Sickle cell anemia, a common form of sickle cell disease, is caused by a particular mutation in the HBB gene. This mutation results in the production of an abnormal version of beta-globin called hemoglobin S or HbS. In this condition, hemoglobin S replaces both beta-globin subunits in hemoglobin. The mutation changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in beta-globin. Specifically, the amino acid glutamic acid is replaced with the amino acid valine at position 6 in beta-globin, written as Glu6Val or E6V. Replacing glutamic acid with valine causes the abnormal hemoglobin S subunits to stick together and form long, rigid molecules that bend red blood cells into a sickle (crescent) shape. The sickle-shaped cells die prematurely, which can lead to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). The sickle-shaped cells are rigid and can block small blood vessels, causing severe pain and organ damage.
Mutations in the HBB gene can also cause other abnormalities in beta-globin, leading to other types of sickle cell disease. These abnormal forms of beta-globin are often designated by letters of the alphabet or sometimes by a name. In these other types of sickle cell disease, just one beta-globin subunit is replaced with hemoglobin S. The other beta-globin subunit is replaced with a different abnormal variant, such as hemoglobin C or hemoglobin E.
In hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease, the beta-globin subunits are replaced by hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. Hemoglobin C results when the amino acid lysine replaces the amino acid glutamic acid at position 6 in beta-globin (written Glu6Lys or E6K). The severity of hemoglobin SC disease is variable, but it can be as severe as sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin E (HbE) is caused when the amino acid glutamic acid is replaced with the amino acid lysine at position 26 in beta-globin (written Glu26Lys or E26K). In some cases, the hemoglobin E mutation is present with hemoglobin S. In these cases, a person may have more severe signs and symptoms associated with sickle cell anemia, such as episodes of pain, anemia, and abnormal spleen function.
Other conditions, known as hemoglobin sickle-beta thalassemias (HbSBetaThal), are caused when mutations that produce hemoglobin S and beta thalassemia occur together. Mutations that combine sickle cell disease with beta-zero (B0) thalassemia lead to severe disease, while sickle cell disease combined with beta-plus (B+) thalassemia is milder.
Originally posted here:
HBB gene - Genetics Home Reference
Recommendation and review posted by G. Smith