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Category Archives: Cryonics
Cryonics projesi, dirilmeyi bekleyen insanlar, donmu insanlar, dondurulmu insanlar..Abone olmay unutmayn: http://www.youtube.com/user/mailcetvDondurulmu l insanlar buz iinde yeniden dirilmeyi bekliyor (Cryonics) Cryonics nedir?
,Tm dnyadan 230 cansz vcut, ii sv nitrojen dolu byk metal silindirler ierisinde, eksi -196 derecede, tbbn ilerleyip kendilerini yeniden diriltecei gn bekliyor. Buna 'cryonics' deniyor. Szlk anlam, insanlarn bilinmeyen bir gelecekte zlmek zere dondurulmas olan cryonics terimi, ilk olarak 1965 ylnda kullanld. Ancak ilk kez Neil R. Jones 1930larda yazd bir romanda insanlarn dondurulmasndan sz ediyordu. nl fiziki Robert Ettinger da 1964de yaymlanan lmszlk htimali adl kitabnda insanlarn gelecek yllarda canlandrlmak zere dondurulmas fikrinin akla yatkn olduunu ileri sryordu. Dnyada dondurulan ilk kii 73 yanda akcier kanserinden len Amerikal psikolog James Bedfordd. 1967den beri buzlar iinde diriltilecei gn bekliyor. Bazlar iin insanlar, nano teknolojinin ve tbbn ok ilerledii, her hastala are bulunabildii, tek bir hcreden bile bir insann yeniden yaplandrlabildii bir ada uyandrmak iin paralarn almak, umut tacirliinden baka bir ey deil. Ancak yaplan bir deney hi de yle demiyor. Dr. Paul Segalin 1992de American Cryonics Societynin sponsorluunda Kaliforniya niversitesinde yapt u mehur deneyden sz ediyoruz. Dr. Segal beagle cinsi sevimli kpei Miles dondurup tekrar hayata dndrmeyi baarm ve bu deney cryonicsist bilim insanlar iin o gnden beri byk bir ispat olarak kabul ediliyor. Miles kan ekildikten sonra dondurularak ldrlm, 70 dakikalk klinik lmn ardndan kan tekrar damarlarna enjekte edilerek oda scaklnda geri getirilmiti. buuk yandaki kpek hayata geri dndnde tm karakteristik zelliklerini olduu gibi tayordu, alkanlklar ve huylar deimemiti. Bu, dondurulan insanlarn bir gn yeniden hayata dndrldnde hafzalarnn yerinde olacana ispat olarak gsteriliyor.
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Towards the end of Captain America: The First Avenger, seeing no other way of landing the airplane without detonating the weapons inside, Cap crashes the plane into the Arctic with himself still inside it. After a long wait of 70 years, hes finally found and it is discovered that he is still alive! The scene then cuts to the present day, where Cap wakes up in a 1940s-style hospital room, without a single scratch or bruise on his body!
If you follow Captain America in any way, either through movies or comics, then you know that unlike other Marvel superheroes (e.g., Thor, Spiderman and Wolverine), he does not have any supernatural powers. Cap is a regular human with heightened agility, strength and endurance. How Steve Rogers, a rather sickly, scrawny youngster, transformed into Captain America is a different story altogether, but how could he possibly survive being frozen for no less than seventy years?
Your instinctive response may be, Well, thats because hes a superhero, isnt it? That wouldnt be incorrect, but is there actually a scientific reason behind Caps miraculous escape after being buried in snowfor 70 long years?
Well, much of his survival has to do with the super-serum that had been injected into his bloodstream as part of Operation: Rebirth, which occurred in thebeginning of the movie. While the constituents and formula for making the serum were never revealed, its effects on Caps body are clearly visible. The serum not only gave him unmatched physical and mental strength, but as it turns out, it also kept his blood from freezing in the subzero conditions of the Arctic.
