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I Went to Germany to Go on a 200-Calorie-A-Day Liquid Diet. Heres Why I Would Do It Again. – Robb Report

I should be miserable Id been cautioned: Watch out for day three. Thats when the demons begin to rage. Im on a medically supervised 10-day fast that promises to help me shed some weight while also futureproofing that newly slimmed-down body against aging. Worth the odd demon or a pang or two, then.

Indeed, Im a bit hungrybut thats not surprising, given that Ive consumed little more than tea, juice and soup over the past 48 hours. But I had been anticipating far worse, as several friends, all veterans of the Buchinger Wilhelmi process I am undertaking, had warned me. The real challenges in forgoing food wouldnt be simple hunger, they said. Fasting isnt the hard part, said one. Its the emotional side. I usually spend the third day curled in a ball in my room, weeping. Everything you repress just comes out, all at once. A second moaned about the physical side effects on day three for her: throbbing headaches, a furry tongue and dry skin, all because the toxins her body was purging began to crest, she said, wide-eyed. The consensus was that Id feel, generally, dreadfulnot just hungry but also sad, aching and exhausted, likely confined to my bed, wakefully toggling between napping and fretting. Yet another confided that it was day three when the risk of cheating peaked. Shed heard that folks usually skulk out the clinics back gate and into the nearby town to scarf down a furtive frankfurter or two to offset the gnawing pains.

Instead, I feel fine.

The pool at the Buchinger Wilhelmi clinic.Winfried Heinze

More than fine. Remarkably, I feel absolutely dandy. Ive no physical problems whatsoever; in fact, Im swimming 50 laps in the pool here at the Buchinger Wilhelmi spa every afternoon, and the only reason my eyes are watering is the troublesome pollen. I miss chewing, for sure, and Im not partial to some of the broth recipes: The mere mention of turnip evokes Dickensian deprivation, though the watery tomato is bright-flavored and delicious. But I havent cheated, despite deliberately wandering into town yesterday morning to tempt myself with the smells of fresh-cooked sausages. I took a deep breathdelicious for sure, but I was happy to eat with my eyes.

Either Im too two-dimensional to be troubled by deep thoughts or Im one of the lucky ones, sailing straight from eating three meals daily to the Zen state of semi-starvation without detouring down a physical and emotional rabbit hole. Ive arrived, instead, at 200-calorie nirvana, where the body, now short on fuel, is forced into overdrive. With my metabolism working harder to produce energy, I experience a new level of strength and mental clarity. I am Superman without the blue tights. In fact, the only challenge for me is my sleep. Usually, I slumber deeply and soundly anywhere, so its strange to find myself so fitful, with bouts of deep rest punctuated by an unfamiliar alertness. Otherwise, I nod sympathetically as I try not to gloat when folks mournfully complain in the feeding salon, the lounge-like area where our non-meals are devoured.

A suite at the Buchinger Wilhelmi clinic.Winfried Heinze

Its inside the salon that I first meet my fellow fasters on day one, at what passes for a welcome party at Buchinger Wilhelmi, on the shores of Lake Constance in Germany, just across the border from Switzerland. My fellow fasters are a motley bunch, drawn from across the world. Im surprised the room is equally split between men and women. There are several first-timers like me: a Saudi couple, for instance, well-padded fiftysomethings who plan to stay for three weeks. Other newbies include a pair of friends, fit, middle-aged financiers who usually take an adventure vacation together each year, leaving their wives at home. Most of the room, though, consists of starvation pros, folks whove followed the Buchinger Wilhelmi method several times before. Typical is the French sculptor whos back for a seventh stay. He became a devotee when his first stint allowed him to permanently shed the 40 pounds hed gained after a car accident. Tall and gaunt, he looks to be in his late 60s or older; hes come again, he explains, as an anti-aging effort. More than the chance to shed pounds, its this elusive promise that underpins the work at Buchinger Wilhelmi.

For this is no conventional fat farm. Forget face-lifts and fitness classesits bouts of fasting that Buchinger Wilhelmi claims will offer a slimmed-down path to eternal youth, or something close to it, at least. Fasting, the staff preaches, will better safeguard your body against the forces of age. The focus here, though, is not only extending your life span but also improving the quality of whatever life you have, or whats now known as your health span. The clinics practice aims to address a conundrum: How do we ensure our brains and our bodies remain in peak condition for our entire lives, bringing both quantity and quality of life in sync? Slash our daily energy source, Buchinger Wilhelmi posits, and the bodys metabolic switch is triggered. Deprived of easy fuel, our bodys metabolism instead turns to ketones, compounds produced from fats by our liver in a state known as ketosis, achieved by fasting at least 10 to 12 hours. Theres more afoot, too: During ketosis, the body starts to repair and reboot, helping bat away looming bad health. Per the clinics owners, eating 200 to 300 daily calories for several days, any time from your 20s to your 60s, isnt just good for your waistline; its an investment in the well-being of seventy-something you.

