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Category Archives: Machine Learning
Deep Learning Outperforms Standard Machine Learning in Biomedical Research Applications, Research Shows – Georgia State University News
ATLANTACompared to standard machine learning models, deep learning models are largely superior at discerning patterns and discriminative features in brain imaging, despite being more complex in their architecture, according to a new study in Nature Communications led by Georgia State University.
Advanced biomedical technologies such as structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fMRI) or genomic sequencing have produced an enormous volume of data about the human body. By extracting patterns from this information, scientists can glean new insights into health and disease. This is a challenging task, however, given the complexity of the data and the fact that the relationships among types of data are poorly understood.
Deep learning, built on advanced neural networks, can characterize these relationships by combining and analyzing data from many sources. At the Center for Translational Research in Neuroimaging and Data Science (TReNDS), Georgia State researchers are using deep learning to learn more about how mental illness and other disorders affect the brain.
Although deep learning models have been used to solve problems and answer questions in a number of different fields, some experts remain skeptical. Recent critical commentaries have unfavorably compared deep learning with standard machine learning approaches for analyzing brain imaging data.
However, as demonstrated in the study, these conclusions are often based on pre-processed input that deprive deep learning of its main advantagethe ability to learn from the data with little to no preprocessing. Anees Abrol, research scientist at TReNDS and the lead author on the paper, compared representative models from classical machine learning and deep learning, and found that if trained properly, the deep-learning methods have the potential to offer substantially better results, generating superior representations for characterizing the human brain.
We compared these models side-by-side, observing statistical protocols so everything is apples to apples. And we show that deep learning models perform better, as expected, said co-author Sergey Plis, director of machine learning at TReNDS and associate professor of computer science.
Plis said there are some cases where standard machine learning can outperform deep learning. For example, diagnostic algorithms that plug in single-number measurements such as a patients body temperature or whether the patient smokes cigarettes would work better using classical machine learning approaches.
If your application involves analyzing images or if it involves a large array of data that cant really be distilled into a simple measurement without losing information, deep learning can help, Plis said.. These models are made for really complex problems that require bringing in a lot of experience and intuition.
The downside of deep learning models is they are data hungry at the outset and must be trained on lots of information. But once these models are trained, said co-author Vince Calhoun, director of TReNDS and Distinguished University Professor of Psychology, they are just as effective at analyzing reams of complex data as they are at answering simple questions.
Interestingly, in our study we looked at sample sizes from 100 to 10,000 and in all cases the deep learning approaches were doing better, he said.
Another advantage is that scientists can reverse analyze deep-learning models to understand how they are reaching conclusions about the data. As the published study shows, the trained deep learning models learn to identify meaningful brain biomarkers.
These models are learning on their own, so we can uncover the defining characteristics that theyre looking into that allows them to be accurate, Abrol said. We can check the data points a model is analyzing and then compare it to the literature to see what the model has found outside of where we told it to look.
The researchers envision that deep learning models are capable of extracting explanations and representations not already known to the field and act as an aid in growing our knowledge of how the human brain functions. They conclude that although more research is needed to find and address weaknesses of deep-learning models, from a mathematical point of view, its clear these models outperform standard machine learning models in many settings.
Deep learnings promise perhaps still outweighs its current usefulness to neuroimaging, but we are seeing a lot of real potential for these techniques, Plis said.
Metallic alloys for aerospace components are expected to be made faster and more cheaply with the application of machine learning in Project MEDAL.
This is the aim of Project MEDAL: Machine Learning for Additive Manufacturing Experimental Design,which is being led by Intellegens, a Cambridge University spin-out specialising in artificial intelligence, the Sheffield University AMRC North West, and Boeing. It aims to accelerate the product development lifecycle of aerospace components by using a machine learning model to optimise additive manufacturing (AM) for new metal alloys.
How collaboration is driving advances in additive manufacturing
Project MEDALs research will concentrate on metal laser powder bed fusion and will focus on so-called parameter variables required to manufacture high density, high strength parts.
