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Neuropathology | Lewis Katz School of Medicine

Posted: April 1, 2018 at 11:42 pm

An understanding of the pathologic basis of neurologic diseases is essential for understanding both the clinical manifestations of the disease, as well as the potential treatment paradigms.

The focus of the neuropathology rotation is diagnostic aspects of neuropathology including surgical neuropathology , autopsy neuropathology, and neuromuscular pathology. In particular, clinical-pathologic correlations will be stressed. The resident will attend and participate in the weekly neurology/radiology/neurosurgery conference( Friday 9-10am).

In this one month elective, the resident will gain familiarity with both common and rare neuropathologic diseases, develop a solid foundation in morphologic diagnosis, and acquire an in depth understanding of the utility of ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry, molecular diagnostics, and electron microscopy.

The program is structured to meet this goal through exposure of the resident to an abundance of diversified case material, a commitment to medical teaching, state-of-the-art clinical laboratory facilities, and a graduated program of assigned responsibilities.

At the end of this rotation the resident should be able to identify normal and pathologic gross and microscopic anatomy, identify the findings in major neuropathologic diseases, and generate appropriate differential diagnoses based upon neuropathologic findings.A pretest will be given at the beginning of the rotation and a post test will be taken at the end of the rotation to document the progress made by the resident during the rotation.

Suggested Reading:

Brain cutting at TUH morgue: Tuesdays 9-10 amCases from the previous weeks are discussed and examined at the gross level focusing on both autopsy neuropathology concepts as well as general neuroanatomy.Autopsy confererences at Multiheaded scope: Tuesdays 8-9 amInteresting findings from the autopsy brains are presented to the residentsMonthly neuropathology lecture/ slide conference: The didactic session cover topics such as CNS infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and trauma; while the unknown case conferences focus on CNS tumor pathology. For the later, residents are given a series of 5-6 cases with clinical history for review prior to the conference, and asked to formulate a working differential diagnosis for each of the cases.

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Neuropathology | Lewis Katz School of Medicine

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Human Genetic Engineering: Wrong | [site:name] | National …

Posted: March 30, 2018 at 1:42 am

(Ralwel/Dreamstime)Conservatives and progressives both have reasons for opposing it.

The genetic engineering of human beings has been a dream and a nightmare since scientists first speculated about it a century ago. Futurists and transhumanists have long thought that genetic engineering could radically improve the human race, extending our lifespans or boosting our intelligence, while more responsible scientists have suggested that genetic modification could be used to cure diseases like Huntingtons, Tay-Sachs, and other deadly inherited conditions.

Over the past few years, a new technology has emerged that seems to finally make precise genetic modifications of human beings possible. This week, scientists, ethicists, and policy experts from the American, Chinese, and British national academies of science are gathered for a conference in Washington, D.C., to discuss the prospects of editing human genes.

The new technology that has brought questions about genetically modifying humans back on the agenda is called CRISPR-Cas9. It stands above previous methods for genetic engineering in both its precision and its simplicity. CRISPR-Cas9 relies on a single enzyme system that can be guided by small strings of RNA molecules to any site in the genome. Older methods for genetic engineering required scientists to find or design new proteins to target different sites in the genome, a technically demanding and labor-intensive task. The RNA molecules that CRISPR-Cas9 relies on, on the other hand, can simply be ordered from any number of biotechnology companies.

What makes this new technology especially controversial is the prospect that it could be used to modify the human germline that is, that it could be used to make changes that would not only affect a particular patient but would also be passed on to that patients children, and so on through the generations. Modifying genes in a human embryo is one way to accomplish this, and speakers at the meeting also discussed a different form of germline engineering, one that involves modifying the stem cells that produce sperm. This can be done either by performing gene therapy on men directly or by extracting their stem cells and then genetically modifying them in the lab to produce genetically modified sperm that could be used for in vitro fertilization or artificial insemination.

RELATED: U.S. Prepares to Push Human Genetic Engineering

All too often, deliberations about new biotechnologies seem to focus on managing public opinion so that scientists wont have to worry about the pesky obstructions of democratic oversight or moral arguments. Those who take a strong moral stance against the manipulation of human genetics or the destruction of human embryos are generally not welcome at these kinds of meetings. After all, the suggestion that we should not pursue some scientific avenues because they represent the unjust exploitation of human beings spoils the whole idea of coming to a consensus about how best to move forward.

Deliberations about new biotechnologies seem to focus on managing public opinion so that scientists wont have to worry about the pesky obstructions of democratic oversight or moral arguments.

