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New Discoveries in Human Anatomy – The Scientist

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

In the 16th century, when the study of human anatomy was still in its infancy, curious onlookers would gather in anatomical theaters to catch of a glimpse of public dissections of the dead. In the years since, scientists have carefully mapped the viscera, bones, muscles, nerves, and many other components of our bodies, such that a human corpse no longer holds that same sense of mystery that used to draw crowds.

New discoveries in gross anatomythe study of bodily structures at the macroscopic levelare now rare, and their significance is often overblown, says Paul Neumann, a professor who specializes in the history of medicine and anatomical nomenclature at Dalhousie University. The important discoveries about anatomy, I think, are now coming from studies of tissues and cells.

Over the last decade, there have been a handful of discoveries that have helped overturn previous assumptions and revealed new insights into our anatomy. Whats really interesting and exciting about almost all of the new studies is the illustration of the power of new [microscopy and imaging] technologies to give deeper insight, saysTom Gillingwater, a professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh in the UK. I would guess that many of these discoveries are the start, rather than the end, of a developing view of the human body.

Here is a sampling of some of those discoveries.

The lymphatic system, a body-wide network of vessels that drains fluids and removes waste from tissues and organs, was long-believed to be absent from the brain. Early reports of lymphatic vessels in the meninges, the membrane coating the brain, date as far back as the 18th centurybut these findings were met with skepticism. Only recently has this view been overturned, after a 2015 report of lymphatic vessels in mouse meninges and the 2012 discovery of the so-called glymphatic system, an interconnected network of glial cells that facilitates the circulation of fluid throughout mouse brains. In 2017, neuroimaging work revealed evidence for such lymphatic vessels in human meninges.

In 2018, researchers reported that the space between cells was a collagen-lined, fluid-filled network, which they dubbed the interstitium. They proposed that this finding, which emerged from close examinations of tissue from patients bile ducts, bladders, digestive tracts, and skin, may help scientists better understand how tumors spread through the body. The team also called the interstitium a newly-discovered organ, but many dismissed this claim. Most biologists would be reticent to put the moniker of an organ on microscopic uneven spaces between tissues that contain fluid, Anirban Maitra, a pathologist at the University of Texas MD Anderson Center, told The Scientistlast year.

Until recently, the prevailing view among scientists was that the mesentery, the large, fan-like sheet of tissue that holds our intestines in place, consisted of multiple fragments. In 2016, after examining the mesentery of both cadavers and patients undergoing surgery, a team of researchers concluded that the mesentery was actually a single unit. This wasnt the first time the mesentery was described as continuousin one of the first depictions of the structure, Leonardo da Vinci also portrayed it in this way. But in the 2016 paper, the scientists argued that its continuity should qualify the mesentery as an organ. As with the interstitium, however, other experts have objected to this claim. In both of these cases, there seems to have been a misunderstanding of what the term organ means, Neumann says.

laurie okeefe

In January 2019, scientists described a previously unknown web of capillaries that pass through the bones of mice. Textbooks describe large veins and arteries jutting out the ends of bones, but this newly-described network of tunnels provide a faster route for blood cells produced in the bone marrow to enter the circulation. The research team also looked at human bones using a variety of methods: taking photos from patients undergoing surgery, conducting MRI scans of a healthy leg, and investigating extracted samples under a microscopeand revealed a similar, albeit less extensive, system of capillaries.

Last October, researchers reported that muscles typically seen in reptiles and other animalsbut not peoplewere present in the limbs of human embryos. Using a combination of immunostaining, tissue clearing, and microscopy, the team generated high-resolution 3-D images of upper and lower limb muscles in tissue samples from preserved 8- to 14-week-old embryos and fetuses. These structures, which disappear before birth, may be anatomical remnants of our evolutionary ancestors that disappear during the early stages of development, the authors suggest. They only examined 13 images, however, so experts caution that its a preliminary finding that needs to be replicated in a larger sample.

The fabella, a tiny bone located in a tendon behind the knee, is becoming more common in humans, according to a study published last spring. After reviewing 58 studies on fabella prevalence in 27 different countries, researchers reported that people were approximately 3.5 times more likely to have the little bone in 2018 than 1918. The cause of this trend remains an open question, but the authors suggest that changes in muscle mass and bone lengthdriven by increased diet quality in many parts of the worldcould be one explanation.

Diana Kwon is a Berlin-based freelance journalist. Follow her on Twitter@DianaMKwon.

