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anatomy | Definition of anatomy in English by Oxford Dictionaries

Posted: July 12, 2018 at 5:47 pm


1mass noun The branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.

he studied physiology and anatomy

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descriptions of the cat’s anatomy and behaviour

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every part of his anatomy hurt

people should never be reduced to their anatomies

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body, shape, figure, silhouette, proportions, stature, build, frame, physique

2A study of the structure or internal workings of something.

a detailed anatomy of a society and its institutions

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analysis, examination, inspection, survey, study, scrutiny, perusal

Late Middle English: from Old French anatomie or late Latin anatomia, from Greek, from ana- up + tomia cutting (from temnein to cut).

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anatomy | Definition of anatomy in English by Oxford Dictionaries

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Spotlight on: Regenerative medicine – Research – Medical …

Posted: July 12, 2018 at 5:45 pm

What is regenerative medicine?

Losing the use of your voice box, or larynx, can be devastating. It affects your ability to speak, swallow and breathe, and can also dampen your sense of smell and make it difficult to cough. MRC scientists in London are now working on an extraordinary new treatment to help over two thousand people who suffer with serious larynx problems each year. Using stem cells, they are partially rebuilding the larynxas a potential replacement organ for patients.

This ground-breaking research is an example of the work being undertaken in regenerative medicine a branch of science that seeks to repair or replace damaged and diseased human cells and tissues. This may involve transplanting stem cells or tissues that have been grown in the lab, such as the larynx, or stimulating the body to repair itself. Regenerative medicine has the potential to completely change the way we care for patients by helping us to develop new treatments for a wide range of debilitating conditions.

At the heart of regenerative medicine is research using stem cells. These are cells that can regenerate almost indefinitely. Some, known as pluripotent stem cells, can develop into any of the cell types in the body. This extraordinary flexibility means they have the potential to treat many different diseases and conditions that currently have no cure, like type 1 diabetes, blindness, Parkinsons disease, heart disease and arthritis.

Creating new cells to replace dead or damaged tissue is known as stem cell therapy. Professor Robin Ali is an MRC-funded scientist at University College Londonwho is exploring the use of stem cell therapy for restoring eyesight in patients with degenerative retinal disease. By producing new, healthy retinal cells and injecting them into a patient with the disease, Robin hopes to find out if the therapy will be safe and effective to use in future. So far it has been successfully tested in mice, and now Robins work is moving towards clinical trials. Theres little more we can learn by treating another mouse. The most exciting science now is in patients and seeing just how effectively the technology can work in people, says Robin.

Professor Robin Ali is an MRC-funded scientist working at the forefront of regenerative medicine to find new therapies for people with degenerative eye conditions.

Stem cells are also being used to improve our understanding of how degenerative diseases develop and progress. This will help scientists to find drugs that can slow down the symptoms of these diseases, prevent them from getting worse, and even reverse them. A specific type of adult stem cell, called an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell, is essential to this work. iPS cells are created from ordinary skin, blood or hair cells by winding back the clock and reprogramming them to become stem cells. They are then able to develop into many different cell types that can be used in the lab to study disease. This approach has been used to recreate nerve cells from patients who are suffering with conditions like Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease, and cardiac cells from patients with heart disease. Scientists can study these cells more closely and use them to develop and test drugs something which is impossible to do in living patients.

Research in regenerative medicine is already having a huge impact in the clinic. Though sometimes overlooked, bone marrow transplants using blood stem cells are a well-established treatment for leukaemia. There are also a number of new regenerative therapies that are being used to help patients in the clinic. For example, there are skin regeneration treatments for burns patients and people with diabetic ulcers, treatments for anaemia and cartilage damage, and new options for reconstructive surgery.

Work is now underway to develop potential future treatments. One approach is looking at whether transplanting adult cells can stimulate damaged tissue to repair itself. Stuart Forbes, at the MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine in Edinburgh, is investigating how cells called macrophages, which are extracted from patients bone marrow, can be used to encourage damaged liver cells to repair themselves. Another MRC-funded clinical trial has shown how this type of cell therapy can stimulate the self-repair of nerve cells, restoring limb movement in dogsthat have injured their spines. Efforts are now focused on how to use this technique to help human patients.

