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New Details Revealed on How Plants Maintain a Healthy Sperm-Egg Ratio – UMass News and Media Relations

AMHERST, Mass. Current molecular biochemistry, microscopy and genetic techniques have become so powerful that scientists can now make mechanistic discoveries supported by multiple lines of evidence about intimate processes in plant reproduction that once were very difficult to examine, says molecular biologist Alice Cheung at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

She is the senior author of a new paper in Nature describing how she and her team used such tools to solve, in unprecedented detail, the mechanisms of how flowering plants avoid polyspermy. As the name suggests, polyspermy results from multiple sperm entering and fertilizing an egg, a condition harmful to the zygote. In plants, preventing polyspermy also means higher chances for more females to be fertilized and ensures better seed yields, both of which are agriculturally important, Cheung points out.

For years, she and her long-time collaborator Hen-Ming Wu have led a team that includes a former postdoctoral associate, Qiaohong Duan, a current postdoc Ming-Che (James) Liu, and several graduate students in investigating FERONIAs dual roles in reproduction. For the current paper Duan and Liu are co-first authors.

Cheung says, It is very exciting to be able to explain how in multiple steps a plant creates an environment in its ovule, where the egg cell is located, that is first receptive to an incoming pollen tube to deliver sperm, but once fertilization is ensured it will instantly switch to block more pollen tubes from approaching to guard against polyspermy. These two acts are controlled by a gene called FERONIA, she adds, which encodes the FERONIA receptor kinase that senses signals on the cell surface and instructs the cell to respond appropriately.

Cheung says one of the key discoveries in their latest work is FERONIAs role in the cell wall and, in particular, its ability to interact with pectin, a sugar polymer in the wall. As conditions vary, one form of this polymer, called de-esterified pectin, can maintain a malleable wall, for example, so the first pollen tube arriving at the egg chamber inside the ovule can penetrate. But this pectin can also abruptly harden after the first pollen tube has penetrated, blocking more from entering.

This special pectin also triggers other activity, they discovered. Cheung and colleagues say they observed for the first time that de-esterified pectin serves as a signal to trigger an environment enriched in nitric oxide (NO) at the entrance to the egg chamber. In a series of bioassays, molecular interaction and biochemical analyses, they show that this gaseous signaling molecule modifies and de-activates a chemoattractant produced by the female to guide pollen tubes to their target. This quick change insures that late-arriving pollen tubes cannot approach an already fertilized ovule.

Cheung explains, As a gas, NO can diffuse very quickly, maybe even instantly as it is produced. The title of our paper, FERONIA controls pectin- and nitric oxide-mediated male-female interaction captures how our latest work connects these two FERONIA- controlled conditions. What led us to our findings is that without FERONIA, the cell wall is deficient in de-esterified pectin, but with FERONIA present, the wall works both as a source of signal molecules to trigger NO and also a physical barrier.

The molecular biologist says that because of its almost global importance to plant survival that her group and others have demonstrated, there are now likely dozens of labs around the world from plant stress physiologists to molecular structural biologists pursuing different aspects of FERONIA and its related proteins. Cheung says some of these proteins function together in very intriguing ways, so there is immense potential for advances in plant biology and fundamental signal transduction mechanisms from this very active field.

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Hero Proteins May Shield Other Proteins from Harm – The Scientist

Researchers at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo report the existence of a new class of proteins in Drosophila and human cell extracts that may serve as shields that protect other proteins from becoming damaged and causing disease. An excess of the proteins, known as Hero proteins, was associated with a 30 percent increase in the lifespan of Drosophila, according to the study, which was published last week (March 12) in PLOS Biology.

The discovery of Hero proteins has far-reaching implications, says Caitlin Davis, a chemist at Yale University who was not involved in the study, and should be considered both at a basic science level in biochemistry assays and for applications as a potential stabilizer in protein-based pharmaceuticals.

