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New study about the effects of the insect screens in agriculture – hortidaily.com

Posted: January 20, 2021 at 1:07 am

Environmental pressure poses a major challenge to the agricultural sector, which requires the development of cultivation techniques that can effectively reduce the impact of abiotic stress affecting crop yield and quality (e.g., thermal stress, wind, and hail) and of biotic factors, such as insect pests.

The increased consumer interest in premium-quality vegetables requires the implementation of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) strategies towards an ever-increasing insect pressure, also boosted by cultivation under protected structures. In this respect, insect nets represent an excellent, eco-friendly solution. This review aims to provide an integrative investigation of the effects of the insect screens in agriculture. Attention is dedicated to the impact on growth, yield, and quality of vegetables, focusing on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of response to heat stress induced by insect screens.

The performance of insect nets depends on many factorsforemost, on the screen mesh, with finer mesh being more effective as a barrier. However, finer mesh nets impose high-pressure drops and restrict airflow by reducing ventilation, which can result in a detrimental effect on crop growth and yield due to high temperatures. The predicted outcomes are wide ranging, because heat stress can impact (i) plant morpho-physiological attributes; (ii) biochemical and molecular properties through changes in the primary and secondary metabolisms; (iii) enzymatic activity, chloroplast proteins, and photosynthetic and respiratory processes; (iv) flowering and fruit settings; (v) the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs); and (vi) the biosynthesis of secondary biomolecules endowed with antioxidant capacity.

Read the complete article on http://www.researchgate.net.

Formisano, Luigi & El-Nakhel, Christophe & Corrado, Giandomenico & De Pascale, Stefania & Rouphael, Youssef. (2020). Biochemical, Physiological, and Productive Response of Greenhouse Vegetables to Suboptimal Growth Environment Induced by Insect Nets. Biology. 9. 1-21. 10.3390/biology9120432.

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New study about the effects of the insect screens in agriculture - hortidaily.com

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Biochemistry Analyzers Market Research Report 2020: Market Competition Trend and Price by Manufacturers till 2026 – NeighborWebSJ

Posted: January 20, 2021 at 1:07 am

The Biochemistry Analyzers Market grew in 2019, as compared to 2018, according to our report, Biochemistry Analyzers Market is likely to have subdued growth in 2020 due to weak demand on account of reduced industry spending post Covid-19 outbreak. Further, Biochemistry Analyzers Market will begin picking up momentum gradually from 2021 onwards and grow at a healthy CAGR between 2021-2025.

Deep analysis about Biochemistry Analyzers Market status (2016-2019), competition pattern, advantages and disadvantages of products, industry development trends (2019-2025), regional industrial layout characteristics and macroeconomic policies, industrial policy has also been included. From raw materials to downstream buyers of this industry have been analysed scientifically. This report will help you to establish comprehensive overview of the Biochemistry Analyzers Market

Get a Sample Copy of the Report at: https://i2iresearch.com/download-sample/?id=31926

The Biochemistry Analyzers Market is analysed based on product types, major applications and key players

Key product type:Semi-AutomaticFully Automatic

Key applications:Hospital and Diagnostic LaboratoriesHome Care, and AcademicResearch Institutes

Key players or companies covered are:AbbottDanaherRoche DiagnosticsSiemens

The report provides analysis & data at a regional level (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa , Rest of the world) & Country level (13 key countries The U.S, Canada, Germany, France, UK, Italy, China, Japan, India, Middle East, Africa, South America)

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Key questions answered in the report:1. What is the current size of the Biochemistry Analyzers Market, at a global, regional & country level?2. How is the market segmented, who are the key end user segments?3. What are the key drivers, challenges & trends that is likely to impact businesses in the Biochemistry Analyzers Market?4. What is the likely market forecast & how will be Biochemistry Analyzers Market impacted?5. What is the competitive landscape, who are the key players?6. What are some of the recent M&A, PE / VC deals that have happened in the Biochemistry Analyzers Market?