This consensus-based approach was well on display in the statement released by the meetings organizers recommending that modification of the germline not be done until the technology can be made safe and there is broad societal consensus about the appropriateness of the proposed application, and furthermore that as scientific knowledge advances and societal views evolve, the clinical use of germline editing should be revisited on a regular basis. Recommendations like these ignore the possibility that there might be some wisdom in the view that it is morally wrong to genetically design our children, or that some future consensus that we come to hold as our societal views evolve might be foolish and misguided. Whats more, the organizers recommended allowing the genetic modification of human embryos, on the condition that the modified cells should not be used to establish a pregnancy.

There were unfortunately no conservative or pro-life scholars at this meeting who might have pushed back against this technological boosterism and callous disregard for unborn human life. Yet the absence thus far of conservative and pro-life voices does not mean that everyone at the conference was resolutely in favor of genetic engineering. There were a number of liberal critics of biotechnology, notably Marcy Darnovsky of the Center for Genetics and Society, who made a compelling case against using gene editing to modify the human germline. On the other side were ethicists like John Harris, a utilitarian philosopher at Manchester University, who demanded that genetic engineering be made available with only minimal restrictions. Many of the scientists were very excited about what this technology might enable us to do, though some, like Eric Lander, a geneticist at MIT, expressed skepticism about whether the genetic modification of human embryos would have much practical use.

#share#The scientists speaking at the conference tend to see the moral issues in terms of individual patients. Their focus is on whether these new technologies can be safe and effective ways of treating disease and satisfying the preferences and desires of individuals. But progressive critics argue that these scientists are missing the broader social context in which the technologies would be implemented, and the ways in which biotechnology might contribute to the oppression of marginalized groups.

Both these perspectives can be valuable. Focusing on what is good for individual patients can be an important corrective to the tyrannical impulse to use medicine and public-health measures not for actual human beings, but for whatPaul Ramsey calledthat celebrated non-patient, the human species. But the progressives are also right that medical procedures, especially those dealing with reproduction, are not simply about the patient and the doctor: The child must also be considered, and we should remember as well the kinds of social and economic pressures that might be driving individuals to seek medical interventions to prevent the birth of a child with disabilities.

Conservatives and todays progressives ought to share a concern about the risks of a potential new type of eugenics to harm minorities and the disabled.

Both the scientists, with their emphasis on individuals, and the progressives, with their emphasis on group oppression, draw lessons from the dark history of eugenics, the Progressive Era movement to sterilize the unfit that had a baleful influence on the laws of many nations, including the United States, in the early 20th century. At the conference, science historian Daniel J. Kevles gave a presentation on the origins of eugenics in the sciences of genetics and statistics and discussed the crude racial stereotypes and prejudices held by many Americans in the early 1900s. He described how the eugenics movement harmed and oppressed racial minorities and people with disabilities. (Kevless bookIn the Name of Eugenicsis an excellent introduction to this dark chapter in our history.) Conservatives and todays progressives ought to share a concern about the risks of a potential new type of eugenics to harm minorities and the disabled.

But conservatives are uniquely suited to point out that gene editing unites two errors characteristic of our age: genetic perfectionism and an overemphasis on individual autonomy. First, we conservatives understand that the family is the foundational unit of society, and that its basic structure a married man and woman having children whom they love and care for unconditionally should not be tinkered with by social or biological engineers. The eugenics movement put an abstraction, the human gene pool, above that fundamental unit of society, the family.

Second, biotechnologies like gene editing risk combining the problem of genetic perfectionism with an extreme emphasis on individual autonomy. Gene editing is thought to offer a way for parents to maximize their control over the properties of their offspring, transforming a relationship that should be characterized by unconditional love and acceptance into one in which children are seen as products of their parents desires and wishes, to be provisionally accepted and molded in accord with parental preferences.

This is how we should look at the debates over emerging biotechnologies: by focusing on the relationship between parents and children, and on how that relationship might be undermined by increasing the power of parents to control the biological properties of their offspring. That this conservative insight has been largely absent from these debates over gene editing is unfortunate. Conservatives should be doing more to make their voices heard on this issue.

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Human Genetic Engineering: Wrong | [site:name] | National …

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Transhuman Artificial Intelligence Coming to a Hive Mind …

Posted: March 29, 2018 at 12:44 pm

Trans-humanist dystopia may not be that far away.In the future, humans are going to be artificially intelligent (AI). Google Director of Engineering (((Ray Kurzweil))) said, Well also be able to fully back up our brains.Were going to gradually merge and enhance ourselves. Our thinking then will be a hybrid of biological and non-biological thinking.