The Buchinger Wilhelmi clinic.Winfried Heinze

Theres no hardship here, though. The clinic doesnt resemble a traditional sanatorium but rather a five-star hotel. Scattered among several buildings on a steep hill, the rooms are decorated in muted tones and filled with tasteful, vaguely modernist furniture. One of the front-of-house staff is an alum of the Ritz Carlton in New York and proudly wears the lapel pin of Les Clefs dOr, the elite cabal of concierges. Theres a hair salon but no conventional luxury hotel-style spa. Instead, the clinic offers two main medical complexes, where the doctors and nurses on staff perform their examinations, plus numerous treatment rooms discreetly tucked into various buildings, where guests can book everything from osteopathy and shiatsu massage to outre rituals like Chi Nei Tsang, a Chinese abdominal massage, to pass the time between non-meals.

And, yes, the food. Other than at the start and end of your stay, when youll receive delicious, low-calorie vegetarian meals to help ease your digestive system into and out of hibernation, theres little to eat. (Dont confuse fasting-induced ketosis with a ketogenic low-carb, high-fat diet.) Breakfast is herbal tea and a tiny saucer of honey; keep it for the day, the nurse advises, and eat it sparingly when you need some energy. Lunch is fresh-squeezed juice, cut with more herbal tea to reduce its calories. Dinner is the aforementioned broth. Such scrapsor dripsof food leave my digestive system effectively fallow, though there are regular enemas from the nurse just to make sure. She also checks my vitals each morning, reminds me to drink at least six liters of water a day (to stay hydrated and prevent gout) and comes to my room every afternoon to wrap my liver, one of the quirks of the Buchinger Wilhelmi process: After what passes for lunch, youll spend an hour or more in bed, swaddled like a baby with a hot water bottle pressed to your liver. Per the clinics theories, such cosseting helps boost the livers ketone production process.

Breakfast: Tea With Honey (65 calories)Jenny Huang

The woman who helped formalize many such theories is Francoise Wilhelmi de Toledo, M.D. Trained as a conventional physician, she visited the clinic as a guest in her 20sand never left. After marrying into the family, she became the medical director. Toledo is now the clinics head of medical research and lives in a sleek glass box of a house nearby; one of her two sons, Leo Wilhelmi, handsome with a mane of dark hair, handles day-to-day operations. At 66, she has a gamine energy and a feline intelligence, and could easily pass for a decade younger. Doubtless, shed attribute her youthful glow to her decades-long adherence to fasting, both daily (in 16-hour windows) and twice yearly, when she follows the clinics regimen for 10 days or more at a stretch.

She invites me over for teafresh herbs, thyme picked from her gardenso she can explain the work here in person. Like the clinics staff and entire operation, the Swiss-born Toledo slides fluently between French, English and German as she talks; she has an evangelists charisma. Think of fasting as metabolic training, she urges, teaching the body how to use different energy sources, much as a hybrid auto switches between electricity and gas for efficiency. Hunger isnt to be avoided but rather deployed, a forgotten reflex that we need to relearn. Toledo is pleased that the clientele here includes so many men as well as womenthat 50:50 ratio is a rarity for conventional spas. Fasting is not easy, as we take away everything you like at the beginning, so its more of a challenge. Men like that, she says.

Indeed, it was a man who founded the clinic, a hundred years ago. His reasons were personal: Otto Buchinger, a physician, was wheelchair-bound from severe rheumatoid arthritis, at least until he fasted for almost three weeks on the suggestion of another doctor. Buchinger followed the most extreme protocols, ingesting only water. As a result, he later claimed, he was able to walk again. Buchinger turned his belief in the healing power of calorie restriction into his lifes work, setting up this clinic, which his descendants, including his great-grandson Leo, still run. But it is only in the last two decades or so that conventional science has turned its attention to the potentials of calorie restriction, and men have increasingly embraced fasting as the final fitness toola way to put their insides through as punishing a training regimen as they follow at the gym. Broadly speaking, there are two common approaches that aim to leverage reduced food intake for health and weight benefits. The first, periodic fasting, is the approach followed by the clinic; cut calories for an extended period every year or so, for example. The second is intermittent fasting, which deprives the body of nutrition in a given pattern each day or week: 16 consecutive hours in every 24 is popular (often called 16:8). Proponents claim both systems allow the body to shift into that sought-after state of ketosis.