The super-soldier serum, along with the unusually bitter ambient coldness, allowed him to enter a state of suspended animation, which is why Cap remained alive and wellfor not one, not two, but the next seventy years! This was the explanation that the creators of Captain America offered for his seemingly implausible survival in the ice for seventy years, and this explanation was good enough for Caps fans, who wanted to see more of Captain America in action.
So, what is this suspended animation? Is it just another mysterious fantastical term thats far from the realm of the physical world or is it something real?
Yes, suspended animation is a real thing!
To give you a quick definition, suspended animation is the slowing down, or altogether stopping, of certain life processes through certain means without causing the death of the person in question.
The concept of suspended animation has been discussed several times in fiction; this is an 1852 depiction of Snow White laid in a glass coffin during her period of magic-induced suspended animation (Image Source: Wikipedia)
Involuntary bodily processes, such as our heartbeat and breathing, may occur, but you would need artificial means to detect them. In fact, very small organisms (such as embryos of up to eight cells) are preserved in this way, and some have been kept in preservation for as long as 13 years!
Such a suspended state of living can be induced using certain methods, including temperature alterations and chemical changes. It has been seen that lowering the temperature of a substance lowers its chemical activities (Arrhenius equation). Metabolism, an incredibly vital chemical activity that occurs within the human body, falls under such chemical activities.
It will be many years before we can send astronauts to distant destinations using suspended animation (Image Source: Wikipedia)
Such a process, as of now, is far more complex than what they showed in Captain America. A human body cannot survive, even in a state of suspended animation, while being exposed to excessive cold temperatures for such long periods of time. There are simply too many pitfalls involved, including damage from ice formation and the loss of cellular viability, not to mention the ethical ramifications of freezing someone in such inhospitable conditions. With all these roadblocks, a distinct lack of experimentation limits our chances of understanding itmuch further.
Presently, we need to be better equipped, both in terms of understanding the process and technological know-how, to be able to recreate anything close to the super-heroic survival of Captain America.
As it turns out, surviving for extended periods of time in extremely cold temperatures IS possible, but getting your hands on super-soldier serum and vita rays not so much.
How Did Captain America Survive Being Frozen For 70 Years?
Cryogenics, production and application of low-temperature phenomena.
The cryogenic temperature range has been defined as from 150 C (238 F) to absolute zero (273 C or 460 F), the temperature at which molecular motion comes as close as theoretically possible to ceasing completely. Cryogenic temperatures are usually described in the absolute or Kelvin scale, in which absolute zero is written as 0 K, without a degree sign. Conversion from the Celsius to the Kelvin scale can be done by adding 273 to the Celsius scale.
Cryogenic temperatures are considerably lower than those encountered in ordinary physical processes. At these extreme conditions, such properties of materials as strength, thermal conductivity, ductility, and electrical resistance are altered in ways of both theoretical and commercial importance. Because heat is created by the random motion of molecules, materials at cryogenic temperatures are as close to a static and highly ordered state as is possible.
Cryogenics had its beginning in 1877, the year that oxygen was first cooled to the point at which it became a liquid (183 C, 90 K). Since then the theoretical development of cryogenics has been connected to the growth in capability of refrigeration systems. In 1895, when it had become possible to reach temperatures as low as 40 K, air was liquefied and separated into its major components; in 1908 helium was liquefied (4.2 K). Three years later the propensity of many supercooled metals to lose all resistance to electricitythe phenomenon known as superconductivitywas discovered. By the 1920s and 1930s temperatures close to absolute zero were reached, and by 1960 laboratories could produce temperatures of 0.000001 K, a millionth of a degree Kelvin above absolute zero.
Temperatures below 3 K are primarily used for laboratory work, particularly research into the properties of helium. Helium liquefies at 4.2 K, becoming what is known as helium I. At 2.19 K, however, it abruptly becomes helium II, a liquid with such low viscosity that it can literally crawl up the side of a glass and flow through microscopic holes too small to permit the passage of ordinary liquids, including helium I. (Helium I and helium II are, of course, chemically identical.) This property is known as superfluidity.