In a second approach, researchers are transplanting specific cell types or tissue grown in the lab to actively repair damage. This is where the use of pluripotent stem cells in particular, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has the most potential. The first hESC-based clinical trial has just started in the UK to treat the juvenile eye condition, Stargardts macular dystrophy. Another trial, led by Professor Pete Coffey at University College London, will test the use of hESC to treat age-related macular degeneration. This is a degenerative condition leading to blindness which affects around 1 in 4 people over the age of 60 in the UK.

MRC scientists are also using hESCs in other disease areas. Tilo Kunath, at the University of Edinburgh, is creating dopamine-releasing brain cells from hESCs that can be used as potential cell transplants to treat patients with Parkinsons Disease. And at the University of Sheffield, Marcelo Rivolta is exploring new ways of treating congenital deafness, which affects 1 in every 1,000 children, by replacing the sensory hair cells in the inner ear. Marcelos team has shown that these cells, when grown from hESCs, can be transplanted to restore hearing in gerbils. They are now looking to develop this approach into a treatment for humans.

Promoting stem cell research and regenerative medicine is a priority for the MRC. We have supported pioneering stem cell research since the field first emerged, and remain at the forefront of regenerative medicine. In the 1980s we funded Sir Martin Evans Nobel Prize-winning work to isolate and genetically manipulate embryonic stem cells for the first time, and today our scientists are investigating the use of stem cells to treat blindness, heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons disease and Multiple Sclerosis.

We are the main funder of regenerative medicine research in the UK, and spend in the region of 40 million per year in this area. Our work is guided by a Strategy for UK Regenerative Medicine (PDF, 1.60MB) which describes the many opportunities and challenges faced by the field. As well as supporting individual teams of scientists, we have invested in MRC research centres, units and institutes across the UK such as those in Edinburgh, London, Oxford and Cambridge.

The UK Regenerative Medicine Platform launched in 2013

The field of regenerative medicine faces many technical and scientific challenges. These include understanding how to turn stem cells into the type of cell needed and how to manufacture them safely and in large-enough quantities for use in the clinic. It is also crucial to figure out how to target treatments to the part of the body that needs repairing, and to find ways of stopping the body from rejecting transplants.

To tackle these and other obstacles, we helped to launch the UK Regenerative Medicine Platform (UKRMP)in 2013, together with BBSRC and EPSRC. This 25 million initiative has brought together leading research teams from different universities and different areas of science such as biology, medicine and engineering. This will help to ensure that promising scientific discoveries in regenerative medicine are translated into the clinic where they can benefit patients. The UKRMP will work closely with the newly established Innovate UK’sCell Therapy Catapult, which promotes the commercialisation and late-stage development of regenerative medicine products, as well as with research charities and other stakeholders.

It is important that researchers can access and use human stem cells that are ethically-sourced and reliable. We play a leading role in this area by making sure that UK human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research is appropriately regulated. Our activity includes MRC funding for the UK Stem Cell Bank the worlds first which provides ethical and high-quality hESC lines that scientists in the UK and overseas can use for laboratory and clinical work. These hESC lines must be produced to the highest quality in order to be used in patient studies. To help with this, we have funded three centres to produce more than 20 hESC lines that are now being used in clinical studies (see From the lab to the clinic).

As well as the UK Stem Cell Bank, we established the Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Initiative (HIPSCI) in 2013, together with Wellcome Trust. HIPSCI is creating a catalogue of iPS cells from over 500 healthy volunteers and 500 patients with genetic disease. These cells will be made available to scientists who want to do laboratory research on the effects of our genes on health and disease. Their work will help us to understand how iPS cells can be controlled and used in future stem cell therapies.

Our work in regenerative medicine is not limited just to the UK. In the past three years, we have collaborated with the US and China on stem cell research. Together with the Californian Institute of Regenerative Medicine in the US, we are addressing new approaches for treating age-related macular degeneration and acute myeloid leukaemia. We are also working with the National Natural Science Foundation of China on a number of projects that link the best UK and Chinese labs in stem cell research.

Professor Peter Andrews is an MRC-funded scientist who coordinates the International Stem Cell Initiative. His research in the lab focuses on the science behind stem cell therapies.

Our membership in the International Stem Cell Funders Forum (ISCF), which brings together the worlds major biomedical funding organisations, has allowed us to take a leading role in encouraging international working, sharing resources, and helping to establish best practice among researchers. An example of this is the International Stem Cell Initiative (ISCI) project, led by Professor Peter Andrewsat the University of Sheffield Centre. ISCI was set up to shed light on the factors that influence stem cell growth and behaviour. It does this by bringing together labs from across the globe to share data and resources. Work by ISCI has helped to identify unstable regions within the chromosomes of pluripotent stem cell lines, which need to be controlled if the lines are to be used as therapies in the future.

