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Dog years is just a myth: New research shows non-linear relationship between dog and human years – WITI FOX 6 Milwaukee
SAN DIEGO, Calif.How old is your dog in human years? Thats a question that most dog owners answer using the multiply by 7 rule. The adage suggests that a 5-year-old pooch is similar in physiological age to a 35-year-old human. But a new study suggests that the age-old method may actually be a myth.
Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine found a formula that more accurately measures the age of our furry friends. It turns out that, when looking at the different patterns of methyl groups in dog and human genomes, the two species do not age at the same rate.
The study, published on July 2 in theCell SystemsJournal, found that when dogs are young, they age rapidly compared to humans. A 1-year-old dog is similar to a 30-year-old human, and a 4-year-old dog is similar to a 52-year-old human. Dogs rapid aging slows down after they turn 7 years old, according to the study.
Using the novel methylation formula, the researchers found the canine epigenetic clock, a method for determining the age of a cell, tissue or organism based on its epigenetics, which are chemical modifications like methylation that can influence which genes turn on or off without changing the entire gene sequence.
While human epigenetic clocks are not a novel discovery, they were limited to specific individuals and could not translate to other species.
There are a lot of anti-aging products out there these days with wildly varying degrees of scientific support,saidsenior author Trey Ideker, Ph.D., professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center. But how do you know if a product will truly extend your life without waiting 40 years or so?
What if you could instead measure your age-associated methylation patterns before, during and after the intervention to see if its doing anything?
Since humans have been a default subject in science, Ideker and his fellow researcher, Tina Wong, Ph.D., decided to study a more interesting and unique species: dogs.
Domesticated dogs are unique in that they live close to humans more than any other animal, and they, therefore, have very similar environmental and chemical exposures. They also experience similar levels of health observation and health care intervention as humans.
Despite extensive phenotype differences, all domestic breeds are members of the same species with a similar developmental, physiological and pathological trajectory as humans, the report reads.
One limitation that the researchers noted was that they only tested Labrador retrievers. Ideker and his team plan to test other dog breeds to see if their new model for measuring dog years is universally effective and accurate.
As in the past with autopsy, it is hoped that what is being learned from the dead, may help the living. When Amy Rapkiewicz began the process to learn how bodies of those who lost their battles to this virus went awry, the pathologist found damage to the lungs, kidneys, and liver that was consistent with what doctors had been reporting for months, yet something was off.
Rapkiewicz directs autopsies at NYU Langone Health, and when she was taking on the grim and daunting tasks she noticed some organs had far too many of a special cell that is rarely found in the places where it was. Though she had never seen it before it seemed familiar, and after researching history books she found reference to a 1960s report on a patient with dengue fever.
Rapkiewicz learned that in dengue the virus appeared to destroy these cells which produces platelets and leads to uncontrolled bleeding, and this novel virus seems to be amplifying their effects to cause dangerous clotting. Of the parallels she says: Covid-19 and dengue sound really different, but the cells that are involved are similar.
Autopsies have been used as a valuable source of information and breakthroughs leading to understanding new diseases for many decades, with this outbreak the medical community is counting on them to do the same for COVID-19. Hospital systems are too busy trying to save lives to spend too much time trying to reveal the secrets of the dead, but the first large batch of reports involving patients ranging between the ages of 32-90 have been published. Investigations have confirmed early suggestions of the disease and refuted others, but they have also opened up new mysteries about this pathogen.
Consistent across several studies is the finding that this virus appears to attack the lungs most viciously, and the pathogen was also found in parts of the brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, and in the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. Also as was suspected there was widespread clotting found in many organs. But the brain and heart revealed surprising findings.
Its about what we are not seeing, said Mary Fowkes, an associate professor of pathology who is part of a team at Mount Sinai Health that has performed autopsies on 67 COVID-19 patients.
Fowkes was expecting to find the virus or inflammation or both in the brain given the reports about neurological symptoms related to this virus, but there was very little and all autopsy investigations found no evidence of myocarditis in the heart despite months of concern over suspected cardiac complications.
Pathologists found another unexpected finding, that of the oxygen deprivation of the brain and the formation of blood clots may start early on in the disease process; this could have implications for how those with this disease are treated and home and if they need to be hospitalized.
Autopsies can help to reconstruct the natural course of disease, but the process for such a new and highly infectious disease requires dedicated and meticulous work with the use of specialized tools to harvest organs to be put into a disinfecting solutions for several weeks before they can be studied to avoid sending the virus into the air. After this process each organ must be sectioned and small bits of tissue must be collected to study under different types of microscopes.