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New Discoveries in Human Anatomy - The Scientist

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Go Inside the Off-Broadway Opening of Anatomy of a Suicide – Playbill.com

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

Atlantic Theater Company celebrated the official opening of Alice Birch's Anatomy of a Suicide February 18. The play, which won the 2018 Susan Smith Blackburn Prize, premieres in the U.S. following an acclaimed London run.

An exploration of mothers and daughters, Anatomy of a Suicide details the story of three generations of women whose lives play out simultaneously onstage.

Directed by Obie winner Lileana Blain-Cruz, the cast is made up of Celeste Arias (Uncle Vanya), Jason Babinsky (Network), Gabby Beans (Marys Seacole), Ava Briglia (John Mulaney and the Sack Lunch Bunch), Carla Gugino (Jett), Julian Elijah Martinez (Network), Jo Mei (The Great Wave), Vince Nappo (Reign), Miriam Silverman (Junk), and Richard Topol (Indecent).

The run, which began February 1 and is scheduled through March 15, features scenic design by Mariana Sanchez, costume design by Kaye Voyce, lighting design by Jiyoun Chang, projection design by Hannah Wasileski, and casting by Telsey + Company: Karyn Casl and Madison Sylvester.

Birch has been a two-time finalist for the Susan Smith Blackburn Prize with her plays Many Moons and Revolt. She said. Revolt again. She is the winner of the Arts Foundation Award for Playwriting 2014 and the co-winner of the George Devine Award for Most Promising Playwright 2014.

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Go Inside the Off-Broadway Opening of Anatomy of a Suicide - Playbill.com

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

‘Grey’s Anatomy’ fans to find out what happened to Dr. Alex Karev – CNN

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

The writers were left to create a storyline for original cast member Justin Chambers following his sudden departure from the medical drama. His last episode aired in November.

Vernoff explains that Chambers' character arc "was a very careful threading of a needle, where we are giving a little bit of information and pain to Jo," she said of Camilla Luddington's character, Jo Karev, adding, "We're, episode by episode, illuminating the story of where Alex is. And it takes us quite a few more episodes to get there and to give the audience clarity."

Luddington's Jo was also taken into consideration when figuring out what to do with Chambers' character.

"Jo went through so much pain and so much grief just last season that I wanted to be careful," Vernoff said. "And so it's a bit of a mystery (what's going on with Alex), so that we don't watch Jo in the same place that we watched her in last season. We did it as carefully as we could. But it takes a while to get there," she said.

"For some time now, however, I have hoped to diversify my acting roles and career choices. And, as I turn 50 and am blessed with my remarkable, supportive wife and five wonderful children, now is that time."

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'Grey's Anatomy' fans to find out what happened to Dr. Alex Karev - CNN

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

The 2015 Chapel Hill Shooting: Was It a Hate Crime? – The Marshall Project

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

This documentary was published in partnership with TIME.

Five years ago, three Muslim college students were gunned down in their home, in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, by a white neighbor, Craig Hicks. Deah Barakat and Yusor Abu-Salha, two of the victims, had just been married. They were enjoying dinner with the brides sister, Razan Abu-Salha, who was also killed. Police labeled the crime a parking dispute, sparking outrage among Muslims around the globe.

The killings came amid a surge in reports of bias-motivated attacks against Muslims in America, which spiked 67 percent in 2015, according to FBI data. Overall that year, 5,850 hate crimes were reported across the countrya number that continues to grow. Last year, the FBI announced more than 7,120 reported hate crimes, with physical assaults reaching a 16-year high. Although the latest data shows fewer attacks against Muslims and Arab-Americans, civil rights groups say there are likely many more anti-Muslim incidents, including bullying and discrimination, that do not appear in FBI data.

Did the murder of the college students in Chapel Hill meet the definition of a hate crime? That question is at the heart of our new documentary re-examining a case that reverberated around the world. This film sheds light on the way the nation is responding to rising levels of bias-fueled violence and how we define what constitutes a hate crime under the law.

Produced by

Director/Producer Emily Kassie

Editor Margaret Cheatham Williams

Additional editor Arpita Aneja

Cinematography Nausheen Dadabhoy, Emily Kassie and Jason Arthurs

Supervising producers Justine Simons and Geraldine Sealey

Co-producer Joseph Neff

Additional footage Judy Phu, Caleb Goodnight, Emily Rhyne, Ray Whitehouse and Tarek Albaba

Motion graphics the STUDIO, Mary Nittolo and Eric Schutzbank

Sound Dan Dzula

Color Marika Litz

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The 2015 Chapel Hill Shooting: Was It a Hate Crime? - The Marshall Project

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

The anatomy of a perfect 10: Analyzing Alabama gymnastics routines – The University of Alabama Crimson White

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

Katie Windham | @ktwindham5, Staff ReporterFebruary 20, 2020

From mount to dismount, a collegiate uneven bars routine lasts about 15-20 seconds. Behind that 15-second routine are years of training, months of preparation and just the right combination of skills and point values.

