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Personalized Medicine Market Worth $3.92 Trillion by 2026 – Insights Into Diagnostics, Medical Care, Nutrition & Wellness, and Therapeutics – P&T…

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:44 pm

DUBLIN, Feb. 20, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Global Personalized Medicine Market Analysis 2019" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering.

The Global Personalized Medicine market is expected to reach $3.92 trillion by 2026, growing at a CAGR of 12.1% during the forecast period.

The efficient and advanced technology and higher prevalence of disease are driving the market growth. However, the higher cost of research and developments is hampering the market.

Based on the End-user, the hospital's segment is estimated to have a lucrative growth due to the lower cost personalized medicines availability in the hospitals. As the practice of personalized medicine becomes more widespread, hospitals will also experience the need to adapt. That does not mean every hospital and medical centre should try and drive the science, but they should be open to collaborations to facilitate such work.

The key vendors mentioned are Abbott Laboratories, Affymetrix Incorporated, Agendia N.V, Agilent Technologies, Inc, Amgen, Inc, Asuragen Incorporated, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Llc, Celera Diagnostics LLC, Celgene Corporation, Roche Diagnostics Corporation, Precision Biologics Incorporated, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc, Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis AG, Decode Genetics Inc., Exact Science Corporation, Exagen Diagnostics Inc., GE Healthcare, and Genelex Corporation.

Key Questions Answered in the Report

Key Topics Covered

1 Market Synopsis

2 Research Outline

3 Market Dynamics3.1 Drivers3.2 Restraints

4 Market Environment

5 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By Product5.1 Introduction5.2 Diagnostics5.3 Personalized Medical Care5.4 Personalized Nutrition & Wellness5.5 Therapeutics

6 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By Technology6.1 Introduction6.2 Metabolomics6.3 Pharmacodynamics6.4 Pharmacogenetics6.5 Pharmacogenomics6.6 Pharmacokinetics6.7 Pharmacoproteomics6.8 Point-of-Care Testing6.9 Stem Cell Therapy

7 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By Therapeutic Area7.1 Introduction7.2 Autoimmune Diseases7.3 Blood Transfusion Safety7.4 Cancer Management7.5 Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD)7.6 Central Nervous System (CNS) Disorders7.7 Coagulation Therapy7.8 Diabetes7.9 Infectious Diseases7.10 Antiviral7.11 Neurology7.12 Psychiatry7.13 Oncology7.14 Immunology7.15 Respiratory

8 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By Distribution Channel8.1 Introduction8.2 Dietary Care Centers8.3 Hospital's Pharmacies8.4 Retail Pharmacies8.5 Other Distribution Channels

9 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By Application9.1 Introduction9.2 Biomarker Identification9.3 Clinical Research Applications9.4 Companion Diagnostics9.5 Health Informatics

10 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By End-user10.1 Introduction10.2 Academic Institutes10.3 Bio and Health Informatics Companies10.4 Clinical Care and Research Laboratories10.5 Contract Research Organizations10.6 Hospitals10.7 Molecular Diagnostic Laboratories and Testing Facilities10.8 Research Laboratories10.9 Service Providers10.10 Partner10.11 Venture Capitalists10.12 Other End-users

11 Global Personalized Medicine Market, By Geography11.1 North America11.2 Europe11.3 Asia-Pacific11.4 South America11.5 Middle East & Africa

12 Strategic Benchmarking

13 Vendors Landscape13.1 Abbott Laboratories13.2 Affymetrix Incorporated13.3 Agendia N.V13.4 Agilent Technologies Inc.13.5 Amgen Inc.13.6 Asuragen Incorporated13.7 Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, LLC13.8 Celera Diagnostics LLC13.9 Celgene Corporation13.10 Roche Diagnostics Corporation13.11 Precision Biologics Incorporated13.12 Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.13.13 Sigma-Aldrich Corporation13.14 Johnson & Johnson13.15 Novartis AG13.16 Decode Genetics Inc.13.17 Exact Science Corporation13.18 Exagen Diagnostics Inc.13.19 GE Healthcare13.20 Genelex Corporation