The report also analysis the impact of COVID 19 based on a scenario-based modelling. This provides a clear view of how has COVID impacted the growth cycle & when is the likely recovery of the industry is expected to pre-covid levels.

Contact us:i2iResearch info to intelligenceLocational Office: *India, *United States, *GermanyEmail: [emailprotected]Toll-free: +1-800-419-8865 | Phone: +91 98801 53667

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Biochemistry Analyzers Market Research Report 2020: Market Competition Trend and Price by Manufacturers till 2026 - NeighborWebSJ

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Biochemical Analyzer Market Moving Toward 2026 With New Procedures, Challenges and Opportunities: Thermo Scientific, Abaxis, Horiba Medical -…

Posted: January 20, 2021 at 1:07 am

Biochemical Analyzer Market Report recently published by Worldwide Market Reports company focuses mostly on required solutions to the users. The study includes analysis, forecast, and revenue from 2021 to 2026. The advancement rate is evaluated dependent on insightful examination that gives credible information on the worldwide market. Imperatives and advancement points are merged together after a significant comprehension of the improvement of this market.

There is Continuous growth in the Biochemical Analyzer Market in the last five years and also continued for the forecasted period. Biochemical Analyzer industry report analyses the outline of the global market with respect to major regions and segmented by types and applications. This report covers top manufacturers, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force, technological advancement, distributors, traders, dealers, research findings.

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The top players covered in Biochemical Analyzer Market are: Thermo Scientific, Abaxis, Horiba Medical, ELITech, Gaomi Caihong, Sunostik, Senlo, Sysmex, Tecom Scienc

The point-to-point elucidation of the markets assembling system, the usage of advancement, conclusions of the world market players, dealers and suppliers order, and the explicit business data and their improvement plans would help our customers for future courses of action and movement planned to make due in the Biochemical Analyzer market.

The data always remains relevant to the market and consists of market dynamics, prospects, starts, market dynamics, and even the Global market volumes into account. It filled with data and deep analysis on market value, environmental analysis, Biochemical Analyzer advanced techniques, latest developments, Biochemical Analyzer business strategies, and current trends. Hence, it becomes a valuable asset to both manufacturers and investors of the industry.

Points Covered of this Biochemical Analyzer Market report are:

The international Biochemical Analyzer market has been characterized by several primary factors, with each factor tends to play a crucial role in the boom of the market. The growth in the products has doubled with the smoother availability of the customer base that has been helping the company flourishing globally. On the other hand, the presence of a dynamic supply chain has helped the company to grow exponentially.

The analysis and forecast of the global market of Biochemical Analyzer have no longer been, specifically, analyzed that are not only on a global foundation but additionally on a neighborhood foundation. When a better look taken at the areas, the market has concentrated, and the file interior the important makes a strong point of Europe, Middle East & Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and North America. These areas have studied regarding the hooked-up traits and the diverse possibilities in addition to the outlook that allows inside the benefitting of the market ultimately.

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Research Methodology:

The Biochemical Analyzer market report has been prepared after thorough market research being conducted. It has been prepared as per Porters Five Force Model. In terms of timeline, the market takes the period between 2021-2026 into account for assessment. Apart from this, a comprehensive SWOT analysis has been provided for swift business decision making.

Enumerating some of the fundamental parameters encompassed in the report:

Global Biochemical Analyzer Market Report includes Detailed TOC points:

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Worldwide Market Reports provides customization of reports as per your request. This report can be personalized to meet your requirements. Get in touch with our research team, who will make sure you get a report that suits your necessities.

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Biochemical Analyzer Market Moving Toward 2026 With New Procedures, Challenges and Opportunities: Thermo Scientific, Abaxis, Horiba Medical -...