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Spotlight on: Regenerative medicine – Research – Medical …

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Resveratrol Effectiveness, How It Works, and Drug …

Posted: July 11, 2018 at 12:44 pm

What other names is Resveratrol known by?3,5,4′ TriHydroxy-Transstibene, (E)- 5-(4-hydroxystyryl)benzene-1,3-diol, 3,4′,5-stilbenetriol, 3,5,4′ -trihydroxystilbene, 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene, 3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, Cis-Resveratrol, Extrait de Vin, Extrait de Vin Rouge, Kojo-Kon, Phytoalexin, Phytoalexine, Phytoestrogen, Phyto-œstrogne, Pilule de Vin, Protykin, Red Wine Extract, Resvratrol, Resveratrols, Resvratrols, RSV, RSVL, Stilbene Phytoalexin, Trans-Resveratrol, Trans-Resvratrol, Wine Extract, Wine Pill.Resveratrol is a chemical found in red wine, red grape skins, purple grape juice, mulberries, and in smaller amounts in peanuts. It is used as a medicine.

People use resveratrol for “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), lowering “bad” (LDL) cholesterol levels, increasing “good” (HDL) cholesterol levels, and preventing cancer and heart disease. It is also used for symptoms of a lung disorder “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” and to improve the health of the liver in people with liver damage not caused by drinking alcohol. Resveratrol is used to improve glucose levels in the blood in people with diabetes, to reduce body fat in people with a condition called metabolic syndrome, and to slow signs of aging in the skin.

Some people apply resveratrol to their skin to treat acne.

Resveratrol is used as a nasal spray for symptoms of seasonal allergies (hay fever).

Possibly Effective for…

Possibly Ineffective for…

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for…

In children, resveratrol is POSSIBLY SAFEwhen sprayed in the nostrils for up to 2 months.

Bleeding disorders: Resveratrol might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Resveratrol might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don”t use resveratrol.

Surgery: Resveratrol might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using resveratrol at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Resveratrol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, taking resveratrol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of some medications.

Some medications changed by the liver include chlorzoxazone, theophylline, and bufuralol.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Resveratrol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, taking resveratrol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of some medications.

Some medications changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Resveratrol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, taking resveratrol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of some medications.

Some medications changed by the liver include theophylline, omeprazole, clozapine, progesterone, lansoprazole, flutamide, oxaliplatin, erlotinib, and caffeine.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Resveratrol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, taking resveratrol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of some medications.

Some medications changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin, and many others.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Resveratrol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, taking resveratrol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of some medications.

Some medications changed by the liver include acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (Parafon Forte), ethanol, theophylline, and anesthetics such as enflurane (Ethrane), halothane (Fluothane), isoflurane (Forane), methoxyflurane (Penthrane).

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Resveratrol might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. In theory, taking resveratrol along with some medications that are broken down by the liver may increase the effects and side effects of some medications. However, some early research shows conflicting results.

Some medications changed by the liver include some calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (Alfenta), cisapride (Propulsid), fentanyl (Sublimaze), lidocaine (Xylocaine), losartan (Cozaar), fexofenadine (Allegra), midazolam (Versed), and otherslovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Resveratrol might slow blood clotting. Taking resveratrol along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.



Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

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Resveratrol Effectiveness, How It Works, and Drug …

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Immortality | CSI | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Posted: July 11, 2018 at 12:44 pm

Immortality is a 2015 television movieand the series finale of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation.

The team is called together when a bomber terrifies Las Vegas. The CSI’s have to work quickly to determine who is behind it all, and Lady Heather is their prime suspect.

When a suicide bomber detonates his vest on the floor of the Catherine Willows-owned Eclipse casino, the FBI Special Agent returns from Los Angeles in order to join the investigation. Gil Grissom, meanwhile, working to preserve sharks in international waters, is arrested for trespassing at the Port of San Diego, and D.B. Russell offers Sara Sidle the chance to supervise the local investigation into the bombing. Sidle, who is vying for the position of Director of the Las Vegas Crime Lab, is initially irked when Sheriff Conrad Ecklie inquires as to Grissom’s location when Lady Heather Kessler is linked to the crime. Ecklie ensures Grissom is released from custody, and he and Willows, alongside Eclipse security officer Jim Brass, assist in locating the suspect.

