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Cryonics | Cryonic.org

Posted: January 22, 2018 at 2:44 pm

This is a very high level introduction to cryonics and why you should consider protecting yourself and family with cryonics preserving yourself after legal death with the intent that in the future medicine will be able to repair any damage. Ourextremely short summary is that there are no guarantees cryonicswill work, but that a large number of very smart people believe that there is a much greater than zero chance that cryonics will be successful in saving many peoples lives.

What is Cryonics?

Cryonics is the field of scientific research that seeks to use technology to cool living tissue, organs, and organisms to the point where decay stops. Later the process is reversed. In IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) embryos are routinely stored using cryopreservation at liquid nitrogen.

In a similar fashion, cryonics attempts to cool a person immediately after declared death so that any cellular decay stops. Later when medical technology improves in theory they would be able to correct whatever problem killed you. For example, if you suffered a heart attack (myocardial infarction) and your heart was damaged, the premise is that in the future they would be able to repair that damage and revive you.

What are the chances Cryonicswill work?

No one knows, but they are greater than zero. Some, such as Arthur C Clarke the author of 2001 A Space Odyssey, and who proposed satellite communications in 1945, among other scientific advances estimated the success rate as high as 90%, others say 30%, others have said less than 1%. However, certainly nobody can say it is zero. What this means is that there is at least a chance. Many people wont care to take that chance, but for each person it is their own decision.

Who offers Cryonics?

Several non-profits offer cryonics now, with Alcor being the largest as of 2015. The Cryonics Institute also has a large number of members.

Alcor http://www.alcor.org

Cryonics Institute http://cryonics.org (and American Cryonics Society)

KrioRus http://www.kriorus.ru/en/

Alcor statistics:http://www.alcor.org/AboutAlcor/membershipstats.html

Cryonics Institute statistics: http://www.cryonics.org/ci-landing/member-statistics

How do you usually pay for Cryonics?

You buy an insurance policy that pays for the procedure. You can always change what you would use the policy for later if needed, so you wont be throwing the policy away.

Cryonics in film/TV

Cryonics has appeared in pop culture for decades. Some examples are: Vanilla Sky, Planet of the Apes, Empire Strikes Back (Han Solo frozen), Star Trek, Austin Powers, Avatar

Who hasused Cryonics?

Alcor has over 135 cryopreserved patients:

Ted Williams, major league baseball player.

Hal Finney, well known computer scientist.

Dick Clair, writer for The Facts of Life, Mamas Family and others.

Who is planning to by cryogenically preserved?

Among many others, a few people who have signed up are, as of 2015:

Marvin Minsky, professor at MIT, a giant in the field of Artificial Intelligence.

Eric Drexler, nanotechnology pioneer

Ray Kurzweil, inventor

Ralph Merkle, internet pioneer

Luke Nosek, engineer, venture capitalist

Peter Thiel, a PayPal founder

Larry King, radio and TV personality

Isnt Cryonicsagainst nature or religion?

Before there were antibiotics, people made the same argument, but now few would refuse antibiotics to stop an infection. Before CPR and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, people wouldnt even try to save someone who wasnt breathing due tochoking, drowning, shocks or other causes. Presently, around92000 people are saved each year in the United States using CPR. Many Doctors were against both anesthesia and sterilization before surgery, today we know that they are great tools. So what is the answer? No one can say for sure, but if nature prohibited it, many would say that people wouldnt have thought of ways to extend life.

So should you sign up for Cryonics?

That is a completely personal opinion. Many people believe that cryonics has a very good chance of being successful. You can always start with an associate membership atAlcor.

Video: Six minute Introduction to Cryonics

Larry King on Cryonics

Link:
Cryonics | Cryonic.org

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith

This Ingredient Will Give You Smoother, Brighter Skin

Posted: January 21, 2018 at 4:48 am

Were going to let you in on a secret: Maintaining a fresh, youthful complexion is as simple as reading the ingredient list on the back of your skincare products. Heres one to remember: ferulic acid. Its a glow-getting antioxidant found in the cell walls of grains such as rice and oats and the seeds of apples and oranges. It plays a key role in the plants protection and self-preservation, and when applied topically to your face,it helps to slow the aging process by reducing the effects of damaging free radicals on the skin. Ahead, five ferulic-acid-packed products your skincare routine has been missing.