After tens of thousands of years of natural evolution, this wizard, Kurzweil, predicts that humans will become hybrids in the 2030s. That means our brains will be able to connect directly to the cloud, where there will be thousands of computers, and those computers will augment our existing intelligence. He said the brain will connect via nanobots tiny robots made from DNA strands.

Through the use of smart drugs, and what transhumanists call mind uploading, man will be able to merge with the internet, envisioned as the endpoint of occult (((Kabbalistic))) evolution, the formation of a collective consciousness, or Global Brain. That awaited moment is what Kurzweil refers to as The Singularity. The fact that this man is the key player running Google (now Alphabet) research couldnt be more damning.

Elon Musk, another technology guru, has an issue with AI.He told an audience at MIT we should be very careful about artificial intelligence, warning it may be our biggest existential threat and that with artificial intelligence, we are summoning the demon.

Musk goes on to say that we could be living in a matrix. Since he comes across as an obtuse speaker, he can often be dismissed; but I believe what he meant is that there is enough already beingsimulated and holographed, that it starts to supersede base reality. It is mixed or augmented faux reality and thats an important distinction although to the person experiencing it, the difference may seem subtle or not even noticeable.

I point this synthetic reality out all the time on TNN and am convinced it is being heavily used by the Crime Syndicate and their media in stagecraft and skulduggery. There are many disbelievers (or even worse, those who just dont care) to this view. But if you have enough people using digital heroin who are addicted to holdable, wearable and implantable electronics, then they will be infected and live their lives in simulated, augmented, unnatural hive mind environments, hardly able to distinguish between truth and illusion.

AI is synonymous with total control, and we can only imagine who will play God and exercise this control on the transhumans on the plantation. The prospects should horrify any thinking person.

Layered on top of this is DARPAs Targeted Neuroplasticity Training program. This works to take advantage of the brains synaptic plasticity, its ability to continually rearrange its structures and functions in response to experiences, such as learning skills and cognitive skills. The basic idea is to stimulate peripheral nerves so they can trigger the release of certain molecules in the brain that cause neurons to rearrange themselves. Let me spell it out: Brain restructuring (aka mental programming and control) is the end of natural free will and defines a transhuman.

Transhumanism technology incorporates nano-technology, genetic modifications, drugs, robotics, bionics and cybernetic enhancements.The game being played here is to claim AI and brain hijacking has some specific narrow national defense or time saving purpose. But we know better. This is straight out of satanist Aldous Huxleys wildest hive minds vision of the future

Verdict: Beyond-the-pale dystopic criminality, evil and totally counter to the natural order. Transhumanism threatens the death of humanity beyond whats already occurred and should be a core issue for new nationalists.

Illustrating our challenge, a Pew Research poll found32 percent of people polled said they would want such implants if they could actually improve their brain function. How trusting. Only41 percent of respondents said they were somewhat worried about the potential effects of such technology, while another 28 percent said they were very worried. Twenty-five percent said they were somewhat enthusiastic and 9 percent were very enthusiastic about the concept. Only 28 percent very worried about being turned into a transhuman hive mind: we are in deep trouble ladies and gentlemen!

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Transhuman Artificial Intelligence Coming to a Hive Mind …

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Division of Pediatric Neurology | University Hospitals …

Posted: March 27, 2018 at 11:44 am

The Pediatric Neurology Division at University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Childrens Hospital is one of the most active service, training and research programs in the upper Midwest of the United States, and is devoted to the diagnosis and care of children with neurological problems.

Since 1997, the Neurology Division at UH Rainbow Babies & Childrens Hospital has expanded to include eight pediatric neurology faculties, two advanced practice nurses and two RNs to provide both outpatient and inpatient consultations for children and their families. Our team provides family-centered care for the full range of neurological challenges to the child and his or her family.

Pediatric neurology faculty are certified by the American Boards of Neurology and Pediatrics. Each physician brings to our Division expertise in specific areas of epilepsy, metabolic-genetic disease, sleep medicine, headaches, neuro-oncology, behavioral and cognitive neurology (including ADHD, Tourettes syndrome and Autism), and the care of multiple-handicapped children including those with cerebral palsy.

Multiple programs are embedded into the Rainbow Neurological Center which is part of the Neurological Institute at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center. Integrated service, educational and research programs provide care for children with epilepsy, developmental delay, headaches, brain tumors, stroke, movement disorders, cognitive and behavioral disorders, and neurointensive care and fetal neurology needs.