One of the first American investigations to be made public was that of a 44 year old man who was treated in LSU Health; Richard Vander Heide who has been performing autopsies since 1994 remembers discovering what was probably hundreds or thousands of microclots in the lungs. This was something that was unusual that he has never seen before, but as he moved to the next patient and the next he saw the same pattern. He was so shocked and alarmed that he shared a paper online before submitting to a journal to get this information out immediately to all doctors; and his findings have influenced many hospitals to give blood thinners to some COVID-19 patients, and it is now a common practice. Subsequently the final peer reviewed version has been published in the Lancet.
Other autopsies have reported similar findings of clotting, and more recently a study published in the Lancets eClinical Medicine reports abnormal clotting in the heart, kidney, liver, and lungs leading the authors to suggest that this may be a cause of the multiple organ failure in COVID-19 patients.
One of the frightening early reports was the number of hospitalized patients appearing to have myocarditis that could lead to sudden death. Classic myocarditis is typically easy to identify in autopsies, as it occurs when the body perceives tissues to be foreign and attacks it causing large dead zones in the heart, and muscle cells would be surrounded by infection fighting lymphocytes cells. However thus far in the autopsy samples taken the dead myocytes were not surrounded by lymphocytes, only very mild inflammation has been seen on the surface of the heart but nothing that looks like myocarditis, according to Fowkes from Mount Sinai.
Rapkiewicz of NYU Langone was shocked at the abundance in the heart of the rare megakaryocytes cells, these cells produce platelets that control clotting, and typically exist only in bone marrow and lungs. Taking samples from COVID-19 patients lungs she discovered that those cells were in abundance there as well. I could not remember a case before where we saw that, she said. It was remarkable they were in the heart.
From LSU Vander Heide has a more in-depth paper that is under review in a journal explains that when you look at a covid heart, you dont see what youd expect. According to him a few autopsies he performed were on patients that had gone into cardiac arrest in the hospital, but after examination the primary damage was found in the lungs not in the heart.
A host of neurological impairments are also being reported including excessive sleepiness, reduced ability to smell or taste, altered mental status stroke, seizures, and delirium. 84% of patients in France in ICUs are reported to have had neurological problems with one third being confused or disoriented at discharge. In the UK one report suggests that 57 of 126 patients with a new neurological or psychiatric diagnosis experienced a stroke due to a blood clot in the brain, with 39 having an altered mental state.
Isaac Solomon, a neuropathologist at Brigham and Womens Hospital in Boston has conducted autopsies taking slices of key areas of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, and others to investigate where this virus may be embedding itself into the brain. Each slice is divided into three dimensional grids, and 10 sections were taken from each to be studied. Solomon was only able to find snippets of the virus in some areas, and it was unclear whether they were dead remnants or active virus when the patient died; only small pockets of inflammation were found, but large swaths of damage due to oxygen deprivation was found. According to Solomon the pattern was eerily similar regardless of the patient suddenly dying or being in long term intensive care.
Findings underscore the importance of getting supplementary oxygen to patients quickly to prevent irreversible damage. Solomon has published a report in the New England Journal of Medicine, in it he suggests the findings suggest that the damage had been happening over a longer period of time, making him wonder about the effect on those who had been less ill.
The big lingering question is what happens to people who survive covid, said Solomon. Is there a lingering effect on the brain?
A Mount Sinai Health team took samples from brains, who were also shocked at the lack of virus and inflammation discovered, but they noted the widespread presence of tiny clots as being striking.
If you have one blood clot in the brain, we see that all the time. But what were seeing is, some patients are having multiple strokes in blood vessels that are in two or even three different territories, Fowkes said.
Rapkiewicz believes that it is too early to know whether the newest batch of autopsy reports can be translated into changes in treatment, but the information has revealed new paths to explore. One of her first calls was to Jeffrey Berger who is a cardiac specialist at NYU and runs a NIH funded lab focusing on platelets after she noticed the unusual platelet producing cells.
According to Berger the autopsies suggest that antiplatelet medications along with blood thinners may be useful for some of the symptoms of COVID-19, and he is pivoting a clinical trial to investigate the optimal doses while examining the effectiveness of such treatment.