Nearly 10 years ago, Shintaro Iwasaki, then a graduate student studying biochemistry at the University of Tokyo, discovered a strangely heat-resistant protein in Drosophila that seemed to help stabilize another protein, Argonaute, in the face of high temperatures that would denature most proteins. Although he didnt publish the work at the time, Iwasaki called the new type of protein a Heat-resistant obscure (Hero) proteinnot because of their ability to rescue Argonaute from destruction, but because in Japan, the term hero means weak or not rigid, and Hero proteins dont have stiff 3-D structures like other proteins do. But recognition of a more widespread role for Hero proteins in protecting other molecules in the cell gives the name new meaning.

It is generally assumed that proteins are folded into three-dimensional structures, which determine their functions, says Kotaro Tsuboyama, a biochemist at the University of Tokyo and the lead author of the new study. But these 3-D structures are disrupted when the proteins are exposed to extreme conditions. When proteins are denatured, they lose the ability to function normally, and sometimes begin to aggregate, forming pathologic clumps that can lead to disease.

Hero proteins can survive these biologically challenging conditions. Heat-resistant proteins have been found in extremophilesorganisms known to live in extreme environmentsbut were thought to be rare in other organisms. In the new study, Tsuboyama and his team boiled lysates from Drosophila and human cell lines, identifying hundreds of Hero proteins that withstood the temperature.

The researchers selected six of these proteins and mixed them with client proteinsother functional proteins that on their own would be denatured by extreme conditionsbefore exposing them to high temperatures, drying, chemicals, and other harsh treatments. The Hero proteins prevented certain clients from losing their shape and function.

Next, the team tested the effects of Hero proteins in cellular models of two neurodegenerative disorders characterized by pathologic protein clumps: Huntingtons disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). When the Hero proteins were present, there was a significant reduction in protein clumping in both models.

This is an extremely important finding as it may pave new therapeutic and preventive strategies for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases, Morteza Mahmoudi, who studies regenerative medicine at Michigan State University and was not involved in the research, writes in an email to The Scientist.

Lastly, the team genetically engineered Drosophila to produce an excess of Hero proteins. These flies lived up to 30 percent longer than their wildtype counterparts.

Not everyone is convinced that the Hero proteins play a major protective role. Although they show these proteins help their proven targets remain folded/shielded etc, I dont think theres a broader application at all, Nihal Korkmaz, who designs proteins at the University of Washington Institute of Protein Design and also did not participate in the study, tells The Scientist in an email. She adds that many proteins she works with can withstand high temperatures and the researchers dont mention at all if [Hero proteins] are found throughout the brain or in CSF [cerebrospinal fluid], where theyd be able to protect against Huntingtons or ALS.

The authors emphasized that there is a lot left to learn about the proteins. Each Hero protein seems able to protect some client proteins, but not all of them. Moreover, amino acid sequences differ considerably between Hero proteins, making it difficult to predict their functions. The researchers write in the study that they hope future studies will help them identify which clients each Hero might work with.

Whatever discoveries future work might hold, Tsuboyama says, the scientific communitys reaction to the teams new study has been consistent: Almost everyone says that Hero proteins are interesting but mysterious.

K. Tsuboyama et al., A widespread family of heat-resistant obscure (Hero) proteins protect against protein instability and aggregation,PLOS Biol,doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3000632, 2020.

Emma Yasinski is a Florida-based freelance reporter. Follow her on Twitter@EmmaYas24.