The most important commercial application of cryogenic gas liquefaction techniques is the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG), a mixture largely composed of methane, ethane, and other combustible gases. Natural gas is liquefied at 110 K, causing it to contract to 1/600th of its volume at room temperature and making it sufficiently compact for swift transport in specially insulated tankers.
Very low temperatures are also used for preserving food simply and inexpensively. Produce is placed in a sealed tank and sprayed with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen immediately vaporizes, absorbing the heat content of the produce.
In cryosurgery a low-temperature scalpel or probe can be used to freeze unhealthy tissue. The resulting dead cells are then removed through normal bodily processes. The advantage to this method is that freezing the tissue rather than cutting it produces less bleeding. A scalpel cooled by liquid nitrogen is used in cryosurgery; it has proved successful in removing tonsils, hemorrhoids, warts, cataracts, and some tumours. In addition, thousands of patients have been treated for Parkinson disease by freezing the small areas of the brain believed to be responsible for the problem.
The application of cryogenics has also extended to space vehicles. In 1981 the U.S. space shuttle Columbia was launched with the aid of liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellants.
Of the special properties of materials cooled to extreme temperatures, superconductivity is the most important. Its chief application has been in the construction of superconducting electromagnets for particle accelerators. These large research facilities require such powerful magnetic fields that conventional electromagnets could be melted by the currents required to generate the fields. Liquid helium cools to about 4 K the cable through which the currents flow, allowing much stronger currents to flow without generating heat by resistance.
Cryonics is the theory of being able to preserve people through a freezing process so that they can be revived at a later time. Part of the reason why science is being researched in this area is so that we can treat people with serious diseases with an actual cure when it becomes available. Our current concepts of space travel would also mandate cryonics for astronauts because there is no other way to get someone to another solar system within a lifetime right now. The science of cryonics definitely has some pros and cons lets take a look at some of those in more detail.
1. It Could Allow For The Survival Of The Human RaceAlmost every day in the news, there is at least one country in the world that is rattling their sabers and threatening war. Some countries have the ability to start a nuclear war. Using the foundations of cryonics, it would be possible to maintain the survival of the human race, along with the plants and animals that we currently have, should a nuclear holocaust occur.
2. It Could Revolutionize Our Organ Transplantation SystemIf organs could be cryonically preserved, then all of the regional organ donation lists could go way. Everyone would have the same access to the available organs for transplantation. This would open up more potential matches and if there werent any matches, the organs could still be preserved for a later time.
3. It Could Solve The Hunger ProblemEven in wealthy, industrialized nations, up to 20% of the households dont have enough food to eat. If we could use cryonics to freeze foods, then we could begin reducing the billions of dollars of waste in the food industry that are experienced every year. The increased caloric availability could potentially eliminate world hunger.
1. Its A Brand New ScienceWe really dont know a whole lot about cryonics right now. The theory is that we could preserve cells so that they dont experience decay, but we dont have a lot of proof on this. It is fully possible that cells could age during the cryonics process and so aging and atrophy could still occur.
2. It Could Prevent DeathDeath is one of the certainties that comes with life. Its scary because we dont know a lot about what happens. Is there an afterlife? Do we have a soul that will actually move on somewhere? Cryonics could prevent death through the long-term preservation of life.
3. It Could Change The Ethics Of HumanityHow would people treat each other if death is not an option? If people could be preserved indefinitely to wait for a cure for a disease that they have, what choices would change? We would definitely have different dynamics in every choice that we make and not all of those dynamics would be positive.
The science of cryonics is exciting because of its numerous applications. By weighing the pros and cons of cryonics, we can determine what ethical discussions need to have now so that if this does become a future application, we can all be prepared for it.
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Cryonics Pros And Cons | APECSEC.org
A bigfoot dewar, a container used to store cryonics patients
"In principle, cryonics is not impossible, but the current form of it is based largely on rank speculation and costs a load of dough. "- 
Cryonics is the low-temperature preservation of the brain, and sometimes entire body, of deceased individuals, with the hope of future revival. People preserved this way are often referred to as "patients".