The project is part of the National Aerospace Technology Exploitation Programme (NATEP), a 10m initiative for UK SMEs to develop innovative aerospace technologies funded by the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and delivered in partnership with the Aerospace Technology Institute (ATI) and Innovate UK.
In a statement, Ben Pellegrini, CEO of Intellegens, said: The intersection of machine learning, design of experiments and additive manufacturing holds enormous potential to rapidly develop and deploy custom parts not only in aerospace, as proven by the involvement of Boeing, but in medical, transport and consumer product applications.
There are many barriers to the adoption of metallic AM but by providing users, and maybe more importantly new users, with the tools they need to process a required material should not be one of them, added James Hughes, research director for Sheffield University AMRC North West. With the AMRCs knowledge in AM, and Intellegens AI tools, all the required experience and expertise is in place in order to deliver a rapid, data-driven software toolset for developing parameters for metallic AM processes to make them cheaper and faster.
Aerospace components must withstand certain loads and temperature resistances, and some materials are limited in what they can offer. There is also simultaneous push for lower weight and higher temperature resistance for better fuel efficiency, bringing new or previously impractical-to-machine metals into the aerospace sector.
One of the main drawbacks of AM is the limited material selection currently available and the design of new materials, particularly in the aerospace industry, requires expensive and extensive testing and certification cycles which can take longer than a year to complete and cost as much as 1m. Project MEDAL aims to accelerate this process.
The machine learning solution in this project can significantly reduce the need for many experimental cycles by around 80 per cent, Pellegrini said: The software platform will be able to suggest the most important experiments needed to optimise AM processing parameters, in order to manufacture parts that meet specific target properties. The platform will make the development process for AM metal alloys more time and cost-efficient. This will in turn accelerate the production of more lightweight and integrated aerospace components, leading to more efficient aircraft and improved environmental impact.
Machine Learning Shown to Identify Patient Response to Sarilumab in Rheumatoid Arthritis – AJMC.com Managed Markets Network
Machine learning was shown to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who present an increased chance of achieving clinical response with sarilumab, with those selected also showing an inferior response to adalimumab, according to an abstract presented at ACR Convergence, the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR).
In prior phase 3 trials comparing the interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R) inhibitor sarilumab with placebo and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) inhibitor adalimumab, sarilumab appeared to provide superior efficacy for patients with moderate to severe RA. Although promising, the researchers of the abstract highlight that treatment of RA requires a more individualized approach to maximize efficacy and minimize risk of adverse events.
The characteristics of patients who are most likely to benefit from sarilumab treatment remain poorly understood, noted researchers.
Seeking to better identify the patients with RA who may best benefit from sarilumab treatment, the researchers applied machine learning to select from a predefined set of patient characteristics, which they hypothesized may help delineate the patients who could benefit most from either antiIL-6R or antiTNF- treatment.
Following their extraction of data from the sarilumab clinical development program, the researchers utilized a decision tree classification approach to build predictive models on ACR response criteria at week 24 in patients from the phase 3 MOBILITY trial, focusing on the 200-mg dose of sarilumab. They incorporated the Generalized, Unbiased, Interaction Detection and Estimation (GUIDE) algorithm, including 17 categorical and 25 continuous baseline variables as candidate predictors. These included protein biomarkers, disease activity scoring, and demographic data, added the researchers.
Endpoints used were ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 at week 24, with the resulting rule validated through application on independent data sets from the following trials:
Assessing the end points used, it was found that the most successful GUIDE model was trained against the ACR20 response. From the 42 candidate predictor variables, the combined presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) and C-reactive protein >12.3 mg/L was identified as a predictor of better treatment outcomes with sarilumab, with those patients identified as rule-positive.
These rule-positive patients, which ranged from 34% to 51% in the sarilumab groups across the 4 trials, were shown to have more severe disease and poorer prognostic factors at baseline. They also exhibited better outcomes than rule-negative patients for most end points assessed, except for patients with inadequate response to TNF inhibitors.
Notably, rule-positive patients had a better response to sarilumab but an inferior response to adalimumab, except for patients of the HAQ-Disability Index minimal clinically important difference end point.