Lunch: Freshly Squeezed Juice (50 calories)Jenny Huang

Peter Bowes is a longtime BBC journalist who periodically fasts in his role as host of the podcast Live Long and Master Aging. During fasting, he says, the body undergoes autophagy, or spring-cleaning mode, meaning it recycles damaged or old cell machinery. Studies suggest that this processwhich derives from Greek words meaning self and to eatcan even result in new synapses forming in the brain. When your immune system is challenged like this, it throws out the cells its not using, that are maybe a little weather-worn, Bowes says, and builds a new immune system, re-growing white blood cells.

A prolonged state of autophagy, then, could be thought of as a real-life counterpart to the serum that transformed scrawny Steve Rogers into super-soldier Captain America. Indeed, the US government has explored how to use intermittent fasting to improve the performance of elite commandos, according to Mark Mattson, a world-renowned expert in fasting and adjunct professor of neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Mattson says officials from NASA and the air force contacted him to discuss how to use his research in just this way. Its evolution, he says. If youre food-deprived, you need to be more alert and motivated to find foodthats why you often feel sleepy after a meal. He suggested using intermittent fasting as a training tool, spending two days per week, for example, drinking only water. Mattson has focused his studies on such intermittent fasts and has a hunch its more effective than the Buchinger Wilhelmi method of one long annual fast, though he recognizes the benefits of calorie-deprivation of any kind. His research includes clinical studies of individuals at risk of cognitive impairment from Alzheimers and similar diseases, in which he found that those on a diet that included fasting showed memory and learning improvements within two months. Mattson says intermittent fasting is also a promising component in cancer treatment. You should hit them in the fasting state with drugs or radiation because cancer cells cannot use ketones [as fuel], so if the glucose levels in the body are relatively low, it makes them more vulnerable, he explains.

Dinner: Broth (36 calories)Jenny Huang

Andrew Jenkinson, a London bariatric surgeon and author of Why We Eat (Too Much), does not recommend long-term fasting but is a proponent of the 16:8 approach. Ketogenesis is probably the best way to lose weight, but unfortunately, its difficult to sustain. Whatever diet you do for weight loss needs to be your new life, says Jenkinson, who recommends a low-carb diet. Fasting for a sustained period of time will improve the inflammatory response over the short term, and it will make you think faster and more clearlyit will give you a real buzz.

Experts differ on how long it takes for autophagy to kick in from intermittent fastingfrom right away to 12 weeksbut for optimal results, Toledo recommends practicing it five days a week. Jenkinson urges caution, too: Individual metabolisms and default weights vary. Veer from the program and youll likely rebound to where you started, he says. Though Toledo has led extensive in situ studies to determine the safety of the protocols used at the clinic, there are no records on the long-term efficacy of stays. The high ratio of repeat visitors could suggest that it is, indeed, hard to maintain such weight loss. Then again, it could be evidence of how effective her evangelical zeal proves in recruiting converts.

Im impressed, if not completely converted, by day 10. At my final morning check-in with the nurse, Ive lost close to 12 pounds and two inches from my waistline. More than anything, though, the stay here has changed the way I eat. I couldnt even finish the first meal of solids, post-fast, served up with a candle and certificate in celebration. Im just not as hungry as often anymore, and Ive adopted that 16:8 system most days. Three months later, even during lockdown with limited exercise, Ive remained slim. Would I come again? Absolutely. But perhaps the bigger question is: Why should I need to? Check back with me in a year.

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I Went to Germany to Go on a 200-Calorie-A-Day Liquid Diet. Heres Why I Would Do It Again. - Robb Report

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Re-Stem-Funded Study Targeting Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Age-Related Diseases Published in Science Advances Journal – Press Release -…

Aug. 9, 2020 / PRZen / SUZHOU, China -- Re-Stem Biotech (Re-Stem or the Company), a biotechnology firm engaged in the research and development of cell therapies targeting osteoarthritis, spinal cord injury and various cancers recently funded in part a study titled "Solid-phase inclusion as a mechanism for regulating unfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix". Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, led by Rong Li, Ph.D., published their findings in the journal "Science Advances" (view full article here: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/32/eabc7288) The study may provide mechanistic insights for mitochondrial dysfunction observed in aging and age-related diseases.

About Mitochondrial DysfunctionMitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. During aging, damaged/unfolded proteins in mitochondria that are failed to be degraded gradually accumulate. In addition, recent evidence suggests that non-mitochondrial proteins constituting pathological aggregates in neurodegenerative diseases also accumulate in mitochondria and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it remains unclear how excessive damaged proteins are managed within mitochondria when known quality control mechanisms become inadequate, and how they contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction during the aging process.