A comparison of frozen tissue and vitrified tissue, according to alcor.com
How plausible is cryonics? In the 1930's many sensible people were sure human beings would never get to the moon and that was just one of many predictions that turned out incorrect.  Is the essence of consciousness, memories and the personality of the dead person preserved in the preserved brain? In the early 21st Century we don't fully understand what causes consciousness and personality or how memory functions so we can't say one way or the other. Still cryonics is highly speculative and unproved at best.
The central premise of cryonics is that identity is stored in the physical structure of the brain. The brain is preserved with cryonics, and freezing damage is avoided using cryoprotectants. As medical technology increases, supporters hope in the future, cryopreserved individuals could be revived. A serious drawback is that we don't know which aspects of the brain are important to preserve.
One thing that is for certain. Cryonics is science based and more likely to be successful than practicing any religion.
The procedure begins as soon as possible after legal death, when the heart stops beating. The first step of the procedure is to place the patient in an ice bath, in order to cool the body. A HLR (Heart Lung Recessitator) is placed on the body, in order to continue the circulation of blood. By connecting tubes to major arteries, the blood is replaced with cryoprotectants over the course of several hours. Cryoprotectants are chemicals that prevent Water from crystallizing. The adding of cryoprotectants is known as vitrification. If cryoprotectants are not added to the body, the water inside of cells would burst as the body is frozen. The bursting of cells would cause the calls to burst, and therefore, would render the likelihood of revival to be extremely small. Vitrification prevents this, and the cellular structure of vitrified samples remains intact. After the body is vitrified, it cooled and placed into an aluminum container. The container is then placed into a bigfoot Dewar, such as the one pictured above. A bigfoot Dewar is basically a large version of a Dewar flask, which uses a vacuum as insulation. The body is kept at -196*C.
Some alternatives to the procedure of cryonics have been proposed, with the intent of preserving the brain, with the intent of revival in the future.
Plastination is one of these proposals. It is much cheaper than cryonics, and the brain after it has been plastinated can be touched without damage. However, the problem with plastination is that some decay still occurs, albeit very slowly. On the other hand, it increases the probability that the body will make it in time for sufficient nanotechnology to be developed. Cryonics requires that an organization exist that maintains the vitrified corpse. One rough year for a cryonics organization, and your brain is eaten by maggots. Plastination needs no organization to maintain the corpse. From the looks of it, plastination is a good idea, and is in some ways better than cryonics.
Freeze drying has also been proposed, although there are many problems with this proposal. A freeze dried brain would be very brittle, potentially turning to dust if handled improperly. Exposure to any moisture could also ruin the brain. From the looks of it, freeze drying is a horrible idea.
Insights from Robert Ettinger, "The Father of Cryonics"
In 1962, a physics lecturer at Wayne State University named Robert C. Ettinger founded the cryonics movement with the publication of his book The Prospect of Immortality and introduced the world to a groundbreaking concept he termed "Cryonics."
Ettinger always looked at the concept of cryonics and particularly cryonic revival not as an impossibility, but rather as a complex problem that science would eventually find ways to solve. Considering the current state of technology in 1962, he correctly predicted that science would continue to advance at an explosive rate over the next several decades, ultimately creating the sophisticated tools which would be needed to revive cryonics patients.
Over the course of his first lifetime, Ettinger had the unique pleasure of seeing many of the scientific advances he had predicted decades earlier become reality, further convincing him that the tools and techniques needed to realize his theory were only a matter of time. Ettinger was in the unique position of actually watching his theory coming to life in his own lifetime, and he wrote extensively on the subject of cryonics, clarifying the theory with each new scientific leap forward. Nanotechnology, in particular, has always been a key theoretical revival technique, and Ettinger was fortunate enough to see the first applications of its amazing potential.