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Division of Pediatric Neurology | University Hospitals …

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

List of Genetic Diseases – Types, Symptoms, Causes …

Posted: March 27, 2018 at 11:41 am

What is a genetic disease? How is it defined?

A genetic disease is any disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual’s genome, the person’s entire genetic makeup. The abnormality can range from minuscule to major — from a discrete mutation in a single base in the DNA of a single gene to a gross chromosome abnormality involving the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Some genetic disorders are inherited from the parents, while other genetic diseases are caused by acquired changes or mutations in a preexisting gene or group of genes. Mutations can occur either randomly or due to some environmental exposure.

What are the types of genetic inheritance?

There are a number of different types of genetic inheritance including:

Single gene genetic inheritance

Single gene inheritance, also called Mendelian or monogenetic inheritance. This type of inheritance is caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene. There are more than 6,000 known single-gene disorders, which occur in about 1 out of every 200 births. These disorders are known as monogenetic disorders (disorders of a single gene).

Some examples of monogenetic disorders include:

Single-gene disorders are inherited in recognizable patterns: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Multifactorial genetic inheritance

Multifactorial inheritance, which is also called complex or polygenic inheritance. Multifactorial inheritance disorders are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. For example, different genes that influence breast cancer susceptibility have been found on chromosomes 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 22. Some common chronic diseases are multifactorial disorders.

Examples of multifactorial inheritance include:

Multifactorial inheritance also is associated with heritable traits such as fingerprint patterns, height, eye color, and skin color.

Chromosome abnormalities

Chromosomes, distinct structures made up of DNA and protein, are located in the nucleus of each cell. Because chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material, abnormalities in chromosome number or structure can result in disease. Abnormalities in chromosomes typically occur due to a problem with cell division.

For example, Down syndrome (sometimes referred to as “Down’s syndrome”) or trisomy 21 is a common disorder that occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21. There are many other chromosome abnormalities including:

Diseases may also occur because of chromosomal translocation in which portions of two chromosomes are exchanged.

Mitochondrial genetic inheritance

This type of genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the non-nuclear DNA of mitochondria. Mitochondria are small round or rod-like organelles that are involved in cellular respiration and found in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells. Each mitochondrion may contain 5 to 10 circular pieces of DNA. Since egg cells, but not sperm cells, keep their mitochondria during fertilization, mitochondrial DNA is always inherited from the female parent.

Examples of mitochondrial disease include:

What is the human genome?

The human genome is the entire “treasury of human inheritance.” The sequence of the human genome obtained by the Human Genome Project, completed in April 2003, provides the first holistic view of our genetic heritage. The 46 human chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes) between them house almost 3 billion base pairs of DNA that contains about 20,500 protein-coding genes. The coding regions make up less than 5% of the genome (the function of all the remaining DNA is not clear) and some chromosomes have a higher density of genes than others.

Most genetic diseases are the direct result of a mutation in one gene. However, one of the most difficult problems ahead is to further elucidate how genes contribute to diseases that have a complex pattern of inheritance, such as in the cases of diabetes, asthma, cancer, and mental illness. In all these cases, no one gene has the yes/no power to say whether a person will develop the disease or not. It is likely that more than one mutation is required before the disease is manifest, and a number of genes may each make a subtle contribution to a person’s susceptibility to a disease; genes may also affect how a person reacts to environmental factors.

Medically Reviewed on 3/23/2018

References

National Human Genome Research Institute.

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List of Genetic Diseases – Types, Symptoms, Causes …

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith

Transhuman Aliens – TV Tropes

Posted: March 26, 2018 at 12:44 pm

“We were like you once, but now we are different… certain weaknesses have been removed.”Related to the Earth All Along ending, and sort of like Was Once a Man for an entire species, this is where a group of alien/future creatures (typically those encountered by normal humans) are revealed to be the future evolutionary path of humanity. These creatures are often monstrous in appearance and behavior and this idea generally has a strong element of Humans Are the Real Monsters. Compare with Not Even Human; in this case, they are worse because they are. Note that there are occasional instances of uplifted humans who having experienced The Singularity are benevolent and god-like.Compare/contrast with Human All Along and Human Subspecies. Not to be confused with Ultraterrestrials. See also No Transhumanism Allowed and Transhuman.

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Transhuman Aliens – TV Tropes

Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith


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