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Category Archives: Machine Learning
AI and Machine Learning Technologies Are On the Rise Globally, with Governments Launching Initiatives to Support Adoption: Report – Crowdfund Insider
Kate MacDonald, New Zealand Government Fellow at the World Economic Forum, and Lofred Madzou, Project Lead, AI and Machine Learning at the World Economic Forum have published a report that explains how AI can benefit everyone.
According to MacDonald and Madzou, artificial intelligence can improve the daily lives of just about everyone, however, we still need to address issues such as accuracy of AI applications, the degree of human control, transparency, bias and various privacy issues. The use of AI also needs to be carefully and ethically managed, MacDonald and Madzou recommend.
As mentioned in a blog post by MacDonald and Madzou:
One way to [ensure ethical practice in AI] is to set up a national Centre for Excellence to champion the ethical use of AI and help roll out training and awareness raising. A number of countries already have centres of excellence those which dont, should.
The blog further notes:
AI can be used to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of decision-making and to improve lives through new apps and services. It can be used to solve some of the thorny policy problems of climate change, infrastructure and healthcare. It is no surprise that governments are therefore looking at ways to build AI expertise and understanding, both within the public sector but also within the wider community.
As noted by MacDonald and Madzou, the UK has established many Office for AI centers, which aim to support the responsible adoption of AI technologies for the benefit of everyone. These UK based centers ensure that AI is safe through proper governance, strong ethical foundations and understanding of key issues such as the future of work.
The work environment is changing rapidly, especially since the COVID-19 outbreak. Many people are now working remotely and Fintech companies have managed to raise a lot of capital to launch special services for professionals who may reside in a different jurisdiction than their employer. This can make it challenging for HR departments to take care of taxes, compliance, and other routine work procedures. Thats why companies have developed remote working solutions to support companies during these challenging times.
Many firms might now require advanced cybersecurity solutions that also depend on various AI and machine learning algorithms.
The blog post notes:
AI Singapore is bringing together all Singapore-based research institutions and the AI ecosystem start-ups and companies to catalyze, synergize and boost Singapores capability to power its digital economy. Its objective is to use AI to address major challenges currently affecting society and industry.
As covered recently, AI and machine learning (ML) algorithms are increasingly being used to identify fraudulent transactions.
As reported in August 2020, the Hong Kong Institute for Monetary and Financial Research (HKIMR), the research segment of the Hong Kong Academy of Finance (AoF), had published a report on AI and banking. Entitled Artificial Intelligence in Banking: The Changing Landscape in Compliance and Supervision, the report seeks to provide insights on the long-term development strategy and direction of Hong Kongs financial industry.
In Hong Kong, the use of AI in the banking industry is said to be expanding including front-line businesses, risk management, and back-office operations. The tech is poised to tackle tasks like credit assessments and fraud detection. As well, banks are using AI to better serve their customers.
Policymakers are also exploring the use of AI in improving compliance (Regtech) and supervisory operations (Suptech), something that is anticipated to be mutually beneficial to banks and regulators as it can lower the burden on the financial institution while streamlining the regulator process.
The blog by MacDonald and Madzou also mentions that India has established a Centre of Excellence in AI to enhance the delivery of AI government e-services. The blog noted that the Centre will serve as a platform for innovation and act as a gateway to test and develop solutions and build capacity across government departments.
The blog post added that Canada is notably the worlds first country to introduce a National AI Strategy, and to also establish various centers of excellence in AI research and innovation at local universities. The blog further states that this investment in academics and researchers has built on Canadas reputation as a leading AI research hub.
MacDonald and Madzou also mentioned that Malta has launched the Malta Digital Innovation Authority, which serves as a regulatory body that handles governmental policies that focus on positioning Malta as a centre of excellence and innovation in digital technologies. The island countrys Innovation Authority is responsible for establishing and enforcing relevant standards while taking appropriate measures to ensure consumer protection.