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Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Size By Analysis, Key Vendors, Regions, Type and Application, and Forecasts to 2027 – Jumbo News

Posted: January 20, 2021 at 1:06 am

Fort Collins, Colorado: Reports Globe has published the latest study on Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Report Analysis by Size with Future Outlook, Key Players SWOT Analysis and Forecast to 2026. It uses exploratory techniques such as qualitative and quantitative analysis to identify and present data on the target market. Successful sales strategies have been mentioned that will help you do business in record time and multiply customers.

This report is presented clearly and concisely to help you better understand the structure and dynamics of the market. The trends and recent developments in the Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market were analyzed. The opportunities that lead to the growth of the market were analyzed and presented. Focusing on the global market, the report provides answers to the key questions stakeholders are facing today around the world. Information on market size raises the problem of increasing competitiveness and hampering market-leading sectors and market growth.

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Some of the Important and Key Players of the Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market:

Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market research report provides detailed information on the following aspects: Industry Size, Market Share, Growth, Segmentation, Manufacturers and Advancement, Key Trends, Market Drivers, Challenges, Standardization, Deployment Models, Opportunities, Strategies, Future Roadmaps and Annual Forecasts to 2027, etc. The report will help you also in understanding the dynamic structure of the Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market by identifying and analyzing market segments. The Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers 2021 Industry Research Report has given the expected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) as a% of value for a given period of time and clearly helps the user make their decision based on the futuristic chart of the key players on the global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market. The report introduces some of the major players in the global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market and offers insightful information about the Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers industry such as Business Overview, Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Product Segmentation, Revenue Segmentation, and the Latest Information. Developments.

Additionally, the Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market report includes a comprehensive strategic review as well as summarized studies of the growth, key factors, and market opportunity by which to evaluate the Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market and other important market related details on Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers. The investigation of the research report also helps uncover accurate industry statistics depicting the ultimate model of the global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market, including various types, applications, market growth structures, and opportunities. In addition, the study of the market research report provides an investigation and analysis of the past and current performance of the regional market that includes regions by department and subdivision. This regional analysis studies various key market parameters such as Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market growth rate in each region, production volume and capacity, market demand and supply, and return on investment (RoI).

Request a Discount on the report @ https://reportsglobe.com/ask-for-discount/?rid=196862

Some of the key questions answered in the report include-

1. What is the overall structure of the market?2. What was the historical value and what is the forecasted value of the market?3. What are the key product level trends in the market?4. What are the market level trends in the market?5. Which of the market players are leading and what are their key differential strategies to retain their stronghold?6. Which are the most lucrative regions in the market space?

Browse the complete report @ https://reportsglobe.com/product/bench-top-veterinary-biochemistry-analyzers/

Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market is segmented based by type, application and region.

Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Segmentation, By Type

Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Segmentation, By Application

The prime objective of this report is to help the user understand the market in terms of its definition, segmentation, market potential, influential trends, and the challenges that the market is facing. Deep researches and analysis were done during the preparation of the report. The readers will find this report very helpful in understanding the market in depth. The data and the information regarding the market are taken from reliable sources such as websites, annual reports of the companies, journals, and others and were checked and validated by the industry experts. The facts and data are represented in the report using diagrams, graphs, pie charts, and other pictorial representations. This enhances the visual representation and also helps in understanding the facts much better.

Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzersmarket Key Report Highlights:

This in-depth research documentation offers an illustrative overview of the entire market outlook with details on scope, executive summary, and market segments The report also includes sections on the competitive spectrum, highlighting major players, with a detailed assessment of supply chain management, competition dynamics, and growth objectives. Other crucial details on Porters Five Forces assessment, SWOT analysis, and data triangulation methods have also been included in the report. Other relevant details on production patterns, growth rate, market share of each of the segments have also been pinned in the report. The report also houses crucial analytical details on revenue share and sales projections, besides volumetric estimations of each of the product segments have also been highlighted in the report to encourage unfaltering market decisions and sustainable revenue streams in the global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers market.A dedicated chapter on COVID-19 analysis has therefore been included in this versatile report to encourage future-ready business discretion aligning with post-COVID-19 market environment.

