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Glial cell missing-1 mediates over-expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 in severe pre-eclamptic placental villi

Posted: April 24, 2011 at 3:51 pm

BACKGROUND

Severe pre-eclampsia (sPE) causes significant maternal morbidity and intrauterine growth restriction as a result of severe placental dysfunction. Defects in the formation of both extra-villous and villous trophoblast are characteristic of this disease. The outer syncytiotrophoblast layer covering the placental villi develops syncytial knots and focal necrosis while reduced invasion of the extra-villous trophoblast results in a reduced maternal blood supply and ischemia of the placental villi. The transcription factor glial cell missing-1 (GCM1) regulates formation of both types of trophoblast. GCM1 expression is reduced in placental villi of women with sPE but the functional downstream consequences of reduced GCM1 expression are unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS

In floating first trimester villous explants we demonstrated increased mRNA (2.5-fold, n = 12) and protein level (9.8-fold) of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP4) following repression of GCM1 (70 ± 7%) by small interfering-RNA, using RT–PCR and western blot, respectively. Similar increases in TIMP4 mRNA (4.2-fold, n = 7, P< 0.001 versus control) and protein levels were found following gene silencing of GCM1 in BeWo cells (<90% knock down of protein). TIMP4 protein was increased in placenta from women with sPE (3.5 ± 0.4 pg/µg, n = 8), compared with preterm (1.7 ± 0.17 pg/µg, n = 9) and term controls (1.6 ± 0.16 pg/µg, n = 9; P< 0.01; quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and visualized using immunohistochemistry) with reduced GCM1 expression, mostly in the pathologic syncytial knots.

CONCLUSIONS

TIMP4 is a downstream target of GCM1 that may link the consequences of reduced GCM-1-directed trophoblast differentiation to histologic and functional components of disordered placentation in sPE.

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

Cumulus cell gene expression predicts better cleavage-stage embryo or blastocyst development and pregnancy for ICSI patients

Posted: April 24, 2011 at 3:51 pm

BACKGROUND

Cumulus cell (CC) gene expression is suggested as a non-invasive analysis method to predict oocyte competence. There are, however, important between-patient differences in CC gene expression. These can be compensated when expression results are combined with patient and cycle characteristics using a multiple regression analysis model.

METHODS

From ICSI patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist and recombinant FSH (n= 25) or GnRH agonist and highly purified menotrophin (n= 20), CC were collected and oocytes were individually fertilized and cultured. CC were analyzed for the expression of Syndecan 4 (SDC4), Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), Versican (VCAN), Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, Gremlin 1, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), Calmodulin 2 and Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (ITPKA) using quantitative PCR. Results were analyzed in relation to the stimulation protocol. Within-patient variation in gene expression was related to oocyte maturity and developmental potential. Models predictive for normal embryo or blastocyst development and pregnancy in single embryo transfer cycles were developed.

RESULTS

Mature oocytes have higher PTGS2 and lower VCAN expression in their cumulus. All genes except VCAN had a positive correlation with good embryo or blastocyst morphology and were used to develop predictive models for embryo or blastocyst development (P< 0.01). Specific models were obtained for the two stimulation protocols. In both groups, better cleavage-stage embryo prediction relied on TRPM7 and ITPKA expression and pregnancy prediction relied on SDC4 and VCAN expression. In the current data set, the use of CC expression for pregnancy prediction resulted in a sensitivity of >70% and a specificity of >90%.

CONCLUSIONS

Multivariable models based on CC gene expression can be used to predict embryo development and pregnancy.

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

Dynamic distribution of NuMA and microtubules in human fetal fibroblasts, developing oocytes and somatic cell nuclear transferred embryos

Posted: April 24, 2011 at 3:51 pm

BACKGROUND

The nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) plays a central role in the assembly and maintenance of spindle poles. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) studies on non-human primates have shown that meiotic spindle removal during enucleation causes depletion of NuMA and the minus-end-directed motor protein (HSET) from the ooplasm, and this in turn leads to failure of embryo development. To determine whether NuMA from somatic cells could compensate for NuMA loss during enucleation, the distribution of NuMA and microtubule organization were investigated in human fibroblasts, developing oocytes and SCNT embryos.

METHODS

Human fetal fibroblasts, oocytes at various maturation stages and human embryos reconstructed by different SCNT methods were analyzed for NuMA and α-tubulin using immunofluorescent confocal microscopy.

RESULTS

NuMA was detected in interphase nuclei of fibroblasts and oocytes. During mitosis and meiosis, NuMA relocated to the domain surrounding the two spindle poles. During the enucleation process, NuMA was removed along with the meiotic spindle. At 2 h after injection into a donor cell, transitory bipolar spindles were organized and NuMA was detected in the reformed poles. NuMA could be detected spreading uniformly across the nucleoplasm of one pseudo-pronucleus in SCNT embryos but was excluded from the nucleolus. Regardless of the method used for SCNT (enucleation-injection or injection-pronuclei enucleation), NuMA aggregated and relocated to the reformed spindle poles at metaphase of the first mitotic event. At interphase, NuMA relocated throughout the nucleus in developmentally arrested SCNT embryos.

CONCLUSIONS

Our results show that donor cell nuclei contain NuMA, which might contribute to the maintenance of spindle morphology in SCNT embryos. Normal spindle and NuMA expression were found in human SCNT embryos at different developmental stages.

