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Category Archives: Chemistry
Since everyone is being forced these days to think about immunology, lets consider it in terms of chemistry and drug discovery. You can get two very different perspectives based on where you stand. From one view, inflammation and immune response might look like a wonderfully productive area for small molecules. Aspirin, dexamethasone, ibuprofen, hydrocortisone there are classic drugs that work on and near these pathways and have been used successfully by uncounted millions of patients. In the modern era, the list of best-selling prescription drugs prominently features antibodies and fusion proteins aimed at immunologic targets such as TNF-alpha and CD20, as treatments for inflammatory diseases from rheumatoid arthritis to cancer.
But from another vantage point, the whole field is full of trap doors, dead ends, and irritable dragons. Dexamethasone and other such steroids have such powerful effects (and powerful side effects) that they have to be administered carefully and for short periods. Thats why compounds such as ibuprofen were hailed as being anti-inflammatories that (good news!) werent steroids. The list of potential side effects for those antibodies is also long and impressive. To pick a particularly dramatic example that many will recall, a 2006 attempt by TeGenero to create a super-agonist for the T-cell receptor CD28 led to catastrophic effects in the Phase 1 volunteers, many of whom barely survived the initial dose.
Thats what the immune system has to offer: tremendous power, but power that can be aimed in all sorts of directions. And because immunology itself is so wildly, insanely complicated, there are a bewildering number of potential targets to think about. Were looking at hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary tinkering; there are layers upon layers of tangled, interlocking signaling pathways and mechanisms. Theres the innate immune system always on but rather nonselective and the adaptive system that features a gigantic combinatorial chemical library of antibodies that we all carry around with us for our entire lives slower to get going, but capable of feats of recognition that we still have trouble matching in the laboratory. Those aeons of evolution have been a walk down the narrow path between too little activity, opening the door to fatal infections, and too much, leading to autoimmune syndromes and responses to an infection that are worse than the disease itself. Its little wonder that the systems are encrusted with regulatory loops, flywheels, and gear-shifting mechanisms.
As usual, most of what drug discovery has to offer is an assortment of grit, sand, and spanners to throw into this apparatus. We are far, far better at shutting particular enzymes and receptors down than we are in turning any particular signal up. When you do see a drug mechanism that enhances some sort of activity, odds are good that it works by inhibiting something else that was in turn suppressing the desired target. A great number of interesting ideas in the field dont seem to be amenable to small-molecule manipulation at all, which is where those antibodies come in. The requisite binding sites can be too large and the selectivity needed to target them may be too great for anything other than a good-sized protein to have a chance.
Thats meant that immunology has been a proving ground for new therapeutic ideas and new modes of action. Monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins are just the beginning. Mechanisms targeting protein expression, intra- and extracellular localisation, degradation, and the intricate varieties of post-translational modification are all highly relevant to immune and inflammation pathways. Add in the number of genetic immunological problems that can occur in the population, which would be targets for gene therapy or RNA mechanisms, and you have the whole range of cutting-edge drug research being brought in.
Most of these are too early in the process to be of likely use against the Covid-19 pandemic, of course. But we are learning a great deal about immunology very quickly under these conditions, with the huge efforts going into characterising the pathogen; treating the overactive immune response to it; and developing antibodies and vaccines against it. Well come out of this, and well come out of it with more tools and more knowledge than when we went in all acquired at a faster pace than we ever would have achieved otherwise. Lets take the benefits where we can find them!
The rest is here:
Dragons of immunology | Opinion - Chemistry World
Pillar College Announces Launch of New Jersey’s Only Bachelors of Science in Applied Chemistry with Concentration in Consumer Product Development -…
NEWARK, NJ - Pillar College just announced the launch of its newest degree, a Bachelor of Science in Applied Chemistry with a Concentration in Consumer Product Development.
Adding to the institutions rich degree offerings, the Applied Chemistry with Concentration in Consumer Product Development will be the only one in New Jersey.
Students will master general, organic, analytical and surfactant chemistry, product development and the applied principals of business marketing. In the laboratory, students will learn what goes into making products used for skincare, personal hygiene, oral hygiene and more.
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This is more than a STEM degree," statedDr. Robert Bob Heffner, Program Chair. "Our Applied Chemistry program will have students industry-ready to meet the needs of worlds leading consumer product companies.
Heffners seasoned career in consumer product development includes many years as Senior Technical Associate at Colgate-Palmolive.
Students will have hands-on experience in the first year. They will participate in project-based learning opportunities and community engagement with non-profit and for-profit organizations.
The B.S. in Applied Chemistry is a great addition to Pillar Colleges array of undergraduate degrees, which includes:
Biblical Studies, Business Administration and Management, Elementary Education, Psychology & Counseling and Organizational Leadership; as well as, graduate degrees in Counseling, and Ministry Leadership.