Major Points from Table of Content:

1. Executive Summary2. Assumptions and Acronyms Used3. Research Methodology4. Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Overview5. Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Supply Chain Analysis6. Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Pricing Analysis7. Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Type8. Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Application9. Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Sales Channel10. Global Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Region11. North America Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast12. Latin America Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast13. Europe Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast14. Asia Pacific Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast15. Middle East & Africa Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast16. Competition Landscape

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry Expert @ https://reportsglobe.com/need-customization/?rid=196862

How Reports Globe is different than other Market Research Providers:

The inception of Reports Globe has been backed by providing clients with a holistic view of market conditions and future possibilities/opportunities to reap maximum profits out of their businesses and assist in decision making. Our team of in-house analysts and consultants works tirelessly to understand your needs and suggest the best possible solutions to fulfill your research requirements.

Our team at Reports Globe follows a rigorous process of data validation, which allows us to publish reports from publishers with minimum or no deviations. Reports Globe collects, segregates, and publishes more than 500 reports annually that cater to products and services across numerous domains.

Contact us:

Mr. Mark Willams

Account Manager

US: +1-970-672-0390

Email: [emailprotected]

Web: reportsglobe.com

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Bench-top Veterinary Biochemistry Analyzers Market Size By Analysis, Key Vendors, Regions, Type and Application, and Forecasts to 2027 - Jumbo News

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Size By Analysis, Key Vendors, Regions, Type and Application, and Forecasts to 2027 – NeighborWebSJ

Posted: January 20, 2021 at 1:06 am

Fort Collins, Colorado: Reports Globe has published the latest study on Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Report Analysis by Size with Future Outlook, Key Players SWOT Analysis and Forecast to 2026. It uses exploratory techniques such as qualitative and quantitative analysis to identify and present data on the target market. Successful sales strategies have been mentioned that will help you do business in record time and multiply customers.

This report is presented clearly and concisely to help you better understand the structure and dynamics of the market. The trends and recent developments in the Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market were analyzed. The opportunities that lead to the growth of the market were analyzed and presented. Focusing on the global market, the report provides answers to the key questions stakeholders are facing today around the world. Information on market size raises the problem of increasing competitiveness and hampering market-leading sectors and market growth.

Get Exclusive Sample of Report on Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market is available @ https://reportsglobe.com/download-sample/?rid=116853

Some of the Important and Key Players of the Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market:

Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market research report provides detailed information on the following aspects: Industry Size, Market Share, Growth, Segmentation, Manufacturers and Advancement, Key Trends, Market Drivers, Challenges, Standardization, Deployment Models, Opportunities, Strategies, Future Roadmaps and Annual Forecasts to 2027, etc. The report will help you also in understanding the dynamic structure of the Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market by identifying and analyzing market segments. The Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers 2021 Industry Research Report has given the expected compound annual growth rate (CAGR) as a% of value for a given period of time and clearly helps the user make their decision based on the futuristic chart of the key players on the global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market. The report introduces some of the major players in the global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market and offers insightful information about the Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers industry such as Business Overview, Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Product Segmentation, Revenue Segmentation, and the Latest Information. Developments.

Additionally, the Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market report includes a comprehensive strategic review as well as summarized studies of the growth, key factors, and market opportunity by which to evaluate the Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market and other important market related details on Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers. The investigation of the research report also helps uncover accurate industry statistics depicting the ultimate model of the global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market, including various types, applications, market growth structures, and opportunities. In addition, the study of the market research report provides an investigation and analysis of the past and current performance of the regional market that includes regions by department and subdivision. This regional analysis studies various key market parameters such as Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market growth rate in each region, production volume and capacity, market demand and supply, and return on investment (RoI).