Its only one piece of a very big puzzle, and we have a lot more to learn, said Berger. But if we can prevent significant complications and if more patients can survive the infection, that changes everything.
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Autopsy: Hoping To Solve Mysteries Of Coronavirus - Anti Aging News
Article courtesy of: Dr. Joel Kahn, MD, who is a Clinical Professor of Medicine at Wayne State University School of Medicine, one of the world's top cardiologists, best selling author, lecturer, and a leading expert in plant-based nutrition and holistic care.
Did you attend biology classes in school? If so, you may remember your first introduction to the cardiovascular system, how the rhythmic beating of the heart circulates oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. Most likely, that first lesson was relatively simple to understand.
Eventually, the lessons got more complicated. You soon learned that dietary choices, physical habits, and sleep quality all play a significant role in cardiovascular health. Once you understood that heart health is also affected by inflammation, free radical damage, and hormone levels, you recognized the importance of maintaining a balance between essential bodily processes.
A relatively short time ago, researchers identified a regulatory system that influences nearly every essential function in the body, including processes directly impacting cardiovascular health. They also discovered that this universal regulatory system responds to the phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids in hemp. Of the more than 100 cannabinoids in Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil, its the therapeutic potential of CBD(cannabidiol) that has people talking. CBD is a phytocannabinoid with anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasmodic properties (1).
If youre intrigued by the therapeutic potential of Hemp Oil, its important to understand that the composition of the oil you select will have a considerable impact on your health. For the best experience, youll need to know how your body will react to hemp. Youll also need to know the differences between CBD oil and Whole-Plant Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil.
Investigating the Health and Wellness Potential of Phytocannabinoids
If youve been investigating the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids, you may already have a basic understanding of how these plant elements relay urgent messages to the receptors of the endocannabinoid system (ECS)(2), the largest regulatory system in the body. What you may not realize is how essential this communication is to your overall health and wellbeing.
Modern researchers believe the main purpose of ECS signaling is to regulate the processes involved in homeostasis (the internal balance all living organisms must maintain to survive). When internal or external forces threaten that balance, homeostatic processes restore equilibrium (3).
That equilibrium affects nearly every essential function in your body. The ECS messengers (endocannabinoids) are produced by your body as needed and then broken down by metabolic enzymes once their messages are delivered to cannabinoid receptors. The response initiated by the receptors depends on the chemical composition of the message received. Just a few of the numerous processes regulated by ECS signaling (4) include:
Ideally, your body would make all the ECS messengers needed to ensure that all internal processes run efficiently. But, this is an ideal scenario. Under the influences of stress, illness, or injury, the demand for endocannabinoids can exceed the available supply.
When demand exceeds supply, essential communication between endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors becomes less efficient. Important messages may not be received. Since phytocannabinoids mimic the effects of the endocannabinoids produced in your body, supporting ECS function with Hemp Oil can potentially restore essential balance.
How Supporting ECS Function Can Protect Cardiovascular Health
Today, many cannabinoid researchers believe endocannabinoid deficiencies cause disease. Current research appears to support the connection between the lack of ECS messengers and fibromyalgia, IBS, migraine, several neurodegenerative disorders, and other treatment-resistant syndromes (5).
The evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids for a number of health concerns is based on animal studies, laboratory tests, clinical trials, and user reviews. In particular, the studies investigating the cardiovascular benefits of CBD and other phytocannabinoids are particularly intriguing.
Preliminary research suggests the phytocannabinoids in Hemp Oil may be beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease for people with diabetes (6). The research also shows that cannabidiol may protect the heart from ischemic damage. In animal studies, the CBD in Hemp Oil shows potential for stabilizing cardiac arrhythmia, a condition that causes the heart to beat too fast or in an irregular pattern (7)
Of course, far more testing needs to be done before reaching a universal consensus on hemp. Thats why Its important to note that CBD and other phytocannabinoids in Hemp Oil are not intended to be used as a preventative, treatment, or cure for any known health conditions. However, animal studies, lab results, and user testimonials suggest Hemp Oil products may be beneficial for heart health. To help determine how Hemp Oil can help you, consider the value of the following observations.