What is Imblearn Technique – Everything To Know For Class Imbalance Issues In Machine Learning – Analytics India Magazine
In machine learning, while building a classification model we sometimes come to situations where we do not have an equal proportion of classes. That means when we have class imbalance issues for example we have 500 records of 0 class and only 200 records of 1 class. This is called a class imbalance. All machine learning models are designed in such a way that they should attain maximum accuracy but in these types of situations, the model gets biased towards the majority class and will, at last, reflect on precision and recall. So how to build a model on these types of data set in a manner that the model should correctly classify the respective class and does not get biased.
To get rid of these imbalance class issues few techniques are used called as Imblearn Technique that is mainly used in these types of situations. Imblearn techniques help to either upsample the minority class or downsample the majority class to match the equal proportion. Through this article, we will discuss imblearn techniques and how we can use them to do upsampling and downsampling. For this experiment, we are using Pima Indian Diabetes data since it is an imbalance class data set. The data is available on Kaggle for downloading.
What we will learn from this article?
Class imbalance issues are the problem when we do not have equal ratios of different classes. Consider an example if we had to build a machine learning model that will predict whether a loan applicant will default or not. The data set has 500 rows of data points for the default class but for non-default we are only given 200 rows of data points. When we will build the model it is obvious that it would be biased towards the default class because its the majority class. The model will learn how to classify default classes in a more good manner as compared to the default. This will not be called as a good predictive model. So, to resolve this problem we make use of some techniques that are called Imblearn Techniques. They help us to either reduce the majority class as default to the same ratio as non-default or vice versa.
Imblearn techniques are the methods by which we can generate a data set that has an equal ratio of classes. The predictive model built on this type of data set would be able to generalize well. We mainly have two options to treat an imbalanced data set that are Upsampling and Downsampling. Upsampling is the way where we generate synthetic data so for the minority class to match the ratio with the majority class whereas in downsampling we reduce the majority class data points to match it to the minority class.
Now lets us practically understand how upsampling and downsampling is done. We will first install the imblearn package then import all the required libraries and the pima data set. Use the below code for the same.
As we checked there are a total of 500 rows that falls under 0 class and 268 rows that are present in 1 class. This results in an imbalance data set where the majority of the data points lie in 0 class. Now we have two options either use upsampling or downsampling. We will do both and will check the results. We will first divide the data into features and target X and y respectively. Then we will divide the data set into training and testing sets. Use the below code for the same.
X = df.values[:,0:7]
y = df.values[:,8]
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.33, random_state=7)
Now we will check the count of both the classes in the training data and will use upsampling to generate new data points for minority classes. Use the below code to do the same.
print("Count of 1 class in training set before upsampling :" ,(sum(y_train==1)))
print("Count of 0 class in training set before upsampling :",format(sum(y_train==0)))
We are using Smote techniques from imblearn to do upsampling. It generates data points based on the K-nearest neighbor algorithm. We have defined k = 3 whereas it can be tweaked since it is a hyperparameter. We will first generate the data point and then will compare the counts of classes after upsampling. Refer to the below code for the same.
smote = SMOTE(sampling_strategy = 1 ,k_neighbors = 3, random_state=1)
X_train_new, y_train_new = smote.fit_sample(X_train, y_train.ravel())
print("Count of 1 class in training set after upsampling :" ,(sum(y_train_new==1)))
print("Count of 0 class in training set after upsampling :",(sum(y_train_new==0)))
Now the classes are balanced. Now we will build a model using random forest on the original data and then the new data. Use the below code for the same.
Now we will downsample the majority class and we will randomly delete the records from the original data to match the minority class. Use the below code for the same.
random = np.random.choice( Non_diabetic_indices, Non_diabetic 200 , replace=False)
down_sample_indices = np.concatenate([Diabetic_indices,random])
Now we will again divide the data set and will again build the model. Use the below code for the same.