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This cocktail of ferulic acid and vitamins C and E is basically a drink from the fountain of youth. A few drops help protect you from UVA/UVB rays (you still need sunscreen!), infrared radiation and ozone pollution for 72 hours.

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This super-potent serum brightens skin, improves elasticity and diminishes fine lines and wrinkles. Bring on the compliments.

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As if neutralizing pollution and free radicals for a healthy, youthful appearance wasn’t enough, this blend offerulic acid and vitamin E visibly reduces dark spots and wrinkles. And for an added bonus,pumpkin ferment extract and pomegranate enzyme work together to gently exfoliate dead skin for a glowing complexion.

Drunk Elephant $80

Excerpt from:

This Ingredient Will Give You Smoother, Brighter Skin

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Diabetes (4 Types) and Thyroid Health

Posted: January 21, 2018 at 4:48 am

Published January 15 2018

According to the World Health Organization, the number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014 (1). The disease especially has a high prevalence in the Western countries, and it has been linked extensively with heart attacks, strokes, high blood pressure, kidney failure, and blindness. For this reason, a lot of research has gone into the disease progression and treatment options available for diabetes. In this article Im going to discuss four different types of diabetes, along with some of the natural treatment options available. Then towards the end of this article Ill discuss how each type relates to thyroid health.

Before discussing the different types of diabetes, Id like to answer the question why is there an increased prevalence of diabetes? Although genetics is a factor in the development of the different types of diabetes, the main reason why there has been an increased prevalence is due to poor diet, along with other lifestyle factors. This is especially true with type 2 diabetes, but it is also a factor in the other types of diabetes as well.

Lets go ahead and look at the different types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that involves the immune system attacking the pancreas. Beta cells are destroyed in the pancreas, and these beta cells are responsible for the production of insulin. Insulin is involved in the regulation of blood glucose levels. Consequently, there isnt a way for glucose in the blood to enter the cells without insulin, resulting in high blood sugar. Adolescents typically develop this type, which is why type 1 diabetes once was referred to as juvenile diabetes. However, adults can also develop type 1 diabetes, although many times they actually have type 1.5 diabetes, which Ill discuss later in this article.

Potential Causes of Type 1 Diabetes

Just as is the case with other autoimmune conditions, genetics plays a role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Some children who are born with a particular genotype variation with a family history of the disease have a 1 in 5 chance of developing this condition (2). Interestingly, more than 85 percent of children who have type 1 diabetes dont have a family history (2). Just as is the case with Hashimotos thyroiditis and Graves disease, we can t change the genetics of those with type 1 diabetes, but we can modify diet and lifestyle factors, which can have a huge impact.

In the past I wrote a blog post where I discussed the triad of autoimmunity. This is also known as the 3-legged stool of autoimmunity, and according to this triad, the development of any autoimmune condition requires the following three components: 1) a genetic predisposition, 2) an environmental trigger, and 3) a leaky gut. And while the damage to the beta cells supposedly cant be reversed, in type 1 diabetes the goal still should be to find and remove the environmental triggers and heal the gut. This of course is true will all autoimmune conditions, including Graves disease and Hashimotos.

Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is usually based on a persons symptoms and blood tests. Some of the common symptoms patients with type 1 diabetes experience include excessive thirst, hunger, blurry vision, lethargy, and weight loss. These symptoms occur because since insulin isnt available to shuttle glucose into cells, they are left without an immediate source of energy.

Laboratory tests involve testing fasting blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C), and an oral glucose tolerance test. Its also a good idea to test for fasting insulin. These tests will usually be conducted initially. C-peptide is a 31 amino acid peptide that can also provide some valuable information, and it is more reliable than insulin as a measure of endogenous insulin secretion (3). In type 1 diabetes we would expect the C-peptide levels to be low, while someone with type 2 diabetes will usually have normal or high levels of C-peptide.

As is the case with other autoimmune conditions, it is also possible to test for autoantibodies. These include antibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA2). These antibodies can be tested at most labs, including Labcorp and Quest Diagnostics.

Conventional Treatment Options For Type 1 Diabetes

Conventional treatment options usually involve providing dose-dependent amounts of insulin the patient has to take at regular intervals. Even though type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, conventional medical treatment doesnt do anything to improve the health of the persons immune system.

