is cooled by helium gas and fueled by TRISO (TRi-structural ISOtropic) fuel pellets that are designed to make meltdowns impossible and enable refueling without a plant shutdown. Congress created the demonstration program through last years appropriations legislation and, while the Trump administration has proposed discontinuing the awards, DOE anticipates it will spend a total of $3.2 billion on them over the next seven years if the funding is made available. The department also expects to make smaller awards in December to between two and five reactor development projects for reducing technical risks, and to at least two early-stage reactor concept development projects. Through its Project Pele, the Defense Department is also funding the development of three TRISO-based designs for mobile nuclear reactors, including one proposed by X-energy, and may eventually support one of the projects through to a prototype demonstration.

The Wall Street Journal reported on Oct. 17 that Chinese government representatives have privately warned U.S. officials that Americans in China may be detained in response to recent arrests of scientists with ties to Chinas military. This summer, the Department of Justice charged three visiting researchers and one graduate student with visa fraud, alleging they lied about their connections to the Chinese military on visa applications. It also charged a visiting researcher for destroying a hard drive, arguing the act interfered with an investigation into possible transfer of sensitive software to Chinas National University of Defense Technology. The department did not confirm the threats to the Journal, but stated, We are aware that the Chinese government has, in other instances, detained American, Canadian, and other individuals without legal basis to retaliate against lawful prosecutions and to exert pressure on their governments, with a callous disregard of the individuals involved. In 2018, China arrested two Canadian citizens shortly after Canada detained the chief financial officer of the telecommunications company Huawei, whom the U.S. had charged with evading sanctions against Iran.

The American Physical Society announced last week it has filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the State Department seeking details on therecent revocation of more than 1,000 visas held by Chinese students and researchers. A May 2020 proclamation by President Trump empowered the department to cancel visas for certain Chinese graduate students and researchers deemed to have current or past ties to an unnamed set of institutions affiliated with the Chinese military. APS states that no administration officials they met with could or were willing to provide any details, such as: an example of a case of student espionage involving university basic research; the number of students the administration claims have engaged in or are charged with espionage; or, an estimate of the impact to the U.S. of the alleged espionage that would form the basis for the proclamation. The FOIA request seeks all internal policy documents related to the proclamation, the names of institutions it applies to, and the names of the U.S. institutions the visa holders were planning to attend, among other details. The request argues, Lacking any public explanation, the denial of visas will only contribute to the growing view that the United States is unwelcoming to foreigners and thereby diminish the ability of the United States to attract top talent, as the APS has seen in its annual survey of international students. (APS is an AIP Member Society.)

The White House published a National Strategy for Critical and Emerging Technologies last week that outlines general steps the U.S. is taking to bolster the National Security Innovation Base and protect technology advantage, such as fostering public-private partnerships and expanding export controls. The strategy also lists 20 broad types of critical and emerging technologies that are identified as priorities across the government. The list overlaps with the White Houses Industries of the Future framework and includes additional items such as energy technologies and chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear mitigation technologies. In a statement on the strategy, the Commerce Department highlighted its implementation of multilateral export controls on certain emerging technologies pursuant to the Export Control Reform Act of 2018. The latest set, published this month, applies to hybrid additive manufacturing/computer numerically controlled tools; computational lithography software designed for the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet masks; technology for finishing wafers for five nanometer integrated circuit production; digital forensics tools that circumvent authentication or authorization controls on a computer and extract raw data; software for monitoring and analysis of communications and metadata acquired from a telecommunications service provider via a handover interface; and sub-orbital spacecraft.

On Oct. 15, the National Academies announced that its newly established National Science, Technology, and Security Roundtable will be led by MIT Vice President for Research Maria Zuber, former National Intelligence Council Chair John Gannon, and former Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chair Richard Meserve. The roundtable will serve as a forum for representatives of the scientific community, federal science agencies, the intelligence community, and law enforcement officials to discuss concerns and activities related to securing research against exploitation by foreign governments. Congress mandated its creation through the Securing American Science and Technology Act, enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2020. The National Academies has long played a role in advising the government on research security matters, such as through the 1982 Corson report and the 2009 report Beyond Fortress America.