Request a Discount on the report @ https://reportsglobe.com/ask-for-discount/?rid=116853

Some of the key questions answered in the report include-

1. What is the overall structure of the market?2. What was the historical value and what is the forecasted value of the market?3. What are the key product level trends in the market?4. What are the market level trends in the market?5. Which of the market players are leading and what are their key differential strategies to retain their stronghold?6. Which are the most lucrative regions in the market space?

Browse the complete report @ https://reportsglobe.com/product/global-bench-top-automated-biochemical-analyzers-market-insight/

Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market is segmented based by type, application and region.

Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Segmentation, By Type

Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Segmentation, By Application

The prime objective of this report is to help the user understand the market in terms of its definition, segmentation, market potential, influential trends, and the challenges that the market is facing. Deep researches and analysis were done during the preparation of the report. The readers will find this report very helpful in understanding the market in depth. The data and the information regarding the market are taken from reliable sources such as websites, annual reports of the companies, journals, and others and were checked and validated by the industry experts. The facts and data are represented in the report using diagrams, graphs, pie charts, and other pictorial representations. This enhances the visual representation and also helps in understanding the facts much better.

Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzersmarket Key Report Highlights:

This in-depth research documentation offers an illustrative overview of the entire market outlook with details on scope, executive summary, and market segments The report also includes sections on the competitive spectrum, highlighting major players, with a detailed assessment of supply chain management, competition dynamics, and growth objectives. Other crucial details on Porters Five Forces assessment, SWOT analysis, and data triangulation methods have also been included in the report. Other relevant details on production patterns, growth rate, market share of each of the segments have also been pinned in the report. The report also houses crucial analytical details on revenue share and sales projections, besides volumetric estimations of each of the product segments have also been highlighted in the report to encourage unfaltering market decisions and sustainable revenue streams in the global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers market.A dedicated chapter on COVID-19 analysis has therefore been included in this versatile report to encourage future-ready business discretion aligning with post-COVID-19 market environment.

Major Points from Table of Content:

1. Executive Summary2. Assumptions and Acronyms Used3. Research Methodology4. Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Overview5. Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Supply Chain Analysis6. Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Pricing Analysis7. Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Type8. Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Application9. Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Sales Channel10. Global Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast by Region11. North America Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast12. Latin America Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast13. Europe Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast14. Asia Pacific Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast15. Middle East & Africa Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Analysis and Forecast16. Competition Landscape

Do You Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement? Ask to Our Industry Expert @ https://reportsglobe.com/need-customization/?rid=116853

How Reports Globe is different than other Market Research Providers:

The inception of Reports Globe has been backed by providing clients with a holistic view of market conditions and future possibilities/opportunities to reap maximum profits out of their businesses and assist in decision making. Our team of in-house analysts and consultants works tirelessly to understand your needs and suggest the best possible solutions to fulfill your research requirements.

Our team at Reports Globe follows a rigorous process of data validation, which allows us to publish reports from publishers with minimum or no deviations. Reports Globe collects, segregates, and publishes more than 500 reports annually that cater to products and services across numerous domains.

Contact us:

Mr. Mark Willams

Account Manager

US: +1-970-672-0390

Email: [emailprotected]

Web: reportsglobe.com

See original here:
Bench-top Automated Biochemical Analyzers Market Size By Analysis, Key Vendors, Regions, Type and Application, and Forecasts to 2027 - NeighborWebSJ

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

[Full text] A Differential Study into Body Fat in Healthy and Hypertensive Populat | DMSO – Dove Medical Press

Posted: January 20, 2021 at 1:06 am

Introduction

With the development of the economy, peoples eating habits and lifestyles have changed.1 The intake of sugar has generally increased, while the consumption of high-fat food has significantly risen, resulting in a significant increase in average body fat.1 This has become an important factor in the notable growth in the incidence of chronic diseases, such as hypertension, in recent years.13 However, the evaluation methods and evaluation indexes for fat mass in vivo have not improved, which seriously affects the options available for intervention and their effects. It also has an impact on the timing of any intervention and can even result in it being excessive as well.3 Therefore, this study aims to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the healthy population and the hypertensive population in the anthropometric indexes widely used at present. These include the BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and bioelectric impedance (body fat percentage and visceral fat area).