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NantOmics and NantHealth Announce Results of Proprietary Machine Vision AI Software Study Demonstrating the Ability to Identify Aggressive Subtypes of…

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:44 pm

Feb. 19, 2020 13:00 UTC

Study Published In Breast Cancer Research Shows How Deep-Learning Of Over 650 Breast Cancer Digital Pathology Images And Omics Data Can Be Used Together To Unlock Precise Mechanisms Of Therapy Resistance

CULVER CITY, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- NantOmics, LLC, the leader in molecular analysis, and NantHealth, Inc. (NASDAQ: NH), a next-generation, evidence-based, personalized healthcare company, announced today the publication of a peer-reviewed study in Breast Cancer Research, a Springer Nature journal, on a novel AI technique in breast cancer. The study reports on a novel deep-learning system of digital pathology images and omics data used together to more precisely identify mechanisms of therapy resistance.

NantOmics scientists trained a deep-neural network on diagnostic slide images from 443 breast tumors that had previously undergone PAM50 subtyping to classify patches of the tumor images into four major molecular subtypes of breast cancer (basal-like, HER2-enriched, luminal A, and luminal B). The algorithm was then validated and demonstrated the capability to establish accurate breast cancer sub-typing in 222 samples from a retained set of tumors. By focusing the neural-networks attention on cancer-rich regions in the diagnostic images, this deep-learning algorithm identifies patient biopsies that are a mixture of different molecular subtypes, a classification that is less definable from molecular pathology techniques. Patients with heterogeneous biopsies such as mixtures of basal-like and luminal disease have a different survival profile than patients with homogeneous disease, and may potentially benefit from a more tailored therapy regimen.

Breast cancer can be subtyped into at least five distinct disease-types with very different prognoses and responses to therapy. These subtypes are characterized as clinically important, yet are typically only achievable by RNA expression profiling, Dr. Patrick Soon-Shiong, MD, Chairman and CEO of NantHealth explained. With this AI technique we achieved 87 percent accuracy rate in detecting which patients had basal-like breast cancer (i.e., triple negative breast cancer), one of the most aggressive subtypes, he said.

Our analysis builds on our breadth of advanced machine learning technologies to better support providers in therapeutic decision-making and to improve the capabilities of the underlying molecular analysis technology platforms that we use at NantHealth and NantOmics, said Soon-Shiong. Through the advances of machine vision and augmented intelligence, we have developed a rapid and cost-effective deep-learning technique to unlock the rich information in readily-available diagnostic slide images to define subtypes concordant with their underlying molecular designations.

Breast Cancer Research, a Springer Nature journal, is an international, peer-reviewed online journal publishing original research, reviews, editorials and reports in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research is published by BMC, an open access publisher that produces over 250 scientific journals and according to its website, is the highest ranked breast cancer focused title in the field.

About NantOmics NantOmics, a member of the NantWorks ecosystem of companies, delivers molecular diagnostic and machine learning AI capabilities to provide actionable intelligence and molecularly driven decision support for patients and their providers. NantOmics is the first molecular in vitro diagnostics company to accurately identify mutations and true tumor mutation burden (TMB) from proprietary tumor-normal sequencing. The identified mutations and correlative calculation of true TMB, combined with proprietary expression analysis of immuno-oncology biomarkers and novel deep-learning derived digital pathology solutions, establish the framework for the appropriate use of targeted, chemo- and immunotherapies. NantOmics computational analysis engine, an organically grown, scalable, cloud-based infrastructure capable of processing and storing thousands of genomes per day, uses novel AI tools to combine expression analysis with near real-time genomic variance computing to generate precise N of 1 neoepitope vaccine therapies for cancer patients. For more information please visit http://www.nantomics.com and follow Dr. Soon-Shiong on Twitter @DrPatSoonShiong.