Natural Treatment Options For Type 1 Diabetes

Although there is no cure for type 1 diabetes, the overall goal should be to improve the health of the persons immune system. This involves removing any environmental triggers and healing the gut. Even though the person with type 1 diabetes might need to take insulin, its important to keep in mind that someone with one autoimmune condition is more likely to develop other autoimmune conditions in the future. Improving the health of the persons immune system will decrease the chances of other autoimmune conditions developing in the future. In addition, it might slow down or prevent further damage to the beta cells of the pancreas, which means that the person wont need to take as high of a dosage of insulin.

Curcumin. This is a potent natural treatment option for type 1 diabetes. This is the compound that gives turmeric its orange-yellow color. One study showed that curcumin helps to reduce the release of proinflammatory cytokines and suppresses T cell activity (T cells aid in the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells) (4). Some patients with type 1 diabetes have also used curcumin supplements help control high blood sugar. Another study I came across showed that both curcumin and resveratrol can enhance the function of the pancreatic beta cells (5).

Gymnema sylvestre. This herb has been shown to cause insulin secretion from the beta cells, and might even help with beta cell regeneration (6) (7). This isnt to suggest that taking gymnema will reverse type 1 diabetes, but taking 500 to 1,000 mg/day might help with insulin secretion.

Type 2 diabetes doesnt involve an autoimmune component, although it does alter the way glucose is used in the body. This condition is characterized by either a lack of insulin, or the bodys inability to use insulin efficiently, the latter which causes a state known as insulin resistance. Either way, the person with type 2 diabetes will have high blood glucose levels. About 90 % of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes (8).

Potential Causes

Although genetics can play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes, lifestyle and environment seem to be much greater factors. Obesity, weight gain, smoking, and physical inactivity are all risk factors (9).

Its also worth mentioning that pregnant women can develop gestational diabetes, which is the most common medical complication of pregnancy (10). Dietary changes and exercise usually are recommended initially, although oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin may be given if the blood sugar levels remain high. Gestational diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes, but usually resolves itself after the woman gives birth. However, women who develop gestational diabetes are often at greater risk for developing diabetes later on.

Diagnosis

Just as is the case with the other types of diabetes, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes involves analyzing the patients symptoms and ordering specific tests. In the beginning stages the person might not experience any obvious symptoms, and so its commonly found during routine testing. For example, someone might obtain a fasting glucose as part of a routine physical, and upon seeing this value elevated the doctor orders additional tests, such as the hemoglobin A1C and the oral glucose tolerance tests. If the blood sugar levels remain continuously high then the person may experience symptoms such as excessive thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, nausea, and dizziness.

Conventional Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes

Depending on the severity of the patients condition, some medical doctors will initially recommend diet and lifestyle changes without giving medication. Speaking of medication, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic drug, and it usually is the first line of therapy recommended to those who have type 2 diabetes. The main way it helps those with type 2 diabetes is by greatly decreasing glucose production in the liver (11). There is also evidence that metformin can help to restore ovarian function in PCOS, reduce fatty liver, and to lower microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with type 2 diabetes (11). However, there is evidence that long-term use of metformin can cause a vitamin B12 deficiency and anemia (12).

In some severe cases of type 2 diabetes the person may need to take insulin. But usually this is a last resort, and many people do fine taking metformin. Of course the overall goal should be to improve the health of the individual so that they hopefully wont need to take metformin or insulin, at least not for a prolonged period of time.

Natural Treatment Options For Type 2 Diabetes

Eating well and exercising regularly can help with many different health conditions, and without question this includes type 2 diabetes. With regards to diet, eating a standard Paleo or autoimmune Paleo diet can help, although some healthcare professionals recommend a ketogenic diet for type 2 diabetes. This involves a diet that is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and the body converts the fat into energy instead of the carbohydrates.

Ketosis vs. Ketoacidosis

When talking about a ketogenic diet, some people get concerned about diabetic ketoacidosis. This is a serious complication of diabetes, and it occurs when there are very high levels of ketones in the body. This is more common in those people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also affect those with type 2 diabetes who dont properly manage their health. Ketoacidosis happens when your body is unable to produce enough insulin, and some of the symptoms include frequent urination, excessive thirst, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness or fatigue, and/or shortness of breath (13). In addition, the person will usually have high blood sugar levels and high ketone levels in the urine.