Phytocannabinoids May Help You Get the Rest You Need
While occasional sleeplessness is unlikely to cause irreparable damage, chronic sleep deprivation can take a considerable toll on your overall health. Current research shows that adults who sleep less than seven hours each night have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes, weight gain, high blood pressure, and other chronic health conditions that can contribute to a higher risk of heart disease (8) Numerous Hemp Oil users claim nightly use improves sleep quality. Thats not entirely surprising. Sleep and sleep cycles are regulated by the endocannabinoid system. The CBD in Hemp Oil is shown to stabilize sleep cycles and improve REM sleep. Plus, the anxiolytic and analgesic properties of cannabidiol have the potential to provide mood and nervous system support (9).
Hemp Oil May Help Your Body Manage the Impact of Stress
Stress initiates a cascade of events that can compromise your health. In response to physical or emotional stress, your body increases the production of adrenaline and the stress hormone cortisol. The longer the duration of the stress-inducing experience, the longer it takes for your body to restore balance. Prolonged stress can result in chronic inflammation, high blood pressure, stroke, and heart attack. For women, the risk increases after menopause due to estrogen loss (10).
Unresolved stresses can also trigger insomnia and anxiety. Researchers have found that CBD and other minor cannabinoids in Hemp Oil interact with receptors directly involved in stress responses. These receptors include endocannabinoid, GABA, dopamine, and serotonin receptors (11). That interaction explains the anxiolytic properties of CBD and other plant-based cannabinoids. Essentially, plant cannabinoids may be critical in providing nervous system, balanced mood, and neuroprotective support.
Phytocannabinoids May Reduce Your Risk of Developing High Blood Pressure
When doctors measure blood pressure, they are evaluating the amount of force exerted on arterial walls as blood flows through them. When this force remains unnaturally high for long periods of time, it can cause considerable damage to blood vessels. This can result in a long list of potential complications, including atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, angina, and heart attack. Most people with high blood pressure never experience symptoms until problems develop (12).
Pre-clinical studies suggest that the CBD in Hemp Oil helps reduce blood pressure by initiating blood vessel dilation. Once blood vessels expand, there is less stress exerted on the arterial walls. A 2017 randomized study revealed that a single dose of CBD reduced the resting blood pressure and the stress-induced blood pressure increases of nine healthy volunteers (13). While the results of initial investigations are intriguing, further study is needed.
Hemp Oil Has the Potential to Calm Systemic Inflammation
Inflammation is a defense mechanism, a healing response initiated by your immune system. The reaction is a sign that an army of white blood cells is responding to an injury or fighting an infection. However, the same immune system response that protects your body from harm can also cause significant damage. Modern researchers believe chronic inflammation contributes to diabetes, arthritis, various cancers, and heart disease (14).
While several medications can alleviate inflammation caused by medical disorders, there are currently no pharmacological treatments for the low-level inflammatory responses triggered by sugar, trans fats, stress, and free radical damage. Research shows that CBD and several lesser-known phytocannabinoids have the potential to neutralize inflammation by inhibiting COX enzymes(15), delaying the breakdown of anandamide (16), and activating vanilloid receptors. The latter, vanilloid receptors, influence pain perception and temperature regulation.
Phytocannabinoids May Enhance Post-Workout Recovery
Regular exercise helps modify the risk factors for developing heart disease. As strength and endurance build, decreased strain on the heart is promoted by reduced blood pressure, improved fat to muscle ratios, and reduced inflammation. But, while exercise benefits your heart, it can take a significant toll on the rest of your body. The resultant sore muscles, joint stiffness, and temporary loss of muscle strength can derail even the strongest wills. Most post-workout pain is caused by microscopic tears to over-worked muscles (17).
The analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasmodic properties of the many phytocannabinoids in Hemp Oil show considerable therapeutic potential for enhancing post-workout recovery. Using Hemp Oil before or after a strenuous workout may help your body recover faster, so the pain and discomfort of increasing the intensity of your workouts wont keep you on the sidelines.
The Significant Differences Between the Three Main Types of CBD Oil
CBD (cannabidiol) is the most abundant of the many phytocannabinoids found in Hemp Oil. When a manufacturer puts CBD Oil on a product label, that description tells you far less than you may realize. Not all CBD products contain the full spectrum of phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and other plant-based nutrients found naturally in the original plant source.
Up to 99% of the time, over-the-counter CBD Oil is made with a single cannabinoid blended with a carrier oil or is derived from plant oils that have been compromised by harsh extraction methods. Thats why its important to have a clear understanding of your options and realistic expectations about commercial CBD Oil preparations. To ensure you are selecting the best Hemp Oil for your needs, consider what you may achieve using the following products.