About NantHealth NantHealth, a member of the NantWorks ecosystem of companies, provides leading solutions across the continuum of care for physicians, payors, patients and biopharmaceutical organizations. NantHealth enables the use of cutting-edge data and technology toward the goals of empowering clinical decision support and improving patient outcomes. NantHealths comprehensive product portfolio combines the latest technology in payor/provider platforms that exchange information in near-real time (NaviNet and Eviti) and molecular profiling services that combine comprehensive DNA & RNA tumor-normal profiling with pharmacogenomics analysis (GPS Cancer). For more information, please visit http://www.nanthealth.com or follow us on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.

Forward-Looking Statements: NantHealth This news release contains certain statements of a forward-looking nature relating to future events or future business performance. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the words expects, anticipates, believes, intends, estimates, plans, will, outlook and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements are based on managements current plans, estimates, assumptions and projections, and speak only as of the date they are made. Risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to: our ability to successfully integrate a complex learning system to address a wide range of healthcare issues; our ability to successfully amass the requisite data to achieve maximum network effects; appropriately allocating financial and human resources across a broad array of product and service offerings; raising additional capital as necessary to fund our operations; achieving significant commercial market acceptance for our sequencing and molecular analysis solutions; establish relationships with, key thought leaders or payers key decision makers in order to establish GPS Cancer as a standard of care for patients with cancer; our ability to grow the market for our Systems Infrastructure, and applications; successfully enhancing our Systems Infrastructure and applications to achieve market acceptance and keep pace with technological developments; customer concentration; competition; security breaches; bandwidth limitations; our ability to continue our relationship with NantOmics; our ability to obtain regulatory approvals; dependence upon senior management; the need to comply with and meet applicable laws and regulations; unexpected adverse events; clinical adoption and market acceptance of GPS Cancer; and anticipated cost savings. We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statement in light of new information or future events, except as otherwise required by law. Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties, most of which are difficult to predict and are generally beyond our control. Actual results or outcomes may differ materially from those implied by the forward-looking statements as a result of the impact of a number of factors, many of which are discussed in more detail in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

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NantOmics and NantHealth Announce Results of Proprietary Machine Vision AI Software Study Demonstrating the Ability to Identify Aggressive Subtypes of...

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The Gene Business – Business Today

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:44 pm

Are you genetically predisposed to some diseases? Do you carry genetic mutations that can impact the health of your child? A debit card-sized IndiGenome card, recently unveiled by the government, will help you find the answers if your genetic information is captured in a database that India's umbrella research organisation - the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) - is building. Once your genome is sequenced from your blood sample and added to this database, the card can be used to read the information embedded in your genes, just as your debit card is used to generate a financial transaction statement from your bank's database.

Well, the card is not the key. Genome sequencing - or mapping the pattern of the basic building block of every living cell - is. A genome contains all of a living being's genetic material (simply put, the genome is divided into chromosomes, chromosomes contain genes, and genes are made of DNA). Each genome has approximately 3.2 billion DNA base pairs, and the way they are arranged, or variations and mutations in their pattern, can provide clues about the individual's health or ill health, inherited or acquired. Already, 1,008 individuals, chosen to represent India's social, ethnic and geographic diversity, have been issued such cards. Over 280 doctors in 70 institutions have been trained to make sense of such data. A CSIR institute, the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB) - which is spearheading the Genomics for Public Health in India, also called IndiGen project - is planning to enrol 20,000 Indians for whole genome sequencing in the next couple of years to build a larger database. The data will be important for building the knowhow, baseline data and indigenous capacity in the emerging

area of precision medicine. IndiGen will have applications in a number of areas, including faster and more efficient diagnosis of rare diseases. The other benefits are cost-effective genetic tests, carrier screening applications for expectant couples, enabling efficient diagnosis of heritable cancers and pharmacogenetic tests to prevent adverse drug reactions.