How does this differ from ketosis? Ketosis is considered to be a mild form of ketoacidosis. When someone is eating a lower amount of carbohydrates and is eating a good amount of healthy fats (i.e. avocados, coconut oil, fatty fish) their body will create ketones. With the ketogenic diet the body is essentially using fat for energy instead of glucose.

Berberine. I mentioned how metformin is the most common conventional medical treatment for type 2 diabetes. For those who are looking for a natural option, berberine is something to consider taking. Berberine is an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid isolated from the herb Rhizoma Coptidis, and it has anti-hyperglycemic properties (14). Not only is berberine a potent oral hypoglycemic agent, but it also has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism (15). In other words, berberine not only can help to lower fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1C levels, but can also help lower total cholesterol and LDL.

Chromium. A few studies have shown that chromium can benefit those with type 2 diabetes by helping with glycemic control and increasing insulin sensitivity (16) (17) (18).

Magnesium. Intracellular magnesium plays a key role in regulating insulin action, and oral magnesium supplementation can have beneficial effects on blood glucose levels (19) (20).

Fish oils. Fish oil supplementation is a natural treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes. One study has shown that the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can help improve insulin sensitivity (21).

Cinnamon. Research has demonstrated that patients taking oral cinnamon daily reduced their blood glucose and triglyceride levels (22). As for conventional treatment, patients are often started off with metformin, which increases insulin sensitivity.

Exercise. While eating well and taking nutritional supplements can decrease insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes, studies also show that exercise can help to increase insulin sensitivity (23) (24).

Type 1.5 diabetes, also known as latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA), has characteristics of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is similar to type 2 diabetes in that 1) it is diagnosed during adulthood, and 2) has a slow onset. However, it is similar to type 1 diabetes in that the person has autoantibodies that damage the beta cells of the pancreas, and as a result, insulin therapy will eventually be required. Type 1.5 diabetes accounts for 2%-12% of all cases of diabetes (25).

What frequently happens is that someone is mistakenly diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes, and as a result may be put on an oral hypoglycemic agent such as metformin. But while this can greatly help someone with type 2 diabetes, type 1.5 involves destruction to the beta cells of the pancreas, and so eventually the person will become insulin dependent.

Potential Causes

Type 1.5 diabetes is often a result of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Diagnosis

In addition to screening the person for blood sugar imbalances (i.e. fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1C), autoantibody tests can be ordered. This includes antibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and protein tyrosine phosphatase . The most common autoantibody present is GAD, and this usually results in a slower destruction of the beta cells than other types of antibodies.

LADA has also been sub-classified as type I and II. Patients with higher GAD antibody (GADA) levels are classified as LADA 1, and are more similar to type 1 diabetics, while patients with lower levels of GADA are classified as LAD2, and are more similar to type 2 diabetics (26).

C-peptide might also play a role in the early detection of those with type 1.5 diabetes. I mentioned C-peptide earlier, and discussed how it is usually low in type 1 diabetics, while in those with type 2 diabetes it is usually high or normal. It seems that those with type 1.5 diabetes have normal or decreased C-peptide levels, and so if someone has elevated levels of C-peptide this would rule out type 1.5 diabetes (27).

Conventional Treatment Options For Type 1.5 Diabetes

The treatment of patients with type 1.5 diabetes can be complex. Insulin therapy is typically used to help delay the onset of islet cell failure. Sometimes oral hypoglycemic agents (i.e. metformin) will also be administered. Just as is the case with type 1 diabetes, nothing is done to improve the health of the immune system from a conventional medical standpoint.

Natural Treatment Options For Type 1.5 Diabetes

As for natural treatment options, agents that can lower blood glucose levels and increase insulin sensitivity can be taken. I mentioned some of these earlier, including berberine, chromium, magnesium, and alpha lipoic acid. However, just as is the case with type 1 diabetes, with type 1.5 diabetes the autoimmune component also needs to be addressed. In other words, the environmental triggers need to be detected and removed, and the leaky gut needs to be healed.