This is an exciting time for Pillar College, our curriculums strong business component will equip students with the skills needed to be leaders, managers, or entrepreneurs in the field of Applied Chemistry, expresses Keyla Pavia, Pillar College, Chief of Staff. We are partnering with consumer product manufacturers on internships which will allow our students opportunities to experience actual product development.
Through Pillar Colleges collaboration with industry, government, business organizations, and local communities for experiential learning, graduates will have the opportunity to transfer theoretical knowledge into practical and professional applications in real-world environments that effectively prepare them for social entrepreneurship and innovation in STEM-related careers.
The dynamic and fundamental B.S. in Applied Chemistry can lead to numerous STEM-related careers including; academic research, forensic science, toxicology, pharmacology, analytical chemistry, chemical engineering, clinical science and much more!
About Pillar College
Pillar College is a comprehensive institution of higher learning, providing a Christ-centered education. Pillar College is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education (MSCHE) and licensed by the New Jersey Commission on Higher Education and the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE). Pillar College offers Associates, Bachelors and Masters Degree programs. Pillar College educates, inspires and equips students for excellent scholarship, service and leadership. Rooted in and committed to Christian faith, Pillar College fosters intellectual, spiritual and social development among its diverse student population. Pillar College has locations in Newark, Somerset, Paterson and Plainfield, New Jersey. Founded in 1908. For more information about Pillar College, visit https://pillar.edu
A 29-year-old man was hospitalized after he mixed an older chemical with a newer one in his pool in Whitman Tuesday evening, causing several small explosions, fire officials said.
Around 7:48 p.m., firefighters responded to a report of a chemical incident at 44 Hilltop Road, Whitman Fire Chief Timothy Grenno said in a statement. Firefighters learned that a man was adding a high dose of chlorine to his pool, combining an older chemical and a newer one from a different manufacturer that he had recently bought, fire officials said.
After he mixed the two chemicals, a reaction caused the chemicals to give off gas and sparked several minor explosions, the statement said.
The man was brought to a local hospital by ambulance, fire officials said. His injuries are not believed to be life-threatening, and no one else was injured.
A Tier One HazMat incident was declared and the District One State Hazardous Materials Team was called in, fire officials said. The area was closed off and the spill was cleaned up in about two hours.
Neighbors were not evacuated, according to the statement. There was no danger to the public at any time.
It was your combined swift response and partnership that enabled us to quickly mitigate and clear this dangerous spill and help the victim, Grenno said in the statement, addressing the firefighters and HazMat team who responded.
Matt Berg can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. Follow him on Twitter @mattberg33.
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Man injured in Whitman pool chemical explosion - The Boston Globe
We Did That Perfectly: Los Angeles Lakers Remember the Deadly Chemistry Between Kobe Bryant and Pau Gasol – Essentially Sports
The ending to the 2000s decade was a perfect one for the Los Angeles Lakers fans, wasnt it? A historic three-peat to kick start the decade and back-to-back titles to end it. Shaquille ONeal and Kobe Bryant formed an unstoppable partnership to muscle their way to threeconsecutive titles at the start of the 2000s era.
As for the later years in the decade, the Lakers rose back from a terrible form that they endured right after ONeal left the team. The team needed a player who could enhance the style of Kobe Bryant, as well as carry a part of the teams burden.
In 2007, things did not look well for the Lakers in terms of their relationship with Kobe. After a couple of first-round playoff exits, Kobes faith in the management deteriorated and there was a possibility of a massive trade that could have changed the course of the NBA.
But, the Lakers swiftly traded Grizzlies player Pau Gasol to partner Kobe upfront. The inclusion of Gasol in the team made a drastic difference. Kobes welcome to Gasol is a much known and well-appreciated story. The pair instantly hit it off and started combing brilliantly to outdo their opponents.
Gasol earned 5 of his six NBA All-Star appearances while playing for the Lakers. His game improved drastically under Kobes guidance. The mamba is always the one to lead by example and his work ethic inspired Gasol to produce his maximum effort on every game night.
The delightful Kobe-Pau connection always brings joy in the faces of Lakers fans. During the two-championship winning seasons, the duo put on mammoth performances to propel the Lakers all the way to the Finals.
The Los Angeles Lakers posted a major throwback video on Twitter, highlighting the pairs chemistry. Moreover, Pau Gasol even reshared the post with purple and gold heart emojis. In the video, we can see Kobe meticulously explaining Gasol about how he made a bounce pass to the Spaniard, which he converted with ease.
We did that perfectly, because we were in line the whole time. Youre not behind me, youre not in front of me. You are right there parallel with me, Kobe says to Gasol. Then the video shows the above-mentioned move orchestrated by Kobe Bryant and Pau Gasol to earn two points for their team.
The back-to-back championships in 2009 and 2010 reflect their massive on-court success. Kobe went into beast mode during these two years. He averaged 26.8 and 27.0 points per game in the 2009 and 2010 regular-season fixtures. Gasol perfectly played a supportive role by carrying a regular-season average of 18.9 and 18.3 PPG in these two years.