If verified in prospective studies, this rule could facilitate treatment decision-making for patients with RA, concluded the researchers.
Rehberg M, Giegerich C, Praestgaard A, et al. Identification of a rule to predict response to sarilumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using machine learning and clinical trial data. Presented at: ACR Convergence 2020; November 5-9, 2020. Accessed January 15, 2021. 021. Abstract 2006. https://acrabstracts.org/abstract/identification-of-a-rule-to-predict-response-to-sarilumab-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-using-machine-learning-and-clinical-trial-data/
As financial services firms increasingly turn to artificial intelligence (AI), banking regulators warn that despite their astonishing capabilities, these tools must be relied upon with caution.
Last week, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (the Fed) held a virtual AI Academic Symposium to explore the application of AI in the financial services industry. Governor Lael Brainard explained that particularly as financial services become more digitized and shift to web-based platforms, a steadily growing number of financial institutions have relied on machine learning to detect fraud, evaluate credit, and aid in operational risk management, among many other functions.[i]
In the AI world, machine learning refers to a model that processes complex data sets and automatically recognizes patterns and relationships, which are in turn used to make predictions and draw conclusions.[ii] Alternative data is information that is not traditionally used in a particular decision-making process but that populates machine learning algorithms in AI-based systems and thus fuels their outputs.[iii]
Machine learning and alternative data have special utility in the consumer lending context, where these AI applications allow financial firms to determine the creditworthiness of prospective borrowers who lack credit history.[iv] Using alternative data such as the consumers education, job function, property ownership, address stability, rent payment history, and even internet browser history and behavioral informationamong many other datafinancial institutions aim to expand the availability of affordable credit to so-called credit invisibles or unscorables.[v]
Yet, as Brainard cautioned last week, machine-learning AI models can be so complex that even their developers lack visibility into how the models actually classify and process what could amount to thousands of nonlinear data elements.[vi] This obscuring of AI models internal logic, known as the black box problem, raises questions about the reliability and ethics of AI decision-making.[vii]
When using AI machine learning to evaluate access to credit, the opaque and complex data interactions relied upon by AI could result in discrimination by race, or even lead to digital redlining, if not intentionally designed to address this risk.[viii] This can happen, for example, when intricate data interactions containing historical information such as educational background and internet browsing habits become proxies for race, gender, and other protected characteristicsleading to biased algorithms that discriminate.[ix]
Consumer protection laws, among other aspects of the existing regulatory framework, cover AI-related credit decision-making activities to some extent. Still, in light of the rising complexity of AI systems and their potentially inequitable consequences, AI-focused legal reforms may be needed. At this time, to help ensure that financial services are prepared to manage these risks, the Fed has called on stakeholdersfrom financial services firms to consumer advocates and civil rights organizations as well as other businesses and the general publicto provide input on responsible AI use.[x]
[i] Lael Brainard, Governor, Bd. of Governors of the Fed. Reserve Sys., AI Academic Symposium: Supporting Responsible Use of AI and Equitable Outcomes in Financial Services (Jan. 12, 2021), available at https://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/brainard20210112a.htm.
[ii] Pratin Vallabhaneni and Margaux Curie, Leveraging AI and Alternative Data in Credit Underwriting: Fair Lending Considerations for Fintechs, 23 No. 4 Fintech L. Rep. NL 1 (2020).
[iv] Id.; Brainard, supra n. 1.
[v] Vallabhaneni and Margaux Curie, supra n.2; Kathleen Ryan, The Big Brain in the Black Box, Am. Bar Assoc. (May 2020), https://bankingjournal.aba.com/2020/05/the-big-brain-in-the-black-box/.
[vi] Brainard, supra n.1; Ryan, supra n.5.
[vii] Brainard, supra n.1; Ryan, supra n.5.
[viii] Brainard, supra n.1.
[ix] Id. (citing Carol A. Evans and Westra Miller, From Catalogs to Clicks: The Fair Lending Implications of Targeted, Internet Marketing, Consumer Compliance Outlook (2019)).