As the team works to restore safety to the streets of Las Vegas, D.B. decides it is time for him to “head East” and pursue new challenges, while he places a plaque, dedicated to the memory of Julie Finlay, alongside his personal possessions. Catherine expresses an interest in leaving the FBI and working alongside her daughter Lindsey in the Las Vegas Crime Lab, noting that, should Sara reject the promotion she is going to be offered, Catherine will accept it in lieu of her former colleague. The series ends with the newly promoted Sara, upon hearing a recording of Grissom confessing his love for her, sailing from the Port of San Diego with Grissom.

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Immortality | CSI | FANDOM powered by Wikia

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Osteoarthritis Pain | Osteoarthritis Stem Cell Therapy …

Posted: July 10, 2018 at 4:45 am

Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis

New treatments and advances in research are giving new hope to people affected by Osteoarthritis pain and symptoms.StemGenexStem Cell Research Centre provides stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis to help those with unmet clinical needs achieve optimum health and better quality of life. A clinical study registered through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been established to evaluate the quality of life changes in individuals with Osteoarthritis following stem cell therapy.

Stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis is being studied for efficacy in improving the complications in patients through the use of their own stem cells. These procedures may help patients who dont respond to typical drug treatment, want to reduce their reliance on medication, or are looking to try stem cell therapy before starting drug treatment.

To learn more about becoming a patient and receiving stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis through StemGenex Stem Cell Research Centre, please contact one of our patient advocates at (800) 609-7795 or fill out the contact form on this page.Below are some frequently asked questions about stem cell treatment for Osteoarthritis.

The majority of complications in Osteoarthritis patients are related to the deterioration of cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that permits nearly frictionless joint motion. In Osteoarthritis, this surface become rough. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, patients will be left with bone rubbing on bone.

Stem cell treatment provided by StemGenex is designed to target these areas within the joints to help with the creation of new cartilage cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent and have the ability to differentiate into cartilage called (chondrytes). The goal of each stem cell treatment is to inject the stem cells into the joint to create cartilage (chondryte cells). Stem cells are a natural anti-inflammatories which can assist with Osteoarthritis pain and swelling in the joint area.

Stem cells are the basic building blocks of human tissue and have the ability to repair, rebuild, and rejuvenate tissues in the body. When a disease or injury strikes, stem cells respond to specific signals and set about to facilitate the healing process by differentiating into specialized cells required for the bodys repair.

There are four known types of stem cells which include:

StemGenex provides autologous adult stem cells (from fat tissue) where the stem cells come from the person receiving treatment.

StemGenex provides autologous adult adipose-derived stem cells (from fat tissue) where the stem cells come from the person receiving treatment.

We tap into our bodys stem cell reserve daily to repair and replace damaged or diseased tissue. When the bodys reserve is limited and as it becomes depleted, the regenerative power of our body decreases and we succumb to disease and injury.

Three sources of stem cells from a patients body are used clinically which include adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Performed by Board Certified Physicians, dormant stem cells are extracted from the patients adipose tissue (fat) through a minimally invasive mini-liposuction procedure with little to no downtime.

During the liposuction procedure, a small area (typically the abdomen) is numbed with an anesthetic and patients receive mild to moderate sedation. Next, the extracted dormant stem cells are isolated from the fat and activated, and then comfortably infused back into the patient intravenously (IV) and via other directly targeted methods of administration. The out-patient procedure takes approximately four to five hours.

StemGenex provides multiple administration methods for Osteoarthritis patients to best target the disease related conditions and symptoms which include:

Since each condition and patient are unique, there is no guarantee of what results will be achieved or how quickly they may be observed. According to patient feedback, many patients report results in one to three months, however, it may take as long as six to nine months. Individuals interested in stem cell therapy are urged to consult with their physician before choosing investigational autologous adipose-derived stem cell therapy as a treatment option.

In order to determine if you are a good candidate for adult stem cell treatment, you will need to complete a medical history form which will be provided by your StemGenex Patient Advocate. Once you complete and submit your medical history form, our medical team will review your records and determine if you are a qualified candidate for adult stem cell therapy.

StemGenex team members are here to help assist and guide you through the patient process.

Patients travel to StemGenex treatment center located in San Diego, California for stem cell treatment from all over the United States, Canada and around the globe. Treatment will consist of one visit lasting a total of three days. The therapy is minimally invasive and there is little to no down time. Majority of patients fly home the day after treatment.