Some researchers label Alzheimers disease as being a neuroendocrine disease, and the reason for this is because of the shared molecular and cellular features among type 1 and type 2 diabetes associated with memory deficits and cognitive decline in the elderly (28). As a result, many refer to Alzheimers as being type 3 diabetes.

Because glucose is the primary fuel for the brain, if someone has problems with the uptake and utilization of glucose, then this can essentially cause the brain to starve. This in turn can cause oxidative stress, impairments in homeostasis, and increased cell death (29). The inhibition of insulin/ insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling mediates Alzheimers disease neurodegeneration (29). In other words, chronic deficits in insulin can lead to the development of Alzheimers disease, which has characteristics of insulin deficiency that is associated with type 1 diabetes, as well as insulin resistance that is more characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Its also worth mentioning that amyloid beta protein deposits on the pancreas in patients with type 2 diabetes are similar to the protein deposits that occur in the brain in type 3 diabetes (30).

Causes

As mentioned previously, issues with insulin and IGF are contributors to type 3 diabetes progression. Although Alzheimers disease has characteristics of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the research shows that people who have type 2 diabetes are at increased risk for developing Alzheimers disease (30). In fact, those with type 2 diabetes have almost twice the risk of developing Alzheimers when compared to those who only have insulin resistance.

Conventional Treatment Options For Type 3 Diabetes

Although most medical doctors dont recognize Alzheimers disease itself as being a type of diabetes, keep in mind that many of these people will be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. As a result, some people with Alzheimers will be given dietary and lifestyle advice, along with medications to lower blood glucose such as metformin. However, drugs are also commonly given to treat the cognitive symptoms, such as memory loss. These drugs include cholinesterase inhibitors (Aricept, Exelon, Razadyne) and memantine (Namenda).

Natural Treatment Options For Type 3 Diabetes

If Alzheimers disease is indeed a form of diabetes, then it makes sense to do what is necessary to lower and stabilize blood sugar levels. As I mentioned earlier in this article, this should be addressed through dietary and lifestyle factors, although nutritional supplements can also be of benefit. Here are a few nutrients/herbs that have been shown in the research to benefit those with Alzheimers disease:

Gingko. A few different studies show that Ginkgo biloba has neuroprotective properties, and might play a role in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimers disease (31) (32).

Bacopa. A few studies show that Bacopa monnieri can enhance cognition and has neuroprotective effects against Alzheimers disease (33) (34).

Curcumin. Curcumin has many different health benefits, and this includes helping people with Alzheimers by inhibiting the formation and promoting the disaggregation of amyloid-B plaques (35) (36).

Resveratrol. Like turmeric, resveratrol has many different health benefits, and it also seems to have neuroprotective benefits in animal models of Alzheimers disease (37) (38).

Green tea. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG), is the main and most significantly bioactive polyphenol found in solid green tea extract, and there are a few studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of EGCG in the treatment of Alzheimers disease (39) (40).

Vitamin D. Human studies strongly support a correlation between low levels of vitamin D and cognitive impairment or dementia, and it might play a role in preventing and even stopping neurogeneration in those with Alzheimers disease (41) (42).

Fish oils. Patients with Alzheimers have been shown to have lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, and supplementation with DHA might help to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with Alzheimers disease (43) (44).

How Do These Diabetic Conditions Relate To Thyroid Health?

Type 1 Diabetes. Those with one autoimmune condition have a greater risk of developing another autoimmune condition in the future. And there seems to be a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in those with type 1 diabetes. One cross-sectional study confirmed that there is an association between thyroid autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (45). Out of 58 patients, 18 had hypothyroidism, with only one patient experiencing transient hyperthyroidism. Another study involving 1,304 patients showed that the incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease is high (46). Another study involving children and adolescents showed a high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (47).