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In vivo Comparison of the Biodistribution and Toxicity of InP/ZnS Quan | IJN – Dove Medical Press

Li Li,1,2 Yajing Chen,1 Gaixia Xu,2,3 Dongmeng Liu,1 Zhiwen Yang,1 Tingting Chen,1 Xiaomei Wang,1 Wenxiao Jiang,1 Dahui Xue,1 Guimiao Lin1

1Base for International Science and Technology Cooperation: Carson Cancer Stem Cell Vaccines R&D Center, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education/Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, Peoples Republic of China; 3Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples Republic of China

Correspondence: Guimiao LinSchool of Basic Medical Sciences, Shenzhen University Health Sciences Center, Shenzhen 518060, Peoples Republic of ChinaTel/ Fax +86-755-86671903Email gmlin@szu.edu.cn

Introduction: Indium phosphide (InP) quantum dots (QDs) have shown a broad application prospect in the fields of biophotonics and nanomedicine. However, the potential toxicity of InP QDs has not been systematically evaluated. In particular, the effects of different surface modifications on the biodistribution and toxicity of InP QDs are still unknown, which hinders their further developments. The present study aims to investigate the biodistribution and in vivo toxicity of InP/ZnS QDs.Methods: Three kinds of InP/ZnS QDs with different surface modifications, hQDs (QDs-OH), aQDs (QDs-NH2), and cQDs (QDs-COOH) were intravenously injected into BALB/c mice at the dosage of 2.5 mg/kg BW or 25 mg/kg BW, respectively. Biodistribution of three QDs was determined through cryosection fluorescence microscopy and ICP-MS analysis. The subsequent effects of InP/ZnS QDs on histopathology, hematology and blood biochemistry were evaluated at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-injection.Results: These types of InP/ZnS QDs were rapidly distributed in the major organs of mice, mainly in the liver and spleen, and lasted for 28 days. No abnormal behavior, weight change or organ index were observed during the whole observation period, except that 2 mice died on Day 1 after 25 mg/kg BW hQDs treatment. The results of H&E staining showed that no obvious histopathological abnormalities were observed in the main organs (including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain) of all mice injected with different surface-functionalized QDs. Low concentration exposure of three QDs hardly caused obvious toxicity, while high concentration exposure of the three QDs could cause some changes in hematological parameters or biochemical parameters related to liver function or cardiac function. More attention needs to be paid on cQDs as high-dose exposure of cQDs induced death, acute inflammatory reaction and slight changes in liver function in mice.Conclusion: The surface modification and exposure dose can influence the biological behavior and in vivo toxicity of QDs. The surface chemistry should be fully considered in the design of InP-based QDs for their biomedical applications.

Keywords: InP/ZnS quantum dots, surface chemistry, in vivo, biodistribution, nanotoxicology

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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In vivo Comparison of the Biodistribution and Toxicity of InP/ZnS Quan | IJN - Dove Medical Press

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Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons size and Key Trends in terms of volume and value 2019-2021 – News Times

Global Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons Market Report 2019 Market Size, Share, Price, Trend and Forecast is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons industry.

The report also covers segment data, including: type segment, industry segment, channel segment etc. cover different segment market size, both volume and value. Also cover different industries clients information, which is very important for the manufacturers.

There are 4 key segments covered in this report: competitor segment, product type segment, end use/application segment and geography segment.

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For competitor segment, the report includes global key players of Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons as well as some small players.

companies profiled in this report are BAE Systems, Inc.; Lamperd Less Lethal, Inc., Taser International, Inc.; Raytheon Company; Textron Systems, Corp.; General Dynamics Corporation; Chemring Group PLC.; Moog, Inc; Qinetiq Group, Inc.; and LRAD Corporation. These organizations focus on evolving innovative products after investment of substantial amount of their net sales in research and development for introducing progressive technologies with large range abilities, reduced weight, and relatively higher precision.

The segments covered in the Non-Lethal Biochemical Weapons market are as follows:

Global Non-Lethal Biochemical Weapons Market: By Operation Type

Global Non-Lethal Biochemical Weapons Market: By Product Type

Global Non-Lethal Biochemical Weapons Market: By End Use

Global Non-Lethal Biochemical Weapons Market: By Geography

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Who Are Opportunities, Risk and Driving Force of Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons market? Knows Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing and Downstream Buyers.

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What are the opportunities and threats faced by manufacturers in the global market?