About the StudyThe researchers discovered that excessive unfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix are consolidated into novel structures, which they named Deposits of Unfolded Mitochondrial Proteins (DUMP). DUMP formation is an age-dependent process, while accelerated DUMP formation causes mitochondrial dysfunction and premature aging. They found that DUMP formation was not random, but specific in mitochondria near endoplasmic reticulum (ER), another organelle in cells. The contact sites between mitochondria and ER regulate DUMP formation via transferring lipids between two organelles. Via a series of genetic and live-cell imaging studies, researchers identified key enzymes of mitochondrial lipid metabolism that control DUMP formation. Manipulation of these enzymes modulates DUMP formation, therefore, potentially they could be targets for anti-aging or treating age-related diseases.

About Re-Stem BiotechRe-Stem Biotech (Re-Stem) is a biotechnology firm engaged in the research and development of cell-based therapies and products. Backed by state of the art GMP facilities and an international team of world-leading scientists, doctors and management team, Re-Stem currently has a robust technology platform including four profitable therapies on the market and eight other therapies and products in the pipeline. Incorporated and headquartered in 2012 in Suzhou, China, Re-Stem is focused on the large and aging population of China. It also operates clinics and research and development laboratories in Shenzhen, Beijing, Kunming and Ganzhou. For more information visit Re-Stem Biotech website: https://www.restembio.com/

Forward-Looking StatementsStatements in this press release relating to plans, strategies, trends, specific activities or investments, and other statements that are not descriptions of historical facts and may be forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results could differ materially from those currently anticipated due to a number of factors, which include those regarding our ability to implement objective, plans and strategies for future operations. Forward-looking information may be identified by terms such as "will," "may," "expects," "plans," "intends," "estimates," "potential," or "continue," or similar terms or the negative of these terms. Although Re-Stem believes the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, it cannot guarantee that future results, performance or achievements will be obtained. Re-Stem does not have any obligation to update these forward-looking statements other than as required by law.

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Re-Stem-Funded Study Targeting Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Age-Related Diseases Published in Science Advances Journal - Press Release -...

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The Bold and the Beautiful News: Denise Richards Raves About Her Husband – Soap Hub

Shaunas union with Ridge may be tentative on The Bold and the Beautiful, but Denise Richards, Shaunas portrayer, is rock solid with her real-life mate Aaron Phypers. Recently, the actress/reality TV star took to social media to laud praise upon her mate.

Im always in awe of my husband & never get tired of hearing him talk about the incredible things he does, Richards says. He is the most compassionate & hardest working man I know. Even on his days off, hes anyways helping people selflessly. I love all of his modalities & learning about new technology to help different things. It fascinates me & I love learning too.

Many may not understand, Richards adds, but I have seen so many people come & being grateful that he changed their life. And he changed mine & my daughters. Love him so much. One follower asked Richards what her husband does for a living. She responded that he works in Frequency Medicine. Richards and Phypers, in fact, first encountered each other at his center in Malibu when she began seeing him professionally, and later, it developed into a personal relationship.

So, I met him at his center doing DNA repair, anti-aging, and that sort of thing, Richards explained in an episode of her reality series The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills.

Just what is Frequency Medicine? Its hard for me to explain, but its light and sound therapy, Richards says. How he described what is going on is Ella Fitzgerald sings and breaks glass, right? The frequency breaks that. So frequency can also break down different things going on. Its not cuckoo weird [expletive]; its like been around for hundreds of years, holistic medicine, all over the world. Its different for every person. The Bold and the Beautiful airs weekdays on CBS. Check local listings for air time.

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The Bold and the Beautiful News: Denise Richards Raves About Her Husband - Soap Hub

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Global Anti-Aging Market is Expected to Reach USD 2,74290.1 Million by 2025 – Owned

According to a new market report published byBlueWeave Consulting,TheGlobal Anti-Aging Marketwas valued at USD 149362.8 million in 2017 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 7.9% from 2018 to 2024, by value, reaching around USD 274290.1 million by the end of the forecast period. According to the report, North America was the largest contributor in terms of revenue to the globalanti-aging marketin 2017.

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Increasing life expectancy and fall in birth rate are the major causes of an aging population. The aging population develops wrinkles due to lack of nutrients in the body, exposure to UV light, smoking, dehydration, medications and other genetic factors fueling the global anti-aging market.