Type 1.5 Diabetes. Since type 1.5 diabetes also has an autoimmune component, it shouldnt be surprising that the research shows an increase prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity with this condition. One study investigated the relationship between type 1.5 diabetes and thyroid autoimmunity, and it found that there is a higher risk of thyroid autoimmunity, especially for those with higher levels of GAD antibodies (48). Another study revealed higher levels of both thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies in those with type 1.5 diabetes (49). I wasnt able to find any evidence that showed an increase in Graves disease antibodies in those with type 1.5 diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes. Although type 2 diabetes isnt an autoimmune condition, there still seems to be a relationship between this type of diabetes and thyroid conditions. Some suggest that having a hypothyroid or hyperthyroid condition can lead to type 2 diabetes due to impaired glucose utilization and disposal in muscles, the overproduction of glucose output in the liver cells, and enhanced absorption of splanchnic glucose, which in turn contribute to insulin resistance (50). Another study looked at the association of thyroid function with the risk of type 2 diabetes, and the study showed that higher TSH levels were associated with a higher diabetes risk, even when it was within the lab reference range (51). In other words, if the TSH is within the lab reference range, but outside of the optimal range, then this might lead to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

This doesnt mean that most people with a thyroid hormone imbalance will develop type 2 diabetes, but only that they will be more susceptible to developing this condition. The good news is that improving diet and lifestyle factors, along with correcting the thyroid hormone imbalance will greatly improve your chances of NOT developing type 2 diabetes.

Type 3 Diabetes. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause reversible dementia (52), but this doesnt mean that these conditions can cause Alzheimers disease. One study involving 1,864 people looked at the relationship of TSH levels to the risk of developing Alzheimers disease (52). Over a follow-up period of 12.7 years, women with the lowest and highest TSH levels demonstrated an increased risk of developing Alzheimers disease, but the same study showed that TSH levels were not related to Alzheimers disease in men (52).

Another study I came across looked at the relationship between thyroid hormone replacement and the development of Alzheimers disease (53). Beta amyloid plaque accumulation is a factor with Alzheimers disease, and T3 can increase the production of these plaques (53). The results suggested that taking thyroid hormone medication may be associated with a faster rate of the diagnosis of dementia related to Alzheimers disease. However, there were a few limitations to this study, and more research is needed. In addition, the same study discussed how thyroid hormones play a significant role in the production and survival of microglial cells, which help to remove beta amyloid plaque from the brain.

I realize this was a lot of information, but hopefully you have a better understanding of the different types of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type, and unlike type 1 and 1.5 diabetes, it does not involve an autoimmune component. Many refer to Alzheimers as type 3 diabetes. The conventional approach for all of these types of diabetes is to lower blood glucose levels through diet and medication, and sometimes insulin therapy is administered, especially in type 1 and 1.5 diabetes. Natural treatment options also incorporate dietary changes, but nutritional supplements and herbs are also utilized. Plus you also need to remember to address the autoimmune component in type 1 and type 1.5 diabetes.

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Diabetes (4 Types) and Thyroid Health

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Genetic Medicine – University of Chicago – Department of …

Posted: January 21, 2018 at 4:44 am

Yoav Gilad, PhD

Chief, Section of Genetic Medicine

University of ChicagoDepartment of Medicine

The Section of Genetic Medicine was created over 10 years ago to both build research infrastructure in genetics within the Department of Medicine and to focus translational efforts related to genetics. As a result, the Section of Genetic Medicine is shaping the future of precision medicine with very active and successful research programs focused on the quantitative genetics, systems biology and genomics, and bioinformatics and computational biology. The Section provides extremely valuable collaborations with investigators in the Department of Medicine who are seeking to develop new and more powerful ways to identify genetic risk factors for common, complex disorders with almost immediate clinical application.

The Section of Genetic Medicine continues to shape the future of personalized medicine with successful research programs focused on the quantitative genetic and genomic science. The Section provides extremely valuable collaborations with investigators in the Department of Medicine who are seeking to develop new and more powerful ways to identify genetic risk factors for common, complex disorders with almost immediate clinical application.

The Section of Genetic Medicine conducts impactful investigations focused on quantitative genetics, systems biology and genomics, bioinformatics and computational biology. Some highlights from the past year include:

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Genetic Medicine – University of Chicago – Department of …

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Why There Will Be No Radical Life Extension, End Of Aging …

Posted: January 19, 2018 at 4:41 am

Despite the recurring assurances of futurists and scientists that humanity is on the threshold of conquering death and bringing about an end to aging, there will be no such radical life extension. Its not going to happen. I will articulate the reasons for my pessimistic (realistic) view in this article.