Jennifer Aniston & Brad Pitt’s chemistry in these photos BEFORE tying the knot is the apt rush of nostalgia – PINKVILLA
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Jennifer Aniston & Brad Pitt's chemistry in these photos BEFORE tying the knot is the apt rush of nostalgia
Former couple Jennifer Aniston and Brad Pitt were one of the most loved couples before they split and still enjoy a fan following that ships them together. Having said that, take a look at their adorable moments before getting married!
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Exes Jennifer Aniston and Brad Pitt were amongst the most loved couples when they were married. Their love story was always one of the most beautiful love stories and truly one of a kind. The couple met in 1994 through their managers. After knowing each other for over four years, they started dating each other and went on to get engaged after a while. Jennifer and Brad got married in the year 2000 and were extremely loved by their fans and followers. Their most adorable and stylish appearances at red carpets, events, parties and other occasions became the talk of the town as the couple's chemistry spoke volumes of their love. Unfortunately after a relationship of five years, the couple split. The news of their split broke the internet as Pitt moved on with Angelina Jolie and Jennifer moved on with Justin Theroux! The former couple is now really good friends and reunited on many occasions like SAG Awards 2020. When asked about the possibility of running into Aniston at an event, Pitt wasn't phased in the least. "I'll run into Jen, she's a good friend," he replied. Even after their breakup, the couple made a buzz on the internet a lot of times. Currently, the duo's romance rumours are doing the rounds on the internet. Speaking of which, take a look at their priceless moments before marriage that will take you down the memory lane.
Photo Credit : Getty Images
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This is indeed a picture-perfect.
Photo Credit : Getty Images
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The ex-couple looks amazing in this throwback moment.
Photo Credit : Getty Images
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Jennifer and Brad look their best in this snap!
Photo Credit : Getty Images
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FRIENDS alum cannot take her eyes off her co-star.
Photo Credit : Getty Images
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Both the actors stun at the red carpet with ease.
Photo Credit : Getty Images
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The one where Jennifer and Brad twinned in black outfits.
Photo Credit : Getty Images
New Insight Into the Great Dying Earths Most Deadly Mass Extinction Event Disrupted Ocean Chemistry – SciTechDaily
A new study shows for the first time that the collapse of terrestrial ecosystems during Earths most deadly mass extinction event was directly responsible for disrupting ocean chemistry.
The international study, led by the University of Leeds, highlights the importance of understanding the inter-connectedness of ecosystems as our modern environment struggles with the devastating effects of a rapidly warming planet.
The Permian-Triassic extinction, also known as the Great Dying, took place roughly 252 million years ago. It saw the loss of an estimated 90% of marine species, 70% of land species, widespread loss of plant diversity and extreme soil erosion.
While the exact cause of the terrestrial mass extinction is still debated, it is becoming apparent that the terrestrial ecosystems were wiped out prior to the marine ecosystems. However, until now it was unclear if or how the terrestrial extinction consequently impacted the chemistry of Earths ancient oceans.
The team built a computer model that mapped chemical changes in Earths oceans during the period of the Permian-Triassic extinction. The model tracks the cycling of the poisonous element mercury, which is emitted from volcanoes but also gets incorporated into living organisms. By tracing both the mercury and carbon cycles, and comparing to measurements in ancient rocks, the team were able to separate out biological and volcanic events.
This revealed that a massive collapse of terrestrial ecosystems cascaded organic matter, nutrients, and other biologically-important elements into the marine system.
While further research is needed to understand the exact effect this had on marine life, the fact that many marine species rely on chemical stability in their environment means that it is unlikely it was without consequence.
Study co-author Dr. Jacopo Dal Corso, who conceived the study during a research placement at Leeds said: In this study we show that during the Permian-Triassic transition, roughly. 252 million years ago, the widespread collapse of the terrestrial ecosystems caused sudden changes in marine chemistry.
This likely played a central role in triggering the most severe known marine extinction in Earths history. This deep-time example shows how important the terrestrial reservoir is in regulating global biogeochemical cycles and calls for the greater conservation of these ecosystems.
Study co-author Dr. Benjamin Mills, from the School of Earth and Environment at Leeds said: 252 million years ago the effects of mass plant death and soil oxidation appear to have seriously altered the chemistry of the oceans. This is an uncomfortable parallel with our own human-driven land use change, and we too are transferring large quantities of nutrients and other chemicals to the oceans.
As we look to re-start the worlds economies in the wake of the current pandemic, protecting our life-sustaining ecosystems should be a priority.
Reference: PermoTriassic boundary carbon and mercury cycling linked to terrestrial ecosystem collapse by Jacopo Dal Corso, Benjamin J. W. Mills, Daoliang Chu, Robert J. Newton, Tamsin A. Mather, Wenchao Shu, Yuyang Wu, Jinnan Tong and Paul B. Wignall, 11 June 2020, Nature Communications.DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16725-4