In fact, IGIB leads two other programmes - Genomics for Understanding Rare Diseases India Alliance (GUaRDIAN) Network and Genomics and other Omics tools for Enabling Medical Decision (GOMED), led by Dr Mohammed Faruq, to see that the genome database and genetic screening leads to development of cost effective diagnostic tools and tests that are licensed out to private and public medical institutions.

The world over, fall in cost for genome sequencing (a reason for which is increase in computing power) is leading to path-breaking applications spanning the entire spectrum of healthcare - diagnosis to treatment and drug development to prevention and wellness - and unrelated fields such as agriculture, animal productivity, environment, sports and many more. Consider this: CSIR took six months to sequence the genomes of 1,008 Indians. Seventeen years ago, a global initiative led by the US National Academy of Sciences, had taken 12 years, and spent $3 billion, to complete the sequencing of the first human genome. Today, sequencing a person's genome does not cost more than $1,000. In fact, Sam Santosh, Chairman of MedGenome Labs, a private venture, says he can sequence a complete human genome in his Bengaluru lab for $500-600.

The Industry

The catalyst for the IndiGen project was advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in the last decade or so. (NGS helps an entire human genome to be sequenced in a day. The previous Sanger sequencing technology used to take over a decade.) The technology is being used by both IGIB and MedGenome for high-throughput sequencing, i.e. sequencing hundreds of thousands of genes in one go.

IndiGen is a good start but there are countries that are much ahead. Genomics England, a public-private partnership between the UK government and world's biggest NGS sequencing machine maker, Illumina, has completed sequencing of 1,00,000 genomes of British citizens comprising a mix of cancer patients, rare disorder patients and healthy people. A new agreement for sequencing of 3,00,000 genomes, with an option to increase it to 5,00,000 over the next five years, was signed by the two partners on January 13. "Countries such as Estonia and Iceland are attempting to sequence every single citizen and link the data with their health schemes. The US has decided to do it for every single rare disorder patient," says Praveen Gupta, Managing Director & Founder, Premas Life Sciences - the authorised partner of US-based Illumina in India.

"The global high-throughput genomics industry will be in the range of $10-12 billion. With an estimated 25-30 per cent annual growth, it is expected to become a $25-30 billion market in the next three-four years," he says. Premas sells tools (reagents, platforms, software, training) to labs that do genetic testing in India. With 90 per cent market share, it drives NGS technology in India, too. "The high-throughput genomics market in India, including reagents, instruments and services, will be about Rs 500 crore. Approximately 50,000 samples must be reaching India's clinical (service) market on an annual basis," says Gupta.

Dr Sridhar Sivasubbu and Dr Vinod Scaria, IGIB scientists at the forefront of the IndiGen programme, say genome sequencing is just one piece of the initiative. IGIB has two other programmes - Genomics for Understanding Rare Diseases India Alliance (GUaRDIAN) Network and Genomics and Other Omics Tools for Enabling Medical Decision (GOMED) - to ensure their genome database and genetic screening lead to development of cost-effective diagnostic tools and tests that can be licensed out to private and public healthcare institutions. "GUaRDIAN focuses on rare diseases. Given that we are a billion-plus people, even the rarest of the rare diseases is found in a few lakh people. So, this programme caters to 70 million people living with some genetic disease. We find technological solutions for these 7,000-odd diseases and partner with a network of 280 clinicians across 70-odd institutions to offer our solutions," says Sivasubbu.

"Patients and their families connect with us through the GUaRDIAN network. We sequence their genes to find the mutation, and once we find it, we go back to their communities with a cost-effective test to identify that mutation. You just have to look for that single mutation in others, and that's cost-effective," says Scaria. Instead of whole genome sequencing, which costs between Rs 50,000 and Rs 1,00,000, a single assay developed by IGIB through these programmes costs Rs 2,000. The team led by Sivasubbu and Scaria has developed 180 tests for 180 genes and transferred the technology to private diagnostic labs. The institute itself has catered to about 10,000 patients and carried about 25,000 tests in the last two years. "We have entered into partnerships with about a dozen companies. The format of the collaboration depends on the business models they follow," says Sivasubbu.

