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Hypopituitarism | definition of hypopituitarism by Medical …

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Hypopituitarism Symptoms and Treatment | Hormone Health …

What is hypopituitarism? Hypopituitarism (also called pituitary insufficiency) is a rare condition in which your pituitary gland doesnt make enough of certain hormones. Your body cant work properly when important glands, such as your thyroid gland and adrenal gland, dont get the hormones they need from your pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland found at the base of your brain. It is called the master gland because it affects the action of many other important glands that produce their own hormones. The pituitary gland affects almost all parts of your body. Hypopituitarism can develop very slowly, over several months or even over several years. Hypopituitarism can be caused by Sometimes, the cause is unknown. Symptoms can include one or more of the following: Your doctor will check your hormone levels with blood tests. You may have other tests, such as an MRI of your pituitary gland, to help find the cause of your hypopituitarism. Treatment usually includes taking the hormones youre missing, sometimes for life. Your doctor also will teach you how to take extra cortisone (a hormone) when you are sick or under stress. If a tumor is causing your hypopituitarism, you might need surgery to remove it and/or possibly radiation treatment. If needed, you can take medicine for infertility. You will need to get regular check-ups. Its wise to wear medical identification, such as a bracelet or pendant, which provides information about your condition in case of an emergency. You can expect a normal life span, as long as you regularly take the medications recommended by your doctor. Continue reading

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Hypopituitarism | University of Maryland Medical Center

Toggle: English / Spanish Hypopituitarism is a condition in which the pituitary gland does not produce normal amounts of some or all of its hormones. Pituitary insufficiency The pituitary gland is a small structure that is located just below the brain. It is attached by a stalk to the hypothalamus. This isthe area of the brain that controlsthe pituitary gland’sfunction. The hormones released by the pituitary gland (and their functions) are: In hypopituitarism, there is a lack of one or more pituitary hormones. Lack of a hormone leads to loss of function in the gland or organ the hormone controls. For example, lack of TSH leads to loss of normal function of the thyroid gland. Hypopituitarism may be caused by: Occasionally, hypopituitarism is due to uncommon immune system or metabolic diseases, such as: Hypopituitarism is also a rare complication after pregnancy, a condition called Sheehan’s syndrome. Symptoms of hypopituitarism include any of the following: Symptoms may develop slowly and may vary greatly, depending upon: Other symptoms that may occur with this disease: To diagnose hypopituitarism, there must be low hormone levels due to a problem with the pituitary gland. The diagnosis must also rule out diseases of the organ that is affected by this hormone. Tests mayinclude: Levels of a pituitary hormone may be high in the bloodstream if you have a pituitary tumor that is producing too much of that hormone. The tumor may crush other cells of the pituitary, leading to low levels of other hormones. If hypopituitarism is caused by a tumor, you may need surgery to remove the tumor. Radiation therapy may also be needed. You will need lifelong hormonemedicines to replace hormones that are no longer made by organs under the control of the pituitary gland. These may include: Drugs are also available to treat related infertility in men and women. Hypopituitarism is usually permanent. It requires lifelong treatment with one or more medicines. But you can expect a normal life span. Side effects of medicines can develop.Stopping corticosteroid and thyroid supplementationcan be life-threatening. Call your health care provider if you develop symptoms of hypopituitarism. In most cases, the disorder is not preventable. Awareness of risk may allow early diagnosis and treatment. Melmed S, Kleinberg D, Ho K. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 8. A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC’s accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.’s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch) The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. 1997-2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Continue reading

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Frequently asked HYPOPITUITARY questions….and their …

Home Frequently asked HYPOPITUITARY questions.and their answers When not on any thyroid meds, you find yourself with a very low TSH lab (the TSH is a pituitary hormone), yet you have a low free T3, plus hypothyroid symptoms, you may … Continue reading

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Hypopituitarism and Hypopituitarism Resources – What is …

What are the symptoms of hypopituitarism? … The symptoms of hypopituitarism depend on the specific hormone that is lacking. For example, patients with reduced ACTH secretion have low cortisol levels, which can result in loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness and/or lightheadedness. This condition is called “adrenal insufficiency.” Patients with reduced TSH secretion have low thyroid hormone levels resulting in a condition called “hypothyroidism”. Signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism can include weight gain, fatigue, dry skin, constipation, cold intolerance and hair loss. Women of reproductive age with reduced LH and FSH secretion develop amenorrhea (absence of menstrual periods), infertility, and bone loss due to low estrogen levels. Men with low LH and FSH levels develop low testosterone levels, which results in lack of libido (sex drive), erectile dyfunction, infertility, fatigue, body composition abnormalities (loss of muscle mass and an increase in abdominal fat), bone loss, and sometimes, depression. Low growth hormone (GH) in children leads to short stature. In adults, GH deficiency is associated with a diminished quality of life, body composition abnormalities (including a reduction in muscle mass and increase in abdominal fat mass) and low bone density. Women with low prolactin are unable to breastfeed, but there are no known adverse effects of low prolactin in men. Pituitary Symptoms Hypopituitarism is caused by damage to the pituitary gland, usually from a tumor, radiation, surgery. Traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhages can also cause hypopituitarism. Occasionally inflammation can cause hypopituitarism and sometimes the cause is unclear. Medications can also cause hypopituitarism. For example, high-dose steroid use can lead to adrenal insufficiency and anabolic steroid use can result in low testosterone that lasts beyond the time in which the medication is used and can be permanent. Research Studies The complications of hypopituitarism are due to the specific hormone deficiency. See “What are the symptoms of hypopituitarism” above. Patient with hypopituitarism not receiving appropriate hormone replacement therapies have an increased risk of mortality. Research Studies You’re likely to start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner. However, in some cases when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred immediately to an endocrinologist, a doctor who specializes in endocrine (hormonal) disorders. Special Instructions (If available, please bring): Our clinic assistants will help you update your hospital registration and insurance information. Continue reading