The irrepressible optimists like futurist Ray Kurzweil, author of Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever, like to point to the fact that the average human lifespan has risen dramatically over the past century. They claim that the average human lifespan (currently about 80 years in developed nations) has doubled since the early 20th century and tripled since the Middle Ages. While this is technically true, it is very misleading. To the uncritical mind, such statistics seem to imply that no one lived to old age up until very recently and that there were no elderly people in 1900, the Middle Ages, and surely not in a pre-civilization era. This is emphatically not true.

The key word here is average. The average human lifespan was so short in earlier eras due to a very high infant mortality rate. Before the development of germ theory and the attendant development of sterile medical practices, it was not uncommon for 1 in 3 or 1 in 2 children to die at birth or shortly thereafter. Before the development of antibiotics and vaccines, many succumbed in childhood to a myriad of diseases such as smallpox, scarlet fever, and cholera.

If half of a population dies at age 0 and the other half lives to 70, then the average lifespan will be 35 years. If you survived birth and childhood and reached adulthood, you had a very good chance of living a full life of 70-75 years. There have been grandparents and the elderly for as long as there have been humans. Most of the Greek philosophers lived to a ripe old age (into their 80s) more than 2,000 years ago.

This is very important to understand: the increase in average human lifespan is due almost entirely to the dramatic reduction in infant mortality. It is no coincidence that the nations with the highest infant mortality rates (African nations) also have the shortest average lifespans and the nations with the lowest infant mortality rates (Western nations and select Asian nations like Japan) have the longest average lifespans.

In countries with good healthcare systems and expertly trained medical staff, they will almost never lose a newborn. This is the major refutation to the claims of starry-eyed optimists who love to point to a plot showing the exponential increase in human life expectancy and claim this trend will continue. It wont. Infant mortality has already been eradicated. All of modern medicine (heart surgery, pacemakers, organ transplants, etc.) has added at most 10-15 years to what the human lifespan would otherwise be.

Everything from intelligence to baldness to even longevity seems to be encoded in our genes and is beyond our control. Weve all seen the stories on the news of some Appalachian hillbilly whos celebrating his 100th birthday and claims the key to longevity is three shots of moonshine a day, or some woman in Georgia who was born a sharecropper and is celebrating her 105th birthday. Were also familiar with the fitness neurotic who never missed a daily workout only to keel over at 55 from a heart attack on one of his fun runs.

There seems to be no rhyme or reason for why one person lives to 100 and another croaks at 50. Obviously, we know things like excessive tobacco and alcohol use are not conducive to a long and healthy life, but there are many, many cases of people who drank or smoked their whole lives and seem to be naturally immune to adverse effects. These people won the genetic lottery. They are genetically robust. Likewise, there are many people who take immaculate care of themselves, eat well, exercise regularly, go for frequent doctor checkups, only to end up betrayed by their own bodies.

The aging population is already putting massive strain on the budgets of Western nations. An ever-expanding system of hospitals, imaging centers, nursing homes, and assisted care facilitiesall staffed by well-paid nurses and doctorsis already draining national coffers. Do you think governments want their people living even longer and collecting benefits even longer? Theyre already trying to eliminate us and kill us off with the deliberate introduction of GM food and endocrine disrupting chemicals in our food and water.

Additionally, Gen Xs and Millennials are already vocally complaining that Baby Boomers who failed to adequately plan for retirement are refusing to retire from their senior positions in government, academia, and industry and make way for them. This is effectively causing a log jam that is preventing younger people from advancing into higher paid positions. This in turn gives rise to bitter ageist resentment on the part of the stymied generations.

There is also an intercultural and intergenerational conflict looming in America where the growing young populationwho will be predominately Hispanic, Black, and Asianwill be expected to pay for the care of the retired aged populationwho will be predominately White. The established institutions (the Republican Party, the Catholic Church, etc.) have already realized that their future existence lies with fecund Latin America and Africa and not with the dwindling numbers of aging Whites in North America or Western Europe. Theyre moving their chips.

The left desires the elimination of people who hold traditional (oppositional) beliefs. Witness the ghoulish glee of Leftists, like filmmaker Michael Moore, who gloat about the passing on of whites, referring to them as dinosaurs going extinct. Leftists want these ideological holdouts gone and replaced with a new generation of fresh slates they can indoctrinate from birth.