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The content of the study subjects, includes a total of 15 chapters:

Chapter 1, to describe Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market driving force and market risks.

Chapter 2, to profile the top manufacturers of Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons , with price, sales, revenue and global market share of Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons in 2019 and 2015.

Chapter 3, the Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons competitive situation, sales, revenue and global market share of top manufacturers are analyzed emphatically by landscape contrast.

Chapter 4, the Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2019 to 2025.

Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, to break the sales data at the country level, with sales, revenue and market share for key countries in the world, from 2019 to 2025.

Chapter 10 and 11, to segment the sales by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2019 to 2025.

Chapter 12, Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons market forecast, by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2019 to 2025.

Chapter 13, 14 and 15, to describe Non-lethal Biochemical Weapons sales channel, distributors, customers, research findings and conclusion, appendix and data source.

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market 2020 Research By Business Opportunities, Top Players, Industry Growth And Global Forecast To 2026 -…

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market Report provides an in-depth analysis of the overall market over a period from 2020-2026. The report focuses on major key players, production details, their application, and countries and also analyzes the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity, and challenge, restraints, and risks.

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market 2020-2026: Segmentation

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1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market Introduction and Market Overview2 Industry Chain Analysis3 Global Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market, by Type4 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market, by Application5 Global Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Production, Value ($) by Region (2014-2019)6 Global Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Production, Consumption, Export, Import by Regions (2014-2019)7 Global Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market Status and SWOT Analysis by Regions8 Competitive Landscape9 Global Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market Analysis and Forecast by Type and Application10 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market Analysis and Forecast by Region11 New Project Feasibility Analysis12 Research Finding and Conclusion13 Appendix

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Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Analyzer Market 2020 Research By Business Opportunities, Top Players, Industry Growth And Global Forecast To 2026 -...

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Predictive Value of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 and Mini Nutrition | CIA – Dove Medical Press

Xiaoyan Zhang,* Xingliang Zhang,* Yunxia Zhu, Jun Tao, Zhen Zhang, Yue Zhang, Yanyan Wang, YingYing Ke, ChenXi Ren, Jun Xu

Department of Geriatrics, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth Peoples Hospital, Shanghai 200233, Peoples Republic of China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence: Xiaoyan Zhang Email zhangxy971088@hotmail.com

Background and Aim: The presence of malnutrition in hospitalized geriatric patients is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to examine the performance of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) in predicting mortality for hospitalized geriatric patients in China.Methods: A prospective analysis was performed in 536 hospitalized geriatric patients aged 65 years. Nutrition status was assessed using the MNA-SF and NRS2002 scales within 24hrs of admission. Anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters were carried out for each patient. Patients were follow-up for up to 2.5 years.Results: At baseline, 161 (30.04%) patients had malnutrition/nutritional risk according to NRS2002 assessment. According to MNA-SF, 284 (52.99%) patients had malnutrition/nutritional risk. Malnutrition/nutritional risk patients had lower anthropometric and biochemical parameters (P< 0.05). NRS2002 and MNA-SF had a strong correlation with classical nutritional markers (P< 0.05). NRS2002 versus MNA-SF showed moderate agreement (kappa=0.493, P< 0.001). During a median follow-up time of 795 days (range 10 947 days), 118 (22%) participants died. The KaplanMeier curve demonstrated that malnutrition/nutritional risk patients according to NRS2002 or MNA-SF assessment had a higher risk of mortality than the normal nutrition patients (2=17.67, P< 0.001; 2=28.999, P< 0.001, respectively). From the components of the Cox regression multivariate models, only the NRS2002 score was an independent risk factor inuencing the mortality.Conclusion: Both NRS2002 and MNA-SF scores could predict mortality in Chinese hospitalized geriatric patients. But only NRS2002 score was the independent predictor for mortality.

Keywords: NRS2002, MNA-SF, elderly, nutritional screening, malnutrition

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License.By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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