Robert Ettinger was placed in cryostasis July 28, 2011 at the Cryonics Institute facility in Michigan at the age of 92. As a scientist, futurist and most of all, "The Original Cryonicist," Robert Ettinger and his works are the foundation and in many ways the soul of the cryonics movement.
To truly understand cryonics, Robert C. Ettinger's works are essential reading.
Resource link to Robert Ettinger's works
Complete list of all documents currently available on the CI web site.
The Prospect of Immortality
Essential reading - the book that launched the cryonics movement in 1962.
Man Into Superman
Ettinger's 1972 follow up to The Prospect of Immortality
A prescient essay discussing the potential of nanotechnology for cryonics applications
Signatories encompass all disciplines relevant to cryonics, including Biology, Cryobiology, Neuroscience, Physical Science, Nanotechnology and Computing, Ethics and Theology.
The signatories, speaking for themselves, include leading scientists from institutes such as MIT, Harvard, NASA and Cambridge University to name a few.
To whom it may concern,
Cryonics is a legitimate science-based endeavor that seeks to preserve human beings, especially the human brain, by the best technology available. Future technologies for resuscitation can be envisioned that involve molecular repair by nanomedicine, highly advanced computation, detailed control of cell growth, and tissue regeneration.
With a view toward these developments, there is a credible possibility that cryonics performed under the best conditions achievable today can preserve sufficient neurological information to permit eventual restoration of a person to full health.
The rights of people who choose cryonics are important, and should be respected.
Sincerely (68 Signatories)
[Signature date in brackets]
Gregory Benford, Ph.D.(Physics, UC San Diego) Professor of Physics; University of California; Irvine, CA [3/24/04]
Alex Bokov, Ph.D.(Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio) [6/02/2014]
Alaxander Bolonkin, Ph.D.(Leningrad Politechnic University) Professor, Moscow Aviation Institute; Senior Research Associate NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; Lecturer, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ [3/24/04]
Nick Bostrom, Ph.D.Research Fellow; University of Oxford; Oxford, United Kingdom [3/25/04]
Kevin Q. Brown, Ph.D.(Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon) Member of Technical Staff; Lucent Bell Laboratories (retired); Stanhope, NJ [3/23/04]
Professor Manfred Clynes, Ph.D.Lombardi Cancer Center; Department of Oncology and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University; Washington, DC [3/28/04]
L. Stephen Coles, M.D., PhD(RPI, Columbia, Carnegie Mellon University) Director, Supercentenarian Research Foundation Inglewood, California [10/7/06]
Jose Luis Cordeiro, MBA, PhDThe Millennium Project, Venezuelan Director; World Academy of Art and Science, Fellow [02/07/06]
Daniel Crevier, Ph.D.(MIT) President, Ophthalmos Systems Inc., Longueuil, Qc, Canada; Professor of Electrical Engineering (ret.), McGill University & cole de Technologie Suprieure, Montreal, Canada. [4/7/05]
Antonei B. Csoka, Ph.D.Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Pittsburgh Development Center, Magee-Womens Research Institute [9/14/05]
Aubrey D.N.J. de Grey, Ph.D.Research Associate; University of Cambridge;Cambridge, United Kingdom [3/19/04]
Wesley M. Du Charme, Ph.D.(Experimental Psychology, University of Michigan) author of Becoming Immortal, Rathdrum, Idaho [11/23/05]
Joo Pedro de Magalhes, Ph.D.University of Namur; Namur, Belgium [3/22/04]
Thomas Donaldson, Ph.D.Editor, Periastron; Founder, Institute for Neural Cryobiology; Canberra, Australia [3/22/04]
Christopher J. Dougherty, Ph.D.Chief Scientist; Suspended Animation Inc; Boca Raton, FL [3/19/04]
K. Eric Drexler, Ph.D.Chairman of Foresight Institute; Palo Alto, CA [3/19/04]
Llus Estrada, MD., Ph.D.