In this article, we discussed how we can pre-process the imbalanced class data set before building predictive models. We explored Imblearn techniques and used the SMOTE method to generate synthetic data. We first did up sampling and then performed down sampling. There are again more methods present in imblean techniques like Tomek links and Cluster centroid that also can be used for the same problem. You can check the official documentation here.
Also check this article Complete Tutorial on Tkinter To Deploy Machine Learning Model that will help you to deploy machine learning models.
Wayne Blodwell, founder and chief exec of The Programmatic Advisory & The Programmatic University, battles through the buzzwords to explain why custom machine learning can help you unlock differentiation and regain a competitive edge.
Back in the day, simply having programmatic on plan was enough to give you a competitive advantage and no one asked any questions. But as programmatic has grown, and matured (84.5% of US digital display spend is due to be bought programmatically in 2020, the UK is on track for 92.5%), whats next to gain advantage in an increasingly competitive landscape?
The use and development of computer systems that are able to learn and adapt without following explicit instructions, by using algorithms and statistical models to analyse and draw inferences from patterns in data.
(Oxford Dictionary, 2020)
Youve probably head of machine learning as it exists in many Demand Side Platforms in the form of automated bidding. Automated bidding functionality does not require a manual CPM bid input nor any further bid adjustments instead, bids are automated and adjusted based on machine learning. Automated bids work from goal inputs, eg achieve a CPA of x or simply maximise conversions, and these inputs steer the machine learning to prioritise certain needs within the campaign. This tool is immensely helpful in taking the guesswork out of bids and the need for continual bid intervention.
These are what would be considered off-the-shelf algorithms, as all buyers within the DSP have access to the same tool. There is a heavy reliance on this automation for buying, with many even forgoing traditional optimisations for fear of disrupting the learnings and holding it back but how do we know this approach is truly maximising our results?
Well, we dont. What we do know is that this machine learning will be reasonably generic to suit the broad range of buyers that are activating in the platforms. And more often than not, the functionality is limited to a single success metric, provided with little context, which can isolate campaign KPIs away from their true overarching business objectives.
Custom machine learning
Instead of using out of the box solutions, possibly the same as your direct competitors, custom machine learning is the next logical step to unlock differentiation and regain an edge. Custom machine learning is simply machine learning that is tailored towards specific needs and events.
Off-the-self algorithms are owned by the DSPs; however, custom machine learning is owned by the buyer. The opportunity for application is growing, with leading DSPs opening their APIs and consoles to allow for custom logic to be built on top of existing infrastructure. Third party machine learning partners are also available, such as Scibids, MIQ & 59A, which will develop custom logic and add a layer onto the DSPs to act as a virtual trader, building out granular strategies and approaches.
With this ownership and customisation, buyers can factor in custom metrics such as viewability measurement and feed in their first party data to align their buying and success metrics with specific business goals.
This level of automation not only provides a competitive edge in terms of correctly valuing inventory and prioritisation, but the transparency of the process allows trust to rightfully be placed with automation.
For custom machine learning to be effective, there are a handful of fundamental requirements which will help determine whether this approach is relevant for your campaigns. Its important to have conversations surrounding minimum event thresholds and campaign size with providers, to understand how much value you stand to gain from this path.
Furthermore, a custom approach will not fix a poor campaign. Custom machine learning is intended to take a well-structured and well-managed campaign and maximise its potential. Data needs to be inline for it to be adequately ingested and for real insight and benefit to be gained. Custom machine learning cannot simply be left to fend for itself; it may lighten the regular day to day load of a trader, but it needs to be maintained and closely monitored for maximum impact.
While custom machine learning brings numerous benefits to the table transparency, flexibility, goal alignment its not without upkeep and workflow disruption. Levels of operational commitment may differ depending on the vendors selected to facilitate this customisation and their functionality, but generally buyers must be willing to adapt to maximise the potential that custom machine learning holds.
Find out more on machine learning in a session The Programmatic University are hosting alongside Scibids on The Future Of Campaign Optimisation on 17 September. Sign up here.