Additionally, weve seen the recent clamor to exhume Confederate generals from their graves. If this is the reaction elicited by mere dusty bones, imagine what would happen if the Black Lives Matter (BLM) protestors got wind that some of those people who elected to have their brains preserved cryogenically at places like Alcor entertained quaint ideas on race or sexuality while alive.

As some people have chosen to be preserved cryonically since the late 1960s, it is entirely possible that some of these people might have held or articulated what today might be considered racist, sexist, or homophobic beliefs. I could easily imagine BLM protestors demanding Alcor unfreeze these bigots and let their brains rot in the Arizona heat so as to prevent any possibilityno matter how remoteof contaminating the future with the re-introduction of reactionary thinking.

So what will a future without radical life extension look like? We can anticipate several things as a consequence. Expect greater promulgation of the notion that we should accept death as a natural part of life. That it need not be feared. There will be no railing against the dying of the light as Dylan Thomas implored. Instead, we will be encouraged to go gentle into that good night.

I anticipate widespread promotion of acceptance with such insipid quotes as Emily Dickinsons That it will never come again is what makes life so sweet and Mae Wests You only live once, but if you do it right, once is enough. I also expect the legalization and encouragement of euthanasia (assisted suicide), similar to the government-run elective suicide facilities depicted in the 1973 dystopian science fiction film Soylent Green.

I hope Im wrong. The thought of death and the idea of not-existing should scare anyone who feels he is unique and has differentiated himself from the teeming mass of humanity in thought or deed. But unfortunately, I think were Davy Crocket at the Alamo. Were the 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Were the 6th Army encircled at Stalingrad. And there is no relief party coming.

Read More: 5 Things That Will Not Happen In The Future

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Why There Will Be No Radical Life Extension, End Of Aging …

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy | Center for …

Posted: January 18, 2018 at 10:42 am

Science News editors have identified “CRISPR geneediting moves into humans, spurs debate”as their Number 2 story of 2017. OHSU scientists Shoukhrat Mitalipov and Paula Amato’s CRISPRresearch was one of @ScienceNews’ top stories of 2017! #SNTop10

Mitalipov successfully repairs genes in human embryos

A ground breaking discovery by Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Ph.D.,was reported in Nature the successful removal of a lethal geneticdefect in human embryos. The breakthrough is the initial confirmation that adangerous genetic defect can in theory be erased.

Scientific success in embryo editing re-opens reg debate. BioWorld

Study in Nature demonstrates method for repairing genes in human embryos that prevents inherited diseases. OHSU News

In Breakthrough, Scientists Edit a Dangerous Mutation From Genes in Human Embryos. NY Times

First human embryo editing experiment in U.S.’corrects’ gene for heart condition. The Washington Post.

Scientists Precisely Edit DNA In Human Embryos To Fix A Disease Gene. NPR

Human embryos edited to stop disease. BBC

A Gene Editing Breakthrough. On Point with Tom Ashbrook.

First U.S.-based group to edit human embryos brings practice closer to clinic. Science

In breakthrough, OHSU corrects defective gene in embryo. Oregonlive.

First Safe Repair of Gene in Human Embryos. Associated Press.

A new discovery may unlock the answer to a vexing scientificquestion: How to conduct mitochondrial replacement therapy, a new gene-therapytechnique, in such a way that safely prevents the transmission of harmful mitochondrialgene mutations from mothers to their children.

For women with mitochondrial diseases, a step closer to preventing transmission. STAT

Human embryo experiment shows progress toward ‘three-parent’ babies. The Washington Post

Families struggling with infertility or a genetic predisposition for debilitating mitochondrial diseases may someday benefit from a new breakthrough led by scientists at OHSU and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

Egg ‘nobbles’ can be used to create embryos, say scientists in fertility breakthrough

Fertility success may get boost from new research

First he pioneered a new way of making life. Now he wants to try it in people

Shoukhrat Mitalipov: The cloning chief.

Researchers announced they had derived stem cells fromcloned human embryos, a long-awaited research coup that Science’s editors choseas a runner-up for Breakthrough of the Year.Read the article on Science

#4. Finally, We’re Just Like Dolly

#5. Functioning Organs Made From Stem Cells

#2. Human embryonic stem cells cloned

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Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy | Center for …

Recommendation and review posted by Guinevere Smith


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