Many gymnasts on the Alabama roster competed at the Elite Gymnastics or Junior Olympics levels, where scoring is completely different than in college. Sophomore Emily Gaskins, who was a three-time member of the United States national team, made adjustments to her routine while at Alabama.

Our scoring systems were, if you got a 14 and 15, it was awesome, Gaskins said. And coming to college, you dont have that score and it only goes to 10. You take out a lot of skills in your routine. Youre going from about a minute bar routine to a 10-second, 15-second bar routine.

At the level of a program like Alabama gymnastics, outside of vault which is a one-skill routine every gymnasts routine starts at a 10.0 value. It takes a lot to reach that value, including the basics that must be included in every routine.

Your skills are basically labeled a value of an A, B, C, D and E, coach Dana Duckworth said. When you develop a routine, there are minimum requirements in bars, beam and floor. You have to have three As, two Bs and two Cs.

Every Alabama gymnast has more than As, Bs and Cs in their routine. For example, senior Wynter Childers starts her bars routine out with a kip cast handstand, which is an A skill. She will then release to the high bar with a Maloney, a D-level skill. Then she goes immediately back to the low bar with a bail, which is another D skill.

Childers gets a one-tenth bonus for each D-level skill. Because she connects the two, she gets another 0.20 bonus, which is the CV, or connection value. And those are just three of the skills in her routine.

Every routine requires a total of eight skills, even if the 10.0 start value has already been reached. For example, freshman Ella Burgess routine had all the required difficulty to reach a 10.0 start value on beam, but she only had seven skills, so they had to add a switch leap.

Even though 15-20 seconds seems like a short amount of time to a fan watching from the stands or on TV, there is a lot running through a gymnasts mind during that time. For some, like senior Shea Mahoney, it helps to constantly stay thinking throughout the routine.

So Ill mount the bar, and I just have mental cues, Mahoney said. For me its more of a feeling, and then little tiny words. If I just keep kind of talking to myself throughout the whole bar routine, that is how Ill get through.

Mahoneys mental cues for bars are: mount, tight cast, tight hips, catch the bar, jump to the high bar, tight hips, catch the bar, giant, giant, squeeze your core, look at the ground, wait another second and then really look at the ground, dismount.

Before mounting the bars, Mahoney said she smiles because it releases any last bit of tension or nervousness.

For sophomore Jensie Givens, every uneven bars routine starts with a nod to assistant coach Ryan Roberts, a nod to Gaskins and a deep breath to remind herself that Gods got her. And then she moves into her routine of handstands, a Jaeger (a D-level skill), a bail to the low bar, three giants and a double layout dismount, hoping for the all-important stick on the landing.

Alabama will once again put these skilled routines to the test when it takes on the Florida Gators in Gainesville, Florida, on Friday at 5 p.m.

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The anatomy of a perfect 10: Analyzing Alabama gymnastics routines - The University of Alabama Crimson White

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Should Meredith & Carina Be Worried About DeLuca on ‘Grey’s Anatomy’? (VIDEO) – TVInsider

Posted: February 20, 2020 at 3:43 pm

DeLuca (Giacomo Gianniotti) is determined to figure out what's wrong with his patient, Suzanne (Sarah Rafferty), but his sister Carina (Stefania Spampinato) is worried about him.

As seen in TV Insider's exclusive sneak peek of Thursday'sGrey's Anatomy, she's thinking about the family's history, specifically her father's. (You'll recall that she was the one who noticed signs that their father is bipolar.)

"I came to Seattle because Andrew is now the same age as our father was when his symptoms started," Carina explains to Meredith (Ellen Pompeo). And it's not just his behavior when it comes to trying to treat Suzanne."Failing to understand or properly consider the consequences of your actions is a sign of mania," Carina continues.

Watch the clip above to see the examples she lists and Meredith's reaction.

(ABC/Gilles Mingasson)

In "A Diagnosis," DeLuca is irritated when Meredith takes over with Suzanne. Plus, Jackson (Jesse Williams), Owen (Kevin McKidd), and Jo (Camilla Luddington) work on a couple injured in a bear attack, and Levi (Jake Borelli) is hurt when Nico (Alex Landi) doesn't want him to meet his parents.

Grey's Anatomy, Thursdays, 9/8c, ABC

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Should Meredith & Carina Be Worried About DeLuca on 'Grey's Anatomy'? (VIDEO) - TVInsider

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith


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