Globally, aging population plays a major role in the growth of theanti-aging market. Old age is associated with loss of fibrous tissue and reduced vascular and glandular network in the layers of skin. In the elderly population, the appearance and characteristics of the skingetsaltered, leading to wrinkles, dryness, pigmentary alteration, and sagging of the skin. In addition, anti-aging products and devices help in reducing skin aging, thus giving younger look to a person by revitalizing and tightening the skin leading to the growth of the market

The key driver for the global anti-aging market is growth in anti-aging awareness campaigns. Major aspect of peoples life is engrossed by social media. This campaigns aims to ensure that all medical professionals are aware of the latest scientific research and the recent medical and surgical advances. For instance, EuroMediCom has organized the 4thAMWC Latin America- Aesthetic & Anti-Aging Medicine World Congress from 16th November to 18th November 2017, in Colombia, South America. These conference and seminars, along with social media, are expected to create awareness among students, delegates, and plastic surgeons about advanced anti-aging treatments.

The global market foranti-agingis segmented by type of product, by type of device, by treatment, demography, and geography. The type of product is further segmented into Anti-Wrinkle, Hair Color, UV Absorbers, Anti-Stretch Marks and Others. The type of device is further segmented into Radiofrequency, Laser, Anti-Cellulite, and Microdermabrasion. Treatment segment is bifurcated as Hair Restoration, Anti-Pigmentation, Anti-Adult Acne, Liposuction, Breast Augmentation, Chemical Peel and Others. Demography is segmented (Generation X, Baby Boomer, and Generation Y)

Geographically, the global anti-aging market is bifurcated into North America, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America anti-aging market was the most prominent market because anti-aging industry is one the major revenue contributor within the manufacturing industries. Thus, the demands for anti-aging products, like Anti-Wrinkle, Hair Color, UV Absorbers and Anti-Stretch Marks will generate higher revenue returns over the forecast period.

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Major industry players in global anti-aging market are adopting different strategic initiatives such as mergers and acquisitions, partnerships, and collaborations for strategic expansion in the anti-aging market. For instance, In January 2016, LOral unveiled My UV Patch, the first-ever stretchable skin sensor designed to monitor UV exposure and help consumers educate themselves about sun protection.

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Global Anti-Aging Market is Expected to Reach USD 2,74290.1 Million by 2025 - Owned

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How Old Is Your Dog in Human Years? Scientists Develop Better Method than ‘Multiply by 7’ – UC San Diego Health

If theres one myth that has persisted through the years without much evidence, its this: multiply your dogs age by seven to calculate how old they are in human years. In other words, the old adage says, a four-year-old dog is similar in physiological age to a 28-year-old person.

But a new study by researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine throws that out the window. Instead, they created a formula that more accurately compares the ages of humans and dogs. The formula is based on the changing patterns of methyl groups in dog and human genomes how many of these chemical tags and where theyre located as they age. Since the two species dont age at the same rate over their lifespans, it turns out its not a perfectly linear comparison, as the 1:7 years rule-of-thumb would suggest.

To calculate your dogs age in human years based on epigenetics, find the dogs age along the bottom axis and trace your finger straight up until you reach the red curve. Then trace your finger straight over to the left to find the corresponding human age. Credit: Cell Press

The new methylation-based formula, published July 2 in Cell Systems, is the first that is transferrable across species. More than just a parlor trick, the researchers say it may provide a useful tool for veterinarians, and for evaluating anti-aging interventions.

There are a lot of anti-aging products out there these days with wildly varying degrees of scientific support, said senior author Trey Ideker, PhD, professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center. But how do you know if a product will truly extend your life without waiting 40 years or so? What if you could instead measure your age-associated methylation patterns before, during and after the intervention to see if its doing anything? Ideker led the study with first author Tina Wang, PhD, who was a graduate student in Idekers lab at the time.

The formula provides a new epigenetic clock, a method for determining the age of a cell, tissue or organism based on a readout of its epigenetics chemical modifications like methylation, which influence which genes are off or on without altering the inherited genetic sequence itself.

Epigenetic changes provide scientists with clues to a genomes age, Ideker said much like wrinkles on a persons face provide clues to their age.

Ideker and others have previously published epigenetic clocks for humans, but they are limited in that they may only be accurate for the specific individuals on whom the formulas were developed. They dont translate to other species, perhaps not even to other people.

Ideker said it was Wang who first brought the dog idea to him.

We always look at humans, but humans are kind of boring, he said. So she convinced me we should study dog aging in a comparative way.

To do that, Ideker and Wang collaborated with dog genetics experts Danika Bannasch, DVM, PhD, professor of population health and reproduction at UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, and Elaine Ostrander, PhD, chief of the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch at the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health. Bannasch provided blood samples from 105 Labrador retrievers. As the first to sequence the dog genome, Ostrander provided valuable input on analyzing it.

First author Tina Wang, PhD, (right) with