Ex Head of the Clinical Neurophysiology Section (retired) at the University Hospital Joan XXIII of Tarragona, Spain. [11/21/2015]
Robert A. Freitas Jr., J.D.Author, Nanomedicine Vols. I & II; Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Palo Alto, CA [3/27/04]
Mark Galecki, Ph.D.(Mathematics, Univ of Tennessee), M.S. (Computer Science, Rutgers Univ), Senior System Software Engineer, SBS Technologies [11/23/05]
D. B. Ghare, Ph.D.Principal Research Scientist, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India [5/24/04]
Ben Goertzel, Ph.D.(Mathematics, Temple) Chief Scientific Officer, Biomind LLC; Columbia, MD [3/19/04]
Peter Gouras, M.D.Professor of Ophthalmology, Columbia University; New York City, NY [3/19/04]
Rodolfo G. Goya, PhDSenior Scientist, Institute for Biochemical Research (INIBIOLP), School of Medicine,, National University of La Plata, La Plata city, Argentina. [11/22/2015]
Amara L. Graps, Ph.D.Researcher, Astrophysics; Adjunct Professor of Astronomy; Institute of Physics of the Interplanetary Space; American University of Rome (Italy) [3/22/04]
Raphael Haftka, Ph.D.(UC San Diego) Distinguished Prof. U. of Florida; Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Gainesville, FL [3/22/04]
David A. Hall, M.D.Dean of Education, World Health Medical School [11/23/05]
J. Storrs Hall, Ph.D.Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Los Altos, CAFellow, Molecular Engineering Research Institute, Laporte, PA [3/26/04]
Robin Hanson, Ph.D.(Social Science, Caltech) Assistant Professor (of Economics); George Mason University; Fairfax, VA [3/19/04]
Steven B. Harris, M.D.President and Director of Research; Critical Care Research, Inc; Rancho Cucamonga, CA [3/19/04]
Michael D. Hartl, Ph.D.(Physics, Harvard & Caltech) Visitor in Theoretical Astrophysics; California Institute of Technology; Pasadena, CA [3/19/04]
Kenneth J. Hayworth, Ph.D. (Neuroscience, University of Southern California) Research Fellow; Harvard University; Cambridge, MA [10/22/10]
Henry R. Hirsch, Ph. D.(Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1960) Professor Emeritus, University of Kentucky College of Medicine [11/29/05]
Tad Hogg, Ph.D.(Physics, Caltech and Stanford) research staff, HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA [10/10/05]
James J. Hughes, Ph.D.Public Policy Studies Trinity College; Hartford, CT [3/25/04]
James R. Hughes, M.D., Ph.D.ER Director of Meadows Regoinal Medical Center; Director of Medical Research & Development, Hilton Head Longevity Center, Savanah, GA [4/05/04]
Ravin Jain, M.D.(Medicine, Baylor) Assistant Clinical Professor of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA [3/31/04]
Subhash C. Kak, Ph.D.Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA [3/24/04]
Professor Bart Kosko, Ph.D.Electrical Engineering Department; University of Southern California [3/19/04]
Jaime Lagnez, PhDNGS and Systems biologist for INSP (National Institutes of Health of Mexico) and CONACYT (National Science and Technology Council). [11/21/2015]
James B. Lewis, Ph.D.(Chemistry, Harvard) Senior Research Investigator (retired); Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute; Seattle, WA [3/19/04]
Marc S. Lewis, Ph.D.Ph.D. from the University of Cincinnati in Clinical Psychology. Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin of Clinical Psychology. [6/12/05]
Brad F. Mellon, STM, Ph.D.Chair of the Ethics Committee; Frederick Mennonite Community; Frederick, PA [3/25/04]
Ralph C. Merkle, Ph.D.Distinguished Professor of Computing; Georgia Tech College of Computing; Director, GTISC (GA Tech Information Security Center); VP, Technology Assessment, Foresight Institute [3/19/04]