Understanding the Limitations of CBD Isolate
Isolating CBD from the numerous plant elements found in industrial hemp can greatly reduce its supportive potential. To produce CBD isolate, the cannabinoid-rich oil must first be separated from the plant matter. Most often, the production process begins with soaking the stalks, stems, and flowers of the plant in ethyl alcohol, a commonly used food additive. Hemp seeds dont contain CBD or other phytocannabinoids. The concern with this extraction method is the presence of potentially harmful residues after the alcohol evaporates from the Hemp Oil.
After the extraction process is complete, the oil is heated for a certain amount of time. Any extreme temperatures can compromise product potency. Next, a third step called winterization is used to remove the plants fatty acids, terpenes, additional cannabinoids, and other plant components. All thats left behind is a white, crystalline CBD powder lacking many of the nutrients found in the original plant source (18).
Navigating the Specifications of Broad-Spectrum CBD Oil
Hemp-derived products are labeled as broad-spectrum when they contain many of the phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and phytonutrients of the original plant. Although a considerable number of the minor cannabinoids are left intact, the trace amounts of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) are removed through a process called chromatography (19). While hemp plants dont synthesize enough of this somewhat controversial cannabinoid to cause intoxication, CBD users who would rather avoid THC typically select Hemp Oil products made with CBD isolate or Broad-Spectrum Hemp Oil.
Broad-spectrum Hemp Oil contains CBD and a wide array of phytonutrients but doesnt contain the entire spectrum of nutrients from the original plant source. In some cases, individual cannabinoids are isolated and then recombined in different ratios.
Recognizing the Benefit Maximizing Effects of Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil products are most often preferred by CBD enthusiasts looking to get the most benefit from their investment. Less processed than Broad-Spectrum Hemp Oil, Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil contains CBD plus the entire range of potentially beneficial phytocannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other plant components found in nature. Youll likely find that a significant number of companies favor CO2 extraction over other methods because the resulting product is cleaner than oils derived from soaking plant matter in alcohol.
Full-Spectrum Hemp Oil is believed to be the more potent of the three options because of a little-known phenomenon known as the Entourage Effect that maximizes the oils therapeutic potential. This theory is used to explain how the combined effects of the many cannabinoids, plant terpenes, and other plant elements work together synergistically, with each plant component enhancing the impact of the others. The combined effects of each phytonutrient are far greater than those accorded by individual plant elements (20).
How a LipidTrans Infusion Process Delivers a True Entourage Effect
Although many Hemp Oil companies claim their full-spectrum products contain all the phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and plant nutrients in the same ratios found in natural hemp plants, those claims may not be entirely accurate. To experience the full potential of a True Entourage Effect, your body needs access to the full range of polyphenols, essential fats, and phytocannabinoids commonly altered or removed during conventional production methods. Thus, in order to gain the most benefit from your investment, its important to select Hemp Oil products crafted without high pressure, extreme heat, or chemical solvents.
Functional Remedies Synchronicity Full-Spectrum, Whole-Plant Hemp Oil relies on the power of nature to deliver the highest quality Hemp Oil possible, LipidTrans Infusion. The lipid infusion process transfers all the plant nutrients, phytocannabinoids, and other beneficial compounds to a heart-healthy oil (MCT oil). This gentle process preserves the integrity of Hemp Oil, protecting the delicate balance found in nature. While Synchronicity Full-Spectrum Whole Plant Hemp Oil shows considerable potential for protecting heart health, the only way to know if its right for you is to try it. Ask Your Body. To ensure purity and potency, all Synchronicity Full-Spectrum, Whole-Plant Hemp Oil tinctures, capsules, and topical products are third-party tested and produced in a cGMP certified facility. cGMP certification guarantees all production processes meet or exceed FDA enforced manufacturing standards.
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Leveraging The Power Of Full Spectrum Hemp Oil (Synchronicity) - Anti Aging News
A solid skin-care routine is the cornerstone of good grooming. Well-cared-for skin means youll experience less frequent breakouts, youll show less irritation and redness, and youll stave off visible signs of aging. Start taking this stuff seriously, and it will make you more handsome almost immediatelyand ensure you age more gracefully for the rest of your life. More important than all that, though, is the satisfaction that comes from a daily ritual of taking care of yourself. It just feels good.