Premas Life Sciences

The authorised partner of US-based Illumina in India provides tools (reagents, platforms, software, training and troubleshooting) to labs engaged in genetic testing in India. With 90 per cent market share, it drives the New Generation Sequencing technology in India

It works in areas other than healthcare, too. For example, Tagtaste, an online platform for food professionals, uses the company's services to understand the genomics of taste. It has customers and partners such as Pepsico, Coca Cola, Nestle and ITC

Dr Lal PathLabs

The company has licensed diagnostic tests for 27 conditions from Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB)

Has a portfolio of more than 200 different types of tests

It is active in fields like rep- roductive health, cancer di- agnosis, pharmacogenomics

Medgenome Labs

The Bengaluru-based player considers itself as the private sector avatar of IGIB. It offers not just genetic tests but also carries out research. It has collaborated with Singapore's Nanyang Technological University to sequence 1,00,000 whole genomes from Asia. The Genome Asia project has already completed sequencing 10,000 whole genomes, of which about 8,000 are from India

MedGenomes research associates recently sequenced and analysed the genome of the Cobra snake. The findings, published in Nature, suggest the possibility of developing a new method of producing anti-venom completely in the lab.

Lifecell International

The company is in the genetic testing space. It has tied up with IGIB and offers tests ranging from basic screening (prenatal screening, newborn screening, etc) to high-end ones based on NGS. It tests more than 50,000 patient samples every month

Mahajan Imaging

The company has set up a new R&D wing to focus on cutting-edge scientific and clinical research and help radiology and genomics companies develop world-class clinically relevant products. The idea is to integrate imaging and genomic data

Trivitron Healthcare

The Chennai-based chain wants to develop tools using genomic data that can work on conventional platforms. It is talking to IGIB and trying to get its knowhow for manufacture of products for sale to pathology labs

The Private Hand

Dr Lal PathLabs, a pathology lab chain with big plans in the genetic testing space, has an entire department for such tests. "We offer tests of all levels - Karyotyping, which looks at the macro level, Microarrays, which offer intermediate resolution, and NGS, used to elucidate the DNA sequence at the micro level. The fields we are active in include prenatal reproductive health, cancer diagnosis and pharmacogenomics (study of how genes affect a person's response to drugs). We have more than 200 tests and conduct around 300 tests per day," says Dr Vandana Lal, Executive Director, Dr Lal PathLabs. The company has licensed tests for 27 conditions from IGIB. "The imported technology is expensive. The idea to partner with CSIR labs is to bring these cutting-edge technologies to Indian masses at a reasonable cost," says Dr Lal.

Lifecell International is another player in the genetic testing space that has tied up IGIB. "We offer tests ranging from basic screening (prenatal screening, newborn screening, etc.) to high-end ones based on NGS. We test more than 50,000 samples a month. PCR-based tests range from Rs 2,000-5,000 whereas tests based on NGS and those involving sequencing of large parts of the genome can cost upwards of Rs 20,000," says Ishaan Khanna, CEO, Biobank & Diagnostics, Lifecell. He believes the IndiGen database will help in development of better analysis and interpretation tools. "Our focus is on developing rapid genome testing for children in NICU (Neonatal ICU) and similar other scenarios where doctors need clear actionable results in the shortest possible time. IndiGen provides the right mix of Indian genome database," he says.

But not every partnership is for access to cost-effective tests. Mahajan Imaging, a medical imaging chain, has set up a Centre for Advanced Research in Imaging, Neuroscience and Genomics to focus on research and helping radiology and genomics companies develop clinically relevant products. The idea is to integrate imaging and genomic data. "We started the project six months ago and are among the first imaging companies to get into genomics. In the next three-five years, it will be possible for an AI algorithm to look at the radiology image and give genomic readings on it," says Vidur Mahajan, Associate Director, Mahajan Imaging.