See the original post here:
What is 'custom machine learning' and why is it important for programmatic optimisation? - The Drum
Artificial intelligence can be used to diagnose cancer, predict suicide, and assist in surgery. In all these cases, studies suggest AI outperforms human doctors in set tasks. But when something does go wrong, who is responsible?
Theres no easy answer, says Patrick Lin, director of Ethics and Emerging Sciences Group at California Polytechnic State University. At any point in the process of implementing AI in healthcare, from design to data and delivery, errors are possible. This is a big mess, says Lin. Its not clear who would be responsible because the details of why an error or accident happens matters. That event could happen anywhere along the value chain.
Design includes creation of both hardware and software, plus testing the product. Data encompasses the mass of problems that can occur when machine learning is trained on biased data, while deployment involves how the product is used in practice. AI applications in healthcare often involve robots working with humans, which further blurs the line of responsibility.
Responsibility can be divided according to where and how the AI system failed, says Wendall Wallace, lecturer at Yale Universitys Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics and the author of several books on robot ethics. If the system fails to perform as designed or does something idiosyncratic, that probably goes back to the corporation that marketed the device, he says. If it hasnt failed, if its being misused in the hospital context, liability would fall on who authorized that usage.
Surgical Inc., the company behind the Da Vinci Surgical system, has settled thousands of lawsuits over the past decade. Da Vinci robots always work in conjunction with a human surgeon, but the company has faced allegations of clear error, including machines burning patients and broken parts of machines falling into patients.
Some cases, though, are less clear-cut. If diagnostic AI trained on data that over-represents white patients then misdiagnoses a Black patient, its unclear whether the culprit is the machine-learning company, those who collected the biased data, or the doctor who chose to listen to the recommendation. If an AI program is a black box, it will make predictions and decisions as humans do, but without being able to communicate its reasons for doing so, writes attorney Yavar Bathaee in a paper outlining why the legal principles that apply to humans dont necessarily work for AI. This also means that little can be inferred about the intent or conduct of the humans that created or deployed the AI, since even they may not be able to foresee what solutions the AI will reach or what decisions it will make.
The difficulty in pinning the blame on machines lies in the impenetrability of the AI decision-making process, according to a paper on tort liability and AI published in the AMA Journal of Ethics last year. For example, if the designers of AI cannot foresee how it will act after it is released in the world, how can they be held tortiously liable?, write the authors. And if the legal system absolves designers from liability because AI actions are unforeseeable, then injured patients may be left with fewer opportunities for redress.
AI, as with all technology, often works very differently in the lab than in a real-world setting. Earlier this year, researchers from Google Health found that a deep-learning system capable of identifying symptoms of diabetic retinopathy with 90% accuracy in the lab caused considerable delays and frustrations when deployed in real life.
Despite the complexities, clear responsibility is essential for artificial intelligence in healthcare, both because individual patients deserve accountability, and because lack of responsibility allows mistakes to flourish. If its unclear whos responsible, that creates a gap, it could be no one is responsible, says Lin. If thats the case, theres no incentive to fix the problem. One potential response, suggested by Georgetown legal scholar David Vladeck, is to hold everyone involved in the use and implementation of the AI system accountable.
AI and healthcare often work well together, with artificial intelligence augmenting the decisions made by human professionals. Even as AI develops, these systems arent expected to replace nurses or automate human doctors entirely. But as AI improves, it gets harder for humans to go against machines decisions. If a robot is right 99% of the time, then a doctor could face serious liability if they make a different choice. Its a lot easier for doctors to go along with what that robot says, says Lin.
Ultimately, this means humans are ceding some authority to robots. There are many instances where AI outperforms humans, and so doctors should defer to machine learning. But patient wariness of AI in healthcare is still justified when theres no clear accountability for mistakes. Medicine is still evolving. Its part art and part science, says Lin. You need both technology and humans to respond effectively.