In its quarterly tranche of recommendations released last week, the National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence proposes a set of broad STEM workforce development initiatives as well as more targeted efforts in microelectronics, quantum computing, and biotechnology. Among its 66 recommendations are for Congress to provide the National Science Foundation with $8 billion over five years to fund 25,000 STEM undergraduate scholarships, 5,000 STEM graduate fellowships, and 500 postdoctoral positions. It also proposes creating a National Microelectronics Scholar Program modeled on the Department of Defenses SMART scholarship-for-service program. For quantum computing, the commission recommends providing researchers with access to quantum computers through a national cloud computing infrastructure and incentivizing domestic manufacturing of component materials through tax credits and loan guarantees. The commission also calls for the White House to create a Technology Competitiveness Council chaired by the vice president to focus government attention on technological innovation.

Among the 97 recommendations released last week by the House Select Committee on the Modernization of Congress is a proposal to reconstitute the long-defunct Office of Technology Assessment as a Congressional Technology and Innovation Lab. The committee explains the new entity would go beyond the mandate of the original OTA by proactively studying and testing new technologies rather than waiting for directives to study technologies. It adds that the lab would employ nonpartisan experts, visiting professors, and graduate students to provide fresh perspectives to members of Congress and their staff. In recent years, there has been a renewed push within Congress to revive OTA, though House appropriators backed away from the idea this year, instead favoring continued expansion of the Government Accountability Offices Science, Technology, Assessment, and Analytics team.

The United Kingdom-based scientific journal Nature officially endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden on Oct. 14.Having previously published a news article reviewing ways that President Trump has damaged science, the journal's editorsfurther evaluateTrumps record on issues connected to science and criticizes his divisive approach to politics more generally. TheyargueBiden would chart a starkly different course on matters such as the pandemic, climate change, environmental regulation, and immigration, and urge, Joe Biden must be given an opportunity to restore trust in truth, in evidence, in science and in other institutions of democracy, heal a divided nation, and begin the urgent task of rebuilding the United States reputation in the world. While some scientific publications have broken longstanding positions of neutrality to weigh in on this years election, Nature previously backed Hillary Clinton in 2016, when it referred to Trump as a demagogue not fit for high office, and in 2008 it issued a more measured endorsement of Barack Obama.

More than 1,000 current and former officers of the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Epidemiology Intelligence Service fellowship programsigned a letter published this month that proteststhe ominous politicization and silencing of the agency. Representing more than a quarter of the people who have participated in the program throughout its nearly 70 year history, the letter adds to the mounting criticism of how the Trump administration has sought control over CDCs pandemic-response efforts. This past week, the Associated Press reported that in June the Trump administration assigned two appointees to the agencys headquarters tasked with keeping an eye on CDC Director Robert Redfield, according to a half-dozen CDC and administration officials. The assignment was made during the same period that the chief spokesperson and a science adviser at the agencys parent department sought to exert control over CDC messaging and scientific products. Both those individuals departed the department last month under a cloud of scandal.

During her nomination hearing last week to fill the Supreme Court vacancy left by the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, Amy Coney Barrett declined to explain her personal views on climate change when pressed by Democratic senators. In one exchange, vice presidential candidate Sen. Kamala Harris (D-CA) asked Barrett if she believes smoking causes cancer and whether coronavirus is infectious before then asking if she believes climate change is occurring. Barrett agreed that the coronavirus is infectious and smoking causes cancer, but declined to provide a direct response on climate change, stating, I will not express a view on a matter of public policy, especially one that is politically controversial because thats inconsistent with the judicial role. Harris observed that Barretts appointment to the court could have implications for climate policy, noting Justice Ginsberg voted in favor of the landmark 5-to-4 Massachusetts v. EPA case, which enabled the government to regulate greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act.

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Physicists Propose New Field of Study Related to Coherent Ising Machine – Business Wire

PALO ALTO, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--NTT Research, Inc., a division of NTT (TYO:9432), today announced that Dr. Yoshihisa Yamamoto, the Director of its Physics and Informatics (PHI) Lab, along with colleagues at several academic institutions, has proposed an interdisciplinary research agenda that amounts to a new field of academic study. Their proposal, which arises in the course of addressing a fundamental research problem, appears in an article titled Coherent Ising Machines: Quantum optics and neural network perspectives, published as a Perspectives cover article in Applied Physics Letters (APL) (117 (16) (2020)). The collaborating authors from Stanford University are Drs. Surya Ganguli and Hideo Mabuchi, associate professor and professor, respectively, of applied physics in the School of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University.