Chennai-based Trivitron Healthcare sees in IndiGene data an opportunity to develop multiple testing platforms. It wants to develop tools using genomic data that can work on conventional platforms. "There are almost 1,00,000 pathology labs in India. Hardly 500-1,000 must be doing genetic testing. Companies like ours are talking to IGIB and trying to get the knowhow to manufacture products for a larger population," says Jameel Ahmad Khan, Head, R&D, Trivitron. "IGIB will develop the knowhow, provide proof of concept, and we will convert it into a product which pathology labs without highly trained manpower can also run," he says.

Bengaluru-based Medgenome Labs considers itself a private sector avatar of IGIB, perhaps even a couple of years ahead in research and development. The company not only does genetic tests but also carries out research. It has collaborated with Singapore's Nanyang Technological University to sequence 1,00,000 whole genomes from Asia. The Genome Asia project has already completed sequencing of 10,000 whole genomes, of which about 8,000 are from India. On December 4, international journal Nature published the initial findings from the project - genetic variation, population structure, disease associations, etc., from a whole-genome sequencing reference dataset of 1,739 individuals of 219 population groups and 64 countries across Asia. "We sequence a person's genes and other relevant parts of the genome for specific mutations to understand what is causing the disease and specific drugs and dosage the person will respond to. We also help pharmaceutical companies understand genomes and discover new drug targets and biomarkers," says Sam Santosh, Chairman, MedGenome. With about 120 sales people, the company claims it is generating samples from around 10,000 clinicians across the country. "We were the first to enter the market. In that sense, we created the market, and would be having 60-65 per cent market share. The sequencing market must be in the range of $70-75 million," says Santosh. The company expects its diagnostic business to touch $100 million in four years. Interestingly, MedGenome's research associates recently sequenced and analysed the genome of Cobra snake. The findings, published in Nature, suggest the possibility of developing a new method of producing anti-venom completely in the lab.

Other Sectors

Illumina's India partner Premas Life Sciences is not selling its next generation sequencers only to healthcare firms. Gupta says it has more than 200 installations in India alone. "Anything which is living has a DNA nucleic acid and can be sequenced. We have a mass research market and practically every institute has the sequencer. Somebody will be working on cow, somebody on rice, a third institute on some bacteria," says Gupta.

IGIB researchers Dr Sridhar Sivasubbu and Dr Vinod Scaria vouch for this. The institute is getting requests, including partnership offers, from non-medical players. Tagtaste, an online platform for food professionals, wants to understand the genomics of taste. "In a lighter vein, you could say that the efficiency of a professional wine taster depends on his genes," says Scaria. With customers and partners such as Pepsico, Coca Cola, Nestle and ITC, and a clientele that includes chefs of global hotel chains, taste is serious business. "The point is, if a person is paying Rs 3,000 for a curry or Rs 5,000 for a soup, you better get the taste right," says Scaria. IGIB also works with Adam's Genetics for R&D and product development in the area of fitness. "One of the companies works in the cricket industry. Each player can be genetically tested for performance and food intake because not all muscles have the same size and some people gain weight, some don't gain muscle mass, while some may be more prone to injury. Genetic tests can find out who is prone to injury, or whether weightlifting is the right exercise for a player or not," says Sivasubbu.

The Future

Indians are 17 per cent of the world's population. But only 0.2 per cent genomic data is from the Indian population. This is one area where India can lead. We have so many diseases, and if we can provide the genetic design, the world can develop diagnostics and therapies. "We can create ideas. We didn't invent computers but we created the IT industry. In the same way, we didn't invent genomic sequences but tomorrow we can create a genome informatics economy," says Premas' Gupta.