See the original post here:
When AI in healthcare goes wrong, who is responsible? - Quartz
Global Machine Learning Courses Market Research Report 2015-2027 of Major Types, Applications and Competitive Vendors in Top Regions and Countries -…
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One of the top 10 trends in data and analytics this year as leaders navigate the covid-19 world, according to Gartner, is augmented data management." Its the growing use of tools with ML/AI to clean and prepare robust data for AI-based analytics. Companies are currently striving to go digital and derive insights from their data, but the roadblock is bad data, which leads to faulty decisions. In other words: garbage in, garbage out.
I was talking to a university dean the other day. It had 20,000 students in its database, but only 9,000 students had actually passed out of the university," says Deleep Murali, co-founder and CEO of Bengaluru-based Zscore. This kind of faulty data has a cascading effect because all kinds of decisions, including financial allocations, are based on it.
Zscore started out with the idea of providing AI-based business intelligence to global enterprises. But the startup soon ran into a bigger problem: the domino effect of unreliable data feeding AI engines. We realized we were barking up the wrong tree," says Murali. Then we pivoted to focus on automating data checks."
For example, an insurance company allocates a budget to cover 5,000 hospitals in its database but it turns out that one-third of them are duplicates with a slight alteration in name. So far in pilots weve run for insurance companies, we showed $35 million in savings, with just partial data. So its a huge problem," says Murali.
EXPENSE & EFFORT
This is what prompted IBM chief Arvind Krishna to reveal that the top reason for its clients to halt or cancel AI projects was their data. He pointed out that 80% of an AI project involves collecting and cleansing data, but companies were reluctant to put in the effort and expense for it.
That was in the pre-covid era. Whats happening now is that a lot of companies are keen to accelerate their digital transformation. So customer traction is picking up from banks and insurance companies as well as the manufacturing sector," says Murali.
Data analytics tends to be on the fringes of a companys operations, rather than its core. Zscores product aims to change that by automating data flow and improving its quality. Use cases differ from industry to industry. For example, a huge drain on insurance companies is false claims, which can vary from absurdities like male pregnancies and braces for six-month-old toddlers to subtler cases like the same hospital receiving allocations under different names.
We work with a leading insurance company in Australia and claims leakage is its biggest source of loss. The moment you save anything in claims, it has a direct impact on revenue," says Murali. Male pregnancies and braces for six-month-olds seem like simple leaks but companies tend to ignore it. Legacy systems and rules havent accounted for all the possibilities. But now a claim comes to our system and multiple algorithms spot anything suspicious. Its a parallel system to the existing claims processing system."
For manufacturing companies, buggy inventory data means placing orders for things they dont need. For example, there can be 15 different serial numbers of spanners. So you might order a spanner thats well-stocked, whereas the ones really required dont show up. Companies lose 12-15% of their revenue each because of data issues such as duplicate or excessive inventory," says Murali.
These problems have got exacerbated in the age of AI where algorithms drive decision-making. Companies typically lack the expertise to prepare data in a way that is suitable for machine-learning models. How data is labelled and annotated plays a huge role. Hence, the need for supervised machine learning from tech companies like Zscore that can identify bad data and quarantine it.
TO THE ROOTS
Semantics and context analysis and studying manual processes help develop industry- or organization-specific solutions. So far 80-90% of data work has been manual. What we do is automate identification of data ingredients, data workflows and root cause analysis to understand whats wrong with the data," says Murali.
A couple of years ago, Zscore got into cloud data management multinational NetApps accelerator programme in Bengaluru. This gave it a foothold abroad with a NetApp client in Australia. It also opened the door to working with large financial institutions.
The Royal Commission of Australia, which is the equivalent of RBI, had come down hard on the top four banks and financial institutions for passing on faulty information. Its report said decisions had to be based on the right data and gave financial institutions 18 months to show progress. This became motivation for us because these were essentially data-oriented problems," says Murali.
Malavika Velayanikal is a consulting editor with Mint. She tweets @vmalu.
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The confounding problem of garbage-in, garbage-out in ML - Mint