Between January 2016 and January 2017, a total of 895 people, who were all Han Chinese, were screened and selected as study subjects, according to certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. These subjects then visited the Physical Examination Center in Weifang, Shandong, China, for physical examinations and body composition analyses. According to the blood pressure and biochemical examination results, these study subjects were divided into four groups: a healthy male group, a hypertensive male group, a healthy female group, and a hypertensive female group.

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in 2013). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Weifang Peoples Hospital and informed consent was given by all the patients.

Subjects were 18 to 60 years of age, with a mean age of 43.12 9.34 years. Those from the healthy male group and the healthy female group received a biochemical examination after >6 hours of fasting. The results revealed that their fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, blood pressure, uric acid and other indexes were normal, and no fatty liver was reported. Subjects who met the criteria for the diagnosis of hypertension were divided into the male hypertensive group and the female hypertensive group. Transient elevated blood pressure was ruled out by their medical history.

The exclusion criteria were as follows: subjects who were <18 years old and >60 years old, and received a physical examination; subjects suffering from endocrine obesity and diabetes; pregnant women; subjects who were undergoing endocrine therapy; professional athletes; subjects who were losing weight with sizeable and rapid changes in body fat.

The criteria used for the diagnosis of hypertension were those recommended in the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension 2005, and were as follows: systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg.

On the day of the physical examination, the subjects were required to wear light clothing and have an empty stomach. Their height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured, and their blood pressure was taken after a five-minute rest. The right arm alone was measured with an Omron electronic sphygmomanometer, and the measurement was not repeated that day. The subjects of the experimental groups were those who were diagnosed with hypertension.

The body composition analyzer Inbody720 of Biospace was used to obtain the body fat percentage and visceral fat area of the subjects by importing 100 A and 500 A of constant current at five frequencies (5, 50, 250 and 500 kHz), in order to detect the electrical impedance of each part of the body, obtain the body fat mass, and automatically calculate the body fat percentage and visceral fat area data.

A comparison was made between the results of the healthy male group and the hypertensive male group, the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group, the healthy male group and the healthy female group, and the hypertensive male group and the hypertensive female group. The results were statistically analyzed using a t-test and SPSS 18.0 statistical software, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

These subjects were divided into four groups, according to the blood pressure and biochemical examination results: healthy male group (n=273), hypertensive male group (n=254), healthy female group (n=308), and hypertensive female group (n=60). The healthy male group was 41.309.48 years old, the hypertensive male group was 45.487.99 years old, the healthy female group was 41.269.36 years old, and the hypertensive female group was 50.977.11 years old.

As presented in Tables 1 and 2, the study results showed that the difference in waist circumference between the healthy male group and the hypertensive male group was the only statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The difference in waist-to-hip ratio was statistically significant (P<0.05) between the healthy male group and the healthy female group, and the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group. The difference in BMI was only statistically significant (P<0.05) between the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group. The difference in body fat area was not statistically significant (P>0.05) between any of these groups. The difference in visceral fat area was statistically significant (P<0.05) between the healthy male group and the hypertensive male group, the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group, and the healthy male group and the healthy female group.

Table 1 The Means of the Indexes and the 95% Confidence Intervals of the Different Gender Groups

Table 2 The Means of the Indexes and the 95% Confidence Intervals of the Different Healthy Groups

With the development of the social economy and the improvement of living standards, peoples diets and lifestyles have changed a great deal, and their body fat mass has sharply increased, followed by a significant increase in the incidence of various chronic diseases represented by hypertension. Therefore, the early detection of excessive body fat and the use of effective intervention can significantly reduce the incidence of chronic diseases, such as hypertension. This is why in clinical practice medical staff often ask patients to reduce their body fat. However, to make a difference it is necessary to have appropriate methods to assess body fat levels and changes. Whilst the total body fat mass of the population has risen, the evaluation methods and evaluation indexes for fat mass in vivo still remain in the past, which seriously affects the options for intervention, the timing of intervention, and the evaluation of intervention effects. Therefore, this study is investigating the anthropometric indexes widely used at present, the BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and bioelectric impedance (body fat percentage and visceral fat area), in order to provide some basis for the application of relevant indexes in the future.

The waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and visceral fat area mainly reflect the distribution of fat in the abdomen. In the present study, the difference in waist circumference was statistically significant (P<0.05) only between the healthy male group and the hypertensive male group. The difference in waist-to-hip ratio was statistically significant (P<0.05) between the healthy male group and the healthy female group, and the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group. This indicates that waist circumference has considerable significance in the evaluation of male abdominal fat, while the waist-to-hip ratio has great significance in the evaluation of female abdominal fat. Previous studies have suggested that abdominal obesity is more likely to lead to chronic diseases, such as hypertension,47 and the results of the present study also support this point of view. However, it has also been found that the evaluation results for waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio are not consistent. Further studies are also needed to determine the critical values of waist circumference, in order to differentiate them according to gender.

BMI is the most commonly used index to judge overweight or obesity. However, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) only between the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group, which indicates that BMI has a weak significance in assessing body fat in different populations.810 In addition, it has been noted that BMI cannot distinguish muscle from fat, which may lead to misjudging subjects with well-developed muscles as obese, or with muscle-reducing obesity as normal.1113 Other indicators need to be used in combination to avoid misjudgment. The present study has also revealed that most of the study subjects with hypertension had a BMI within 2428 kg/m2. Determining whether the differentiation of available BMI as being overweight or obese would affect the education and prevention of chronic diseases, such as hypertension, is worthy of further discussion.

The body fat percentage measured by the proportion of body fat, and the difference of the index was not statistically significant (P>0.05) between the groups in the present study, which is not completely consistent with previous studies.14,15 Furthermore, the difference in gender was not statistically significant in the present study. This may be because the sample size of the present study is not large enough, or because the previous study data were slightly different from the actual physical condition of these subjects at the present stage. Thus, the significance of body fat percentage in the evaluation of body fat in different populations needs to be further studied.

The fat condition of abdominal organs was assessed by measuring the visceral fat area, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) between the healthy male group and the hypertensive male group, the healthy female group and the hypertensive female group, and the healthy male group and the healthy female group. This is basically consistent with previous studies,16 indicating its usefulness in assessing fat conditions in different populations. In addition, the present study showed that there were differences in the visceral fat area between healthy men and healthy women, indicating that it may be necessary to distinguish a separate critical value for each gender.

The present study has a number of limitations. The ages of the subjects in the present study ranged from 18 to 60 years so further studies are needed to determine whether the conclusions are also applicable to the young (<18 years old) and the elderly (>60 years old). In addition, local diet and customs may have some impact on these research results. Therefore, a multi-center study in different regions should be considered to further determine whether these five indexes can be used to evaluate the difference in body fat, and reconfirm the normal range and gender differentiation.

The analysis of the results of the present study shows a number of findings. First, the visceral fat area and waist circumference were not exactly the same, indicating that waist circumference cannot replace visceral fat area for evaluation. Second, the visceral fat area of men was consistent with the result for waist circumference, while that of women was inconsistent, indicating that the waist circumference of men may be more affected by the visceral fat condition than the waist circumference of women. In addition, the difference in fat distribution among men is greater than the total fat. It would also seem that evaluating the fat condition of the population using a single index showed less significance, and therefore the combined use of two or more indexes is preferable. Lastly, the available normal range and gender differentiation of the five indicators may no longer apply to the actual situation of the population under present socio-economic conditions.

We are particularly grateful to all the people who have given us help on our article.

There is no funding to report.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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