There are other possibilities, too. "A lot of pundits say that in the next five-six years, 15 per cent of the world's population will be whole genome sequenced. If I require 100 GB data for a genome sequence, for 1.5 billion people, 25-30 exabytes of data will be needed. The entire data content on YouTube, globally, is 0.8 exabytes. Imagine the kind of data generation and analytics possibilities we are talking about," says Gupta. "We need people to analyse this data. If we can take the lead and train our manpower, we can move the world, we can create a new industry which can lead for the next 20 years just the way the IT industry did," he adds. Incidentally, Gupta claims that TCS has already bought Illumina's sequencing platform. So has WIPRO. It seems IT companies are already sensing an opportunity.

Sivasubbu says it took India 10 years to scale up from sequencing one genome to 1,000 genomes. "In the next decade, it may be a million."

@joecmathew

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The Gene Business - Business Today

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New Discoveries in Human Anatomy – The Scientist

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

In the 16th century, when the study of human anatomy was still in its infancy, curious onlookers would gather in anatomical theaters to catch of a glimpse of public dissections of the dead. In the years since, scientists have carefully mapped the viscera, bones, muscles, nerves, and many other components of our bodies, such that a human corpse no longer holds that same sense of mystery that used to draw crowds.

New discoveries in gross anatomythe study of bodily structures at the macroscopic levelare now rare, and their significance is often overblown, says Paul Neumann, a professor who specializes in the history of medicine and anatomical nomenclature at Dalhousie University. The important discoveries about anatomy, I think, are now coming from studies of tissues and cells.

Over the last decade, there have been a handful of discoveries that have helped overturn previous assumptions and revealed new insights into our anatomy. Whats really interesting and exciting about almost all of the new studies is the illustration of the power of new [microscopy and imaging] technologies to give deeper insight, saysTom Gillingwater, a professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in the UK. I would guess that many of these discoveries are the start, rather than the end, of a developing view of the human body.

Here is a sampling of some of those discoveries.

The lymphatic system, a body-wide network of vessels that drains fluids and removes waste from tissues and organs, was long-believed to be absent from the brain. Early reports of lymphatic vessels in the meninges, the membrane coating the brain, date as far back as the 18th centurybut these findings were met with skepticism. Only recently has this view been overturned, after a 2015 report of lymphatic vessels in mouse meninges and the 2012 discovery of the so-called glymphatic system, an interconnected network of glial cells that facilitates the circulation of fluid throughout mouse brains. In 2017, neuroimaging work revealed evidence for such lymphatic vessels in human meninges.

In 2018, researchers reported that the space between cells was a collagen-lined, fluid-filled network, which they dubbed the interstitium. They proposed that this finding, which emerged from close examinations of tissue from patients bile ducts, bladders, digestive tracts, and skin, may help scientists better understand how tumors spread through the body. The team also called the interstitium a newly-discovered organ, but many dismissed this claim. Most biologists would be reticent to put the moniker of an organ on microscopic uneven spaces between tissues that contain fluid, Anirban Maitra, a pathologist at the University of Texas MD Anderson Center, told The Scientistlast year.

Until recently, the prevailing view among scientists was that the mesentery, the large, fan-like sheet of tissue that holds our intestines in place, consisted of multiple fragments. In 2016, after examining the mesentery of both cadavers and patients undergoing surgery, a team of researchers concluded that the mesentery was actually a single unit. This wasnt the first time the mesentery was described as continuousin one of the first depictions of the structure, Leonardo da Vinci also portrayed it in this way. But in the 2016 paper, the scientists argued that its continuity should qualify the mesentery as an organ. As with the interstitium, however, other experts have objected to this claim. In both of these cases, there seems to have been a misunderstanding of what the term organ means, Neumann says.

laurie okeefe

In January 2019, scientists described a previously unknown web of capillaries that pass through the bones of mice. Textbooks describe large veins and arteries jutting out the ends of bones, but this newly-described network of tunnels provide a faster route for blood cells produced in the bone marrow to enter the circulation. The research team also looked at human bones using a variety of methods: taking photos from patients undergoing surgery, conducting MRI scans of a healthy leg, and investigating extracted samples under a microscopeand revealed a similar, albeit less extensive, system of capillaries.