But it can be hard to know where to start. The skin-care rabbit hole is deep: You start with a thing of Cetaphil from CVS, and next thing you know youre ordering snail-secretion filtrate, airmail from Korea. And this particular moment, when so much is in flux and so many of us are searching for new ways to fill our days, is in some ways the perfect time to pick up a new habit and make it work for you. But what you dont need is yet another thing that makes you feel overwhelmed or down on yourself. A grooming routine should quite literally do the opposite. So before taking any of the advice Im about to dispense, be realistic about what youre willing to commit to when it comes to skin care.
This guide is intended to help you work out a five-step routine that will take five or 10 minutes every morning and evening. Its not that big of a deal once you get started, but if multiple steps and products sound like a little much, maybe start somewhere extremely simplea drugstore face wash and an inexpensive hyaluronic acid serum, sayand see how that goes. (If youre starting completely from scratch, it could go a long way!) On the other hand, if youre feeling ready to commit to a true routine, lets get started.
Theres no single universal best skin-care routine, because everyones skin is different. Instead, there are two important concepts when it comes to figuring out the right routine for you: skin type and skin concern.
Skin type refers to your skin's neutral dispositionwhat its naturally like if youre not doing anything at all. The most common skin types are dry, normal, and oily, explains my friend the aesthetician Rene Rouleau. Dry skin, she explains, is found on someone with small pores and tight-feeling skin, who doesnt get oily throughout the day. Normal skin doesnt get oily, but generally doesnt feel tight or uncomfortable. Oily is someone who gets large pores and can build up oil throughout the day, most commonly around the nose and forehead. (There are absolutely more types, but Im keeping it simple here for a reason. If youre really curious about diving in, you can take a quiz to better categorize yourself.)
Skin concern is a little bit different: Its whats happening on your face that youd specifically like to address. This refers to specific skin issues, like signs of aging, acne, hyperpigmentation, or redness and irritation. Products are often formulated to address a specific concern.
You can certainly get fancier with it, but a complete skin-care routine has just five basic steps:
1. Cleanser2. Toner3. Serum4. Eye Cream5. Moisturizer
Until this becomes second nature, write it down on a sticky note and place it on your bathroom mirror, or keep this list handy on your phone.
To all the discourse about men finally washing their damn hands because of the pandemic, allow me to add: Wash your damn face too. Cleansing is important, morning and night, Rouleau says. It removes toxins and oils, gets rid of bacteria from [you] touching your face, and any debris, sunscreens, or topical products youve applied. Beyond hygiene, cleansing allows any products you apply afterward to be properly absorbed by the skin for maximum efficacy.
A dog year isn’t seven human years, scientists find, and pets might be ‘older’ than you think – Telegraph.co.uk
"This makes sense when you think about it - after all, a nine-month-old dog can have puppies, so we already knew that the 1:7 ratio wasn't an accurate measure of age," said senior author Dr Trey Ideker,professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine.
Scientists say this new comparison between dog ageing and humancould be helpful for vets, so they can work out whether illnesses in dogs are age-related.
The formula provides a new "epigenetic clock," a method for determining the age of a cell, tissue or organism based on a readout of its epigenetics, which are chemical modifications like methylation, which influence which genes are "off" or "on" without altering the inherited genetic code.
Previous studies have found epigenetic clocks for humans, but these don't translate to other species and may not even be the same for other humans.
One limitation of this clock is they only used blood from Labradors, and different breeds are known to live for different amounts of time. Dr Ideker plans to test more breeds, but said thatsince it's accurate for humans and mice as well as Labrador retrievers, he predicts the clock will apply to all dog breeds.
"I have a six-year-old dog -- she still runs with me, but I'm now realising that she's not as 'young' as I thought she was," DrIdeker added.
He said dogs are interesting to study because they live so closely with us, perhaps more than any other animal, so a dog's environmental and chemical exposures are very similar to humans, and they receive nearly the same levels of health care.
The research could be useful for humans, not just their pets. The scientists believe the epigenetic clock could be used to test anti-ageing treatments, to see if they had made any difference to the methylation patterns in the genome and therefore altered the 'age' of human cells.
"There are a lot of anti-ageing products out there these days -with wildly varying degrees of scientific support," Dr Ideker said,"But how do you know if a product will truly extend your life without waiting 40 years or so? What if you could instead measure your age-associated methylation patterns before, during and after the intervention to see if it's doing anything?"