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AI in Credit Decision-Making Is Promising, but Beware of Hidden Biases, Fed Warns - JD Supra
Its stunning what innovation can do nowadaysnow and again, taking on jobs and decisions that once required human thought. Think about the capability of artificial intelligence, machine learning and predictive analytics, and the effect that these advances could have on humans.
Theoretically, you would already be able to do a lot of things and much more utilizing technology. Yet, are the decisions that algorithms can make dependent on predictive analytics and big data fundamentally any better than decisions seasoned managers may make, taking into considerations their years of experience?
Not every person fears our machine overlords. Truth be told, as indicated by Penn State scientists, with regards to private data and access to financial data, individuals will trust machines more than humans, which could prompt both positive and negative online practices.
The study showed that individuals who trusted machines were essentially bound to surrender their Mastercard numbers to a computerized travel planner than a human travel planner. Experts in both innovation and business are united in accepting that AI isnt yet prepared to overtake the human components of decision-making identified with different business choicesif it actually will be. It is, they state, a balance.
Technology, and the data it very well may be programmed to capture, is a massively important tool for quick decision-making or to carry business activities to a set of conclusions. However, these should be placed into context by a human, indeed, more than one human. Human decision-making is vulnerable to predisposition thus, in light of a legitimate concern for fairness, more than one individuals instinct should be thought of.
In a car accident, individuals judge the action of a self-driving vehicle as more destructive and corrupt, despite the fact that the action performed by the human was actually the equivalent. In another situation, we consider an emergency response system responding to a tidal wave. A few people were informed that the town was effectively evacuated. Others were informed that the evacuation effort failed.
Studies demonstrate that for this situation machines additionally got the worst part of the deal. Truth be told, if the rescue effort failed, individuals assessed the action of the machine adversely and that of the human positively. The data demonstrated that individuals appraised the action of the machine as essentially more hurtful and less good, and furthermore revealed needing to hire the human, yet not the machine.
That confidence in machines might be set off in light of the fact that individuals accept that machines dont talk, or have unlawful plans on their private data. In any case, while machines probably wont have ulterior intentions in their data, individuals creating and running those computers could prey on this gullibility to harness personal data from clueless users, for instance, through phishing tricks, which are endeavors by criminals to get client names, passwords, credit card numbers and different bits of private data by acting like trustworthy sources.
Another study supported by Oracle and Future Workplace sullen that individuals have more trust in robots than their managers. The study of 8,370 employees, directors and managers across 10 nations found that AI has changed the relationship among individuals and technology at work, and is reshaping the job HR teams and leaders need to play in pulling in, holding and creating talent.
The most recent headways in AI and machine learning are quickly arriving at standard, bringing about a huge shift in the way individuals across the world interface with technology and their teams, said Emily He, senior VP of the Human Capital Management Cloud Business Group at Oracle. As this study shows, the connection between humans and machines is being reimagined at work, and there is no one-size-fits-all approach to deal with effectively dealing with this change. All things considered, companies need to band together with their HR companies to customize the way to implement AI at work to meet the changing expectations for their teams the world over.
Individuals surely dont care for one-sided humans or machines, yet when we test their repudiation experimentally, individuals rate human bias as marginally more destructive and less good than those of machines.
We are moving from a time of imposing standards on machine behavior to one of finding laws which dont reveal to us how machines should act, however, how we judge them. Furthermore, the primary principle is incredible and straightforward: individuals judge people by their intentions and machines by their results.
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Has the Time Come to Trust Machines more than Humans? - Analytics Insight
The apex power sector regulator, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC), is planning to set up an artificial intelligence (AI)-based regulatory expert system tool (REST) for improving access to information and assist the commission in discharge of its duties. So far, only the Supreme Court (SC) has an electronic filing (e-filing) system and is in the process of building an AI-based back-end service.
The CERC will be the first such quasi-judicial regulatory body to embrace AI and machine learning (ML). The decision comes at a time when the CERC has been shut for four ...
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First Published: Fri, January 15 2021. 06:10 IST