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Pituitary Network Association – Disorders – Hypopituitarism

Hypopituitarism is a general term that refers to any under function of the pituitary gland. This is a clinical definition used by endocrinologists and is interpreted to mean that one or more functions of the pituitary are deficient. The term may refer to both anterior and posterior pituitary gland failure. Deficient pituitary gland function can result from damage to either the pituitary or the area just above the pituitary, the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus contains releasing and inhibitory hormones which control the pituitary. Since these hormones are necessary for normal pituitary function, damage to the hypothalamus can also result in deficient pituitary gland function. Injury to the pituitary can occur from a variety of insults, including damage from an enlarging pituitary tumor, irradiation to the pituitary, pituitary apoplexy, trauma and abnormal iron storage (hemochromatosis). With increasing damage there is a progressive decrease in function. There appears to be a predictable loss of hormonal function with increasing damage. The progression from most vulnerable to least vulnerable is usually as follows: first is growth hormone (GH), next the gonadotropins (LH and FSH which control sexual/reproductive function), followed by TSH (which control thyroid hormone release) and finally the last to be lost is typically ACTH (which controls adrenal function). Sheehan’s syndrome is a condition that may occur in a woman who has a severe uterine hemorrhage during childbirth. The resulting severe blood loss causes tissue death in her pituitary gland and leads to hypopituitarism following the birth. For more on this Sheehan’s syndrome, please visit MedlinePlus on Sheehan’s Syndrome. Deficiency of ACTH resulting in cortisol deficiency is the most dangerous and life threatening of the hormonal deficiency syndromes. With gradual onset of deficiency over days or weeks, symptoms are often vague and may include weight loss, fatigue, weakness, depression, apathy, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and hyperpigmentation. As the deficiency becomes more serious or has a more rapid onset, (Addisonian crisis) symptoms may include confusion, stupor, psychosis, abnormal electrolytes (low serum sodium, elevated serum potassium), and vascular collapse (low blood pressure and shock) which can be fatal. Treatment consists of cortisol administration or another similar steroid (like prednisone). For patients with acute adrenal insufficiency (Addisonian crisis), rapid intravenous administration of high dose steroids is essential to reverse the crisis. Deficiency of thyroid hormone causes a syndrome consisting of decreased energy, increased need to sleep, intolerance of cold (inability to stay warm), dry skin, constipation, muscle aching and decreased mental functions. This constellation of symptoms is very uncomfortable and is often the symptom complex that drives patients with pituitary disease to seek medical attention. Replacement therapy consists of a daily pill called thyroxine (Synthroid, Levothyroxine etc). The correct dose is determined through blood tests. Women develop ovarian suppression with irregular periods or absence of periods (amenorrhea), infertility, decreased libido, decreased vaginal secretions, breast atrophy, and osteoporosis. Blood levels of estradiol are low. Estrogen should be replaced and can be given orally as Premarin or estrace, or can be given as a patch applied twice weekly. Women taking estrogen also need to take progesterone replacement (unless they have undergone a hysterectomy). Annual pap smears and mammograms are mandatory. Men develop testicular suppression with decreased libido, impotence, decreased ejaculate volume, loss of body and facial hair, weakness, fatigue and often anemia. On testing, blood levels of testosterone are low and should be replaced. In the United States, testosterone may be given as a bi-weekly intramuscular injection, a patch form, or a gel preparation. In other countries, oral preparations of testosterone are available. Growth hormone is necessary in children for growth, but also appears necessary in adults to maintain normal body composition (muscle and bone mass). It may also be helpful for maintaining an adequate energy level, optimal cardiovascular status and some mental functions. Symptoms of GH deficiency in adults include fatigue, poor exercise performance and symptoms of social isolation. GH is only available in injectable form and must be given 6-7 times per week. This problem arises from damage to the pituitary stalk or the posterior pituitary gland. It may occur transiently after transsphenoidal surgery but is rarely permanent. Patients with diabetes insipidus have increased thirst and urination. Replacement of antidiuretic hormone resolves these symptoms. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is currently replaced by administration of DDAVP (also called Desmopressin) a synthetic type of ADH. DDAVP can be given by subcutaneous injection, intranasal spray, or by tablet, usually once or twice a day. Continue reading

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