Global Botulinum Toxin Market: Snapshot
Botulinum toxin, known to the mankind as one of the most poisonous biological substances, is a neurotoxin produced by theClostridium botulinum bacteria.Clostridium botulinum, the gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria commonly found in water, soil, on plants, and the intestinal tracts of animals can be elaborated into eight exotoxins, all interfering with the process of neural transmission and causing muscle paralysis.
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From the earliest recorded uses of the toxin for the management ofstrabismus in humans to being approved for the treatment of a number of spasticity-related conditions, it has now started witnessing demand across nearly all important sub-specialties of the medicine sector. It was approved by the FDA in 2002 for the cosmetic application of decreasing glabeller forehead frown lines temporarily.
Ever since, botulinum toxins continue to play a key role in the management of a wide range of medical conditions, especially hemifacial spasm, focal dystonias and strabismus, several spastic movement disorders, hyperhidrosis, hypersalivation, headaches, and certain chronic diseases that only partially respond to medical treatments. The set of potential new indications treatable by botulinum toxins is expanding at a rapid pace.
Cosmetological applications, one of the most popular and profitable applications of botulinum toxins, include correction of creases, fine lines, and wrinkles over the face, neck, chin, and chest.Dermatological applicationsof the toxin, including hyperhidrosis, are also gaining increased popularity, chiefly as botulinum toxin injections are often well tolerated and lead to few side effects.
Global Botulinum Toxin Market: Overview
The international botulinum toxin (BNT) market is gigantically advantaged by the soaring number of applications for different purposes. A recent study has revealed that BNT can be used for benefitting patients with shoulder disorders such as those who undergo rotator cuff surgery. BNT in the form of onabotulinum toxin A (OnabotA) is licensed in several countries such as Korea to help with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) induced urinary incontinence attributable to multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury.
The world BNT market could be segregated as per two key classifications, i.e. product type and end use. Maintaining a promising share in the global market, botulinum toxin type A (BNTA) is envisioned to be a faster growing product with applications in both aesthetic and therapeutic fronts.
The report on the global BNT market has been compiled after taking comprehensive efforts to gather vital insights for procuring future growth prospects, opportunities to rise against the odds, and data related to the current and future competitive scenario.
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Global Botulinum Toxin Market: Trends and Opportunities
The aesthetic classification by type of end use is prognosticated to make a positive difference in the overall BNT market with a record share registered in 2015. BNT finds application in the treatment of glabellar lines, crows feet, and frown lines. As a result, it has received a significant demand in terms of primary cosmetic application for controlling aging signs and enhancing facial appearance.
Since BNT is a neurotoxin, the lackluster in the adoption of neurotoxins could raise questions on the demand in the global BNT market. The market growth could be further hindered with substandard reimbursement coverage on few products and extortionate treatment procedures. Moreover, shortness of breath and allergic reactions are some of the side effects witnessed on the part of neurotoxins.
However, a substantial number of BNT applications is expected to birth in the near future on account of large investments in research and development projects. The demand for BNT is anticipated to augment even more with the increase in demand for non-invasive and minimally invasive treatments. Vendors can also keep their hopes alive during any turmoil in the market with the escalation of geriatric population.
The therapeutic use of BNT is predicted to see a constant rise owing to the growing application of botulinum toxin B (BNTB) in the treatment of cervical dystonia and Xeomin and Dysport products for hyperhidrosis and blepharospasm.
Global Botulinum Toxin Market: Regional Outlook
Asia Pacific is analyzed to possess the potential to rise as a reliable geographical segment to bet the bottom dollar on. The demand in the Asia Pacific BNT market is envisaged to aggravate as players ride on the growing aged population and their need for anti-aging products. Besides augmenting disposable income, vendors in the Asia Pacific region could heavily benefit from the hot social awareness about commercial anti-aging products in countries such as Japan, China, and India.
Having won the crown of dominant growth in 2015, North America is expected to raise the growth bar once again on the back of the elevating BNT demand for improving external appearances and other aesthetic reasons.
Global Botulinum Toxin Market: Companies Mentioned
Considering their influence in the world BNT market on the basis of commercial availability and brand identity, companies such as Merz Pharma GmbH and Co. KgaA, Ipsen Group, Allergan, Inc., US Worldmeds, LLC, and Medytox, Inc. are predicted to top the list of best global players. These players are foreseen to take advantage of the colossal adoption of BNT on account of tangible benefits such as speedy healing of wounds, shorter stay in the hospital, and small incision.
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Botulinum Toxin Market Real Time Analysis and Forecast 2017 2025 - Owned