A Coherent Ising Machine (CIM) is a special-purpose processor designed to address particularly difficult types of problems that can be mapped to an Ising model, such as combinatorial optimization problems. The Ising model, named after the physicist Ernst Ising, consists of variables that represent interacting spins, i.e. forms of a fundamental particles angular momentum. A CIM is actually a network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and solves problems by finding the spin configuration that minimizes a problems Ising energy function. (Here is a visualization from MITs Lincoln Laboratory of how a CIM resolves the textbook combinatorial optimization problem of the traveling salesperson; potential current applications range from logistics to medicine to machine learning and beyond.) One condition for the optimal spin state is that it occur well above the lasing threshold, the point at which optical gain of the laser is balanced against its losses. A basic problem of the CIM, however, is that when the laser pump rate is increased from below to above threshold, the machine may be prevented from relaxing to true ground state, for reasons related to the behavior of eigenvectors with minimum values. This article explores two approaches to that problem. The first involves coherent spreading over local minima via quantum noise correlation; the second, implementing real-time error correction feedback. In their discussion of these approaches, the authors offer various perspectives based on a range of interdisciplinary viewpoints that span quantum optics, neural networks and message passing.

Along the way, write the co-authors in the article, we will touch upon connections between the CIM and foundational concepts spanning the fields of statistical physics, mathematics and computer science, including dynamical systems theory, bifurcation theory, chaos, spin glasses, belief propagation and survey propagation.

One reason for engaging in a cross-pollination of ideas across classical, quantum and neural approaches to combinatorial optimization is that, to date, CIM studies could be characterized as primarily experimentally-driven. Large-scale measurement feedback coupling coherent Ising machine (MFB-CIM) prototypes constructed by NTT Basic Research Laboratories are reaching levels of computational performance that, in a fundamental sense, we do not really understand, write the authors. That situation stands in marked contrast to that of mainstream quantum computing, in which laboratory efforts have lagged behind theoretical analyses.

We look forward to accelerated advancement of learning in both the theoretical and experimental studies of CIMs, said Dr. Yoshihisa Yamamoto, director of the PHI Lab at NTT Research, and one of the articles co-authors. Although there is no well-defined method for launching a new academic field of study, we see many rich possibilities for future interdisciplinary research, focused around a multifaceted theoretical and experimental approach to combinatorial optimization that unites perspectives from statistics, computer science, statistical physics and quantum optics, and we are grateful to the editors of APL for providing a forum from which to launch this proposal.

A publication of AIP Publishing, a wholly owned, not-for-profit subsidiary of the American Institute of Physics (AIP), APL features concise, up-to-date reports on significant new findings in applied physics. Perspectives are a new invitation-only article type for the journal, seeking personal views and scientific directions from experts in the field, said APL Editor-in-Chief Lesley F. Cohen. We are absolutely delighted that Dr. Yamamoto and his colleagues accepted our invitation to produce their fascinating and timely Perspective article on this emerging and important topic.

The NTT Research PHI Lab has itself already cast a wide net, as part of its long-range goal to radically redesign artificial computers, both classical and quantum. It has established joint research agreements with seven universities, one government agency and quantum computing software company, covering a wide range of topics. Those universities are California Institute of Technology (CalTech), Cornell University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Notre Dame University, Stanford University, Swinburne University of Technology and the University of Michigan. The government entity is NASA Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, and the private company is 1QBit.

About NTT Research

NTT Research opened its Palo Alto offices in July 2019 as a new Silicon Valley startup to conduct basic research and advance technologies that promote positive change for humankind. Currently, three labs are housed at NTT Research: the Physics and Informatics (PHI) Lab, the Cryptography and Information Security (CIS) Lab, and the Medical and Health Informatics (MEI) Lab. The organization aims to upgrade reality in three areas: 1) quantum information, neuro-science and photonics; 2) cryptographic and information security; and 3) medical and health informatics. NTT Research is part of NTT, a global technology and business solutions provider with an annual R&D budget of $3.6 billion.

NTT and the NTT logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION and/or its affiliates. All other referenced product names are trademarks of their respective owners. 2020 NIPPON TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE CORPORATION

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