We provide stem cell therapy for a wide variety of diseases and conditions for which traditional treatment offers less than optimal options. Some conditions include Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

The side effects of the mini-liposuction procedure are minimal and may include but are not limited to: minor swelling, bruising and redness at the procedure site, minor fever, headache, or nausea. However, these side effects typically last no longer than 24 hours and are experienced mostly by people with sensitivity to mild anesthesia. No long-term negative side effects or risks have been reported.

The side effects of adipose-derived stem cell therapy are minimal and may include but are not limited to: infection, minor bleeding at the treatment sites and localized pain. However, these side effects typically last no longer than 24 hours. No long-term negative side effects or risks have been reported.

StemGenex provides adult stem cell treatment with mesenchymal stem cells which come from the person receiving treatment. Embryonic stem cells are typically associated with ethical and political controversies.

The FDA is currently in the process of defining a regulatory path for cellular therapies. A Scientific Workshop and Public Hearing Draft Guidances Relating to the Regulation of Human Cells, Tissues or Cellular or Tissue-Based Products was held in September 2016 at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD. Currently, stem cell treatment is not FDA approved.

In March 2016, bipartisan legislation, the REGROW Act was introduced to the Senate and House of Representatives to develop and advance stem cell therapies.

Stem cell for arthritis treatment is not covered by health insurance at this time. The cost for standard preoperative labs are included. Additional specific labs may be requested at the patients expense.

Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. It is caused by the degradation of a joints cartilage. Cartilage is a firm, rubbery material that covers and cushions the ends of bones in normal joints. Its main function is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as an intermediary or cushion.

Over time, the cartilage may wear away in some areas, greatly decreasing its ability to act as a shock absorber. As the cartilage wears away, tendons and ligaments stretch, causing pain. In advanced cases, the bones could rub against each other, causing even more pain and loss of movement.

Osteoarthritis is very common in middle-aged and older people, and its symptoms can range from very mild to very severe. The disorder most often affects hands and weight-bearing joints such as knees, hips, feet and shoulders, but can affect almost any joint in the body.

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Osteoarthritis Pain | Osteoarthritis Stem Cell Therapy …

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Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis

Posted: July 10, 2018 at 4:45 am

Experts are researching ways to use stem cells to treat arthritis in the knee and other joints. Many doctors already use stem cell therapy to treat arthritis, but it is not considered standard practice.

Stem cell therapy is one of several non-surgical treatments for arthritis pain. See Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment

There is a lot of debate around stem cell treatment, and it is helpful for potential patients to understand what stem cells are and the issues surrounding their use in arthritis therapy.

Article continues below

Stem cells are located throughout the body. What makes stem cells special is that they can:

See What Are Stem Cells?

Advocates of stem cell treatments hypothesize that, when placed into a certain environment, stem cells can transform to accommodate a certain need. For example, stem cells that are placed near damaged cartilage are hypothesized to develop into cartilage tissue.

See What Is Cartilage?

Stem cells can be applied during a surgery (such as the surgical repair of a torn knee meniscus) or delivered through injections directly into the arthritis joint.

Watch: Knee Meniscus Tear Video

When administering stem cell injections, many physicians use medical imaging, such as ultrasound, in order to deliver cells precisely to the site of cartilage damage.

The most common type of stem cells used for treating arthritis are mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are usually collected from the patients fat tissue, blood, or bone marrow.

The process of collecting cells is often called harvesting.

Bone marrow is usually taken from the pelvic bone using a needle and syringe, a process called bone marrow aspiration. The patient is given a local anesthetic and may also be given a sedative before the procedure.

There are no professional medical guidelines for who can and cannot receive stem cell therapy for arthritis. For now, the decision about who gets stem cell therapy is up to patients and doctors.

See Arthritis Treatment Specialists

There is some evidence that people with severe arthritis can benefit from stem cell therapy.1 Most research indicates that younger patients who have relatively mild osteoarthritis or cartilage damage see the most benefit.2

See What Is Osteoarthritis?

Some doctors have certain criteria for recommending stem cell therapy. For example, they only recommend it to patients who are healthy and have relatively little cartilage damage. Other doctors make recommendations on a case-by-case basis.

Stem cell therapy is a promising but still unproven treatment, and will not be covered by most insurance companies.

Complete Listing of References

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Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis

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