Last October, researchers reported that muscles typically seen in reptiles and other animalsbut not peoplewere present in the limbs of human embryos. Using a combination of immunostaining, tissue clearing, and microscopy, the team generated high-resolution 3-D images of upper and lower limb muscles in tissue samples from preserved 8- to 14-week-old embryos and fetuses. These structures, which disappear before birth, may be anatomical remnants of our evolutionary ancestors that disappear during the early stages of development, the authors suggest. They only examined 13 images, however, so experts caution that its a preliminary finding that needs to be replicated in a larger sample.

The fabella, a tiny bone located in a tendon behind the knee, is becoming more common in humans, according to a study published last spring. After reviewing 58 studies on fabella prevalence in 27 different countries, researchers reported that people were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have the little bone in 2018 than 1918. The cause of this trend remains an open question, but the authors suggest that changes in muscle mass and bone lengthdriven by increased diet quality in many parts of the worldcould be one explanation.

Diana Kwon is a Berlin-based freelance journalist. Follow her on Twitter@DianaMKwon.

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New Discoveries in Human Anatomy - The Scientist

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Go Inside the Off-Broadway Opening of Anatomy of a Suicide – Playbill.com

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

Atlantic Theater Company celebrated the official opening of Alice Birch's Anatomy of a Suicide February 18. The play, which won the 2018 Susan Smith Blackburn Prize, premieres in the U.S. following an acclaimed London run.

An exploration of mothers and daughters, Anatomy of a Suicide details the story of three generations of women whose lives play out simultaneously onstage.

Directed by Obie winner Lileana Blain-Cruz, the cast is made up of Celeste Arias (Uncle Vanya), Jason Babinsky (Network), Gabby Beans (Marys Seacole), Ava Briglia (John Mulaney and the Sack Lunch Bunch), Carla Gugino (Jett), Julian Elijah Martinez (Network), Jo Mei (The Great Wave), Vince Nappo (Reign), Miriam Silverman (Junk), and Richard Topol (Indecent).

The run, which began February 1 and is scheduled through March 15, features scenic design by Mariana Sanchez, costume design by Kaye Voyce, lighting design by Jiyoun Chang, projection design by Hannah Wasileski, and casting by Telsey + Company: Karyn Casl and Madison Sylvester.

Birch has been a two-time finalist for the Susan Smith Blackburn Prize with her plays Many Moons and Revolt. She said. Revolt again. She is the winner of the Arts Foundation Award for Playwriting 2014 and the co-winner of the George Devine Award for Most Promising Playwright 2014.

Link:
Go Inside the Off-Broadway Opening of Anatomy of a Suicide - Playbill.com

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

‘Grey’s Anatomy’ fans to find out what happened to Dr. Alex Karev – CNN

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

The writers were left to create a storyline for original cast member Justin Chambers following his sudden departure from the medical drama. His last episode aired in November.

Vernoff explains that Chambers' character arc "was a very careful threading of a needle, where we are giving a little bit of information and pain to Jo," she said of Camilla Luddington's character, Jo Karev, adding, "We're, episode by episode, illuminating the story of where Alex is. And it takes us quite a few more episodes to get there and to give the audience clarity."

Luddington's Jo was also taken into consideration when figuring out what to do with Chambers' character.

"Jo went through so much pain and so much grief just last season that I wanted to be careful," Vernoff said. "And so it's a bit of a mystery (what's going on with Alex), so that we don't watch Jo in the same place that we watched her in last season. We did it as carefully as we could. But it takes a while to get there," she said.

"For some time now, however, I have hoped to diversify my acting roles and career choices. And, as I turn 50 and am blessed with my remarkable, supportive wife and five wonderful children, now is that time."

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'Grey's Anatomy' fans to find out what happened to Dr. Alex Karev - CNN

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