Marvin Minsky, Ph.D.(Mathematics, Harvard & Princeton) MIT Media Lab and MIT AI Lab; Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences; Professor of E.E. and C.S., M.I.T [3/19/04]
John Warwick Montgomery, Ph.D.(Chicago) D.Thol. (Strasbourg), LL.D. (Cardiff) Professor Emeritus of Law and Humanities, University of Luton, England [3/28/04]
Max More, Ph.D.Chairman, Extropy Institute, Austin, TX [3/31/04]
Steve Omohundro, Ph.D.(Physics, University of California at Berkeley) Computer science professor at the University of Illinois at Champaign/Urbana [6/08/04]
Mike ONeal, Ph.D.(Computer Science) Assoc. Professor and Computer Science Program Chair; Louisiana Tech Univ.; Ruston, LA [3/19/04]
R. Michael Perry, Ph.D. Computer SciencePatient care and technical services, Alcor Life Extension Foundation [9/30/09]
Yuri Pichugin, Ph.D.Former Senior Researcher, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine; Kharkov, Ukraine [3/19/04]
Peter H. Proctor, M.D., Ph.D.Independent Physician & Pharmacologist; Houston, Texas [5/02/04]
Martine Rothblatt, Ph.D., J.D., M.B.A.Responsible for launching several satellite communications companies including Sirius and WorldSpace. Founder and CEO of United Therapeutics. [5/02/04]
Klaus H. Sames, M.D.University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center of Experimental Medicine (CEM) Institute of Anatomy II: Experimental Morphology; Hamburg, Germany [3/25/04]
Anders Sandberg, Ph.D.(Computational Neuroscience) Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University; Stockholm, Sweden [3/19/04]
Sergey V. Sheleg, M.D., Ph.D.Senior Research Scientist, Alcor Life Extension Foundation; Scottsdale, AZ [8/11/05]
Stanley Shostak, Ph.D.Associate Professor of Biological Sciences; University of Pittsburgh; Pittsburgh, PA [3/19/04]
Rafal Smigrodzki, M.D., Ph.D.Chief Clinical Officer, Gencia Company; Charlottesville VA [3/19/04]
David S. Stodolsky, Ph.D.(Univ. of Cal., Irvine) Senior Scientist, Institute for Social Informatics [11/24/05]
Gregory Stock, Ph.D.Director, Program on Medicine, Technology, and Society UCLA School of Public Health; Los Angeles, CA [3/24/04]
Charles Tandy, Ph.D.Associate Professor of Humanities and Director Center for Interdisciplinary Philosophic Studies Fooyin University (Kaohsiung, Taiwan) [5/25/05]
Peter Toma, Ph.D.President, Cosmolingua, Inc. Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Inventor and Founder of SYSTRAN. Director of International Relations, Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Residences in Argentina, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland and USA [5/24/05]
Natasha Vita-More, PhDProfessor, University of Advancing Technology, Tempe, Arizona, USA. [11/22/2015]
Mark A. Voelker, Ph.D.(Optical Sciences, U. Arizona) Director of Bioengineering; BioTime, Inc.; Berkeley, CA [3/19/04]
Roy L. Walford, M.D.Professor of Pathology, emeritus; UCLA School of Medicine; Los Angeles, CA [3/19/04]
Mark Walker, Ph.D.Research Associate, Philosophy; Trinity College; University of Toronto (Canada) [3/19/04]
Michael D. West, Ph.D.President, Chairman & Chief Executive Office; Advanced Cell Technology, Inc.; Worcester, MA [3/19/04]
Ronald F. White, Ph.D.Professor of Philosophy; College of Mount St. Joseph; Cincinnati, OH [3/19/04]
James Wilsdon, Ph.D.(Oxford University) Head of Strategy for Demos, an independent think-tank; London, England [5/04/04]
Brian Wowk, Ph.D.Senior Scientist 21st Century Medicine, Inc.; Rancho Cucamonga, CA [3/19/04]
Selected Journal Articles Supporting Cryonics:
First paper showing recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to -20C. Suda I, Kito K, Adachi C, in: Nature (1966, vol. 212), Viability of long term frozen cat brain in vitro, pg. 268-270.