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

Secondary follicle growth and oocyte maturation during encapsulated three-dimensional culture in rhesus monkeys: effects of gonadotrophins, oxygen and fetuin

Posted: April 24, 2011 at 3:51 pm

BACKGROUND

An alginate-based matrix supports the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of non-human primate follicles and, in the presence of FSH, permits the in vitro development of pre-antral follicles to the small antral stage, including the production of ovarian steroids and paracrine factors. The current study investigated the ability of gonadotrophins, fetuin and oxygen (O2) to improve primate follicle growth and oocyte maturation in vitro.

METHODS

Macaque secondary follicles were isolated from the early follicular phase ovaries, encapsulated in a sodium alginate matrix and cultured individually for 40 days in supplemented medium. The effects of recombinant human (rh) FSH (15, 3 and 0.3 ng/ml for high, medium and low FSH, respectively), bovine fetuin (1 or 0 mg/ml) and O2 (5 or 20% v/v) were examined. Half of the follicles in each culture condition received rhLH on Day 30–40. Follicles that reached antral stage were treated with rh chorionic gonadotrophin for 34 h to initiate oocyte meiotic maturation. Media were analyzed for ovarian steroids and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH).

RESULTS

Improved culture conditions supported non-human primate, secondary follicle growth to the antral stage and, for the first time, promoted oocyte maturation to the MII stage. In the presence of fetuin at 5% O2, follicles had the highest survival rate if cultured with high or medium FSH, whereas follicles grew to larger diameters at Week 5 in low FSH. Oocyte health and maturation were promoted under 5% O2. High FSHstimulated steroid production by growing follicles, and steroidogenesis by follicles cultured with low FSH was promoted by LH. AMH biosynthesis was elevated with high compared with low FSH and for longer under 5% O2 than under 20% O2.

CONCLUSIONS

This encapsulated 3D culture model permits further studies on the endocrine and local factors that influence primate follicle growth and oocyte maturation, with relevance to enhancing fertility preservation options in women.

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

Impact of intraperitoneal pressure and duration of surgery on levels of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA in peritoneal tissues during laparoscopic surgery

Posted: April 24, 2011 at 3:51 pm

BACKGROUND

Our objective was to evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal pressure (IPP) and duration of a CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the peritoneal fibrinolytic system during laparoscopic surgery.

METHODS

Human study: Patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were divided into two groups: low (8 mmHg, n= 32) or standard (12 mmHg, n= 36) IPP. Normal peritoneum was collected from the parietal wall at the beginning of surgery and every 60 min thereafter. Mouse study: Mice were divided into three groups: low (2 mmHg) or high (8 mmHg) IPP or laparotomy. Peritoneal tissue was collected at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h, and 5 and 7 days after surgery. Real-time RT–PCR was performed in humans and mice to measure the levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mRNA in peritoneal tissues.

RESULTS

Human study: The tPA/PAI-1 mRNA ratio was significantly decreased in the 12 mmHg group at 1 h [P< 0.0001 versus matched initial peritoneal biopsies (MI)]. The tPA/PAI-1 mRNA ratio decreased in both groups at 2 h (P< .0.01 versus MI). Mouse study: The tPA/PAI-1 ratio was decreased at 0 h, and the difference was significant at 4 h in both the laparotomy (P< 0.001 versus controls, 0 h, 5 and 7 days) and high-IPP (P< 0.0001 versus 0, 48 and 72 h, 5 and 7 days) groups. No changes in tPA/PAI-1 ratio were observed in the low-IPP group.

CONCLUSIONS

A low IPP and shorter duration of surgery appear to minimally impact the fibrinolytic system during a CO2 pneumoperitoneum.

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

microRNAs expression in endometriosis and their relation to angiogenic factors

Posted: April 24, 2011 at 3:51 pm

BACKGROUND

Endometriosis is a common, multifactorial disease in which angiogenesis may be involved in the growth of endometrium outside the uterus. microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21–22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and play fundamental roles in biological processes. The objective of this study was to analyze several miRNAs related to angiogenesis and the angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), in endometriotic lesions (ovarian endometrioma, peritoneal lesion and rectovaginal nodule) and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis.

METHODS

TaqMan real-time PCR was used to assess the expression of the miRNAs (miR-15b, -16, -17-5p, -20a, -21, -125a, -221 and -222), while VEGF-A and TSP-1 mRNA were assessed by real-time PCR, with SYBR Green I and VEGF-A and TSP-1 protein levels were quantified by ELISA. Included in the study were 58 women with endometriosis and 38 control women.

RESULTS

In paired samples, ovarian endometrioma showed significantly lower VEGF-A mRNA (P =0.02) and protein (P=0.002) expression than eutopic endometrium and higher expression of miR-125a (P=0.003) and miR-222 (P <0.001). However, ovarian endometrioma had significantly higher expression of the angiogenic inhibitor TSP-1 and lower expression of miR-17-5p than eutopic endometrium (P<0.001). Moreover, a significant inverse correlations between miR-222 and VEGF-A protein levels (–0.267, P=0.018) and between miR-17-5p and TSP-1 protein levels (–0.260, P=0.022) were observed. Peritoneal lesions showed a significant increase in VEGF-A in comparison with ovarian endometrioma (P<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Expression levels of miRNAs related to angiogenesis were different in eutopic endometrium from that observed in ovarian endometrioma. This could influence the expression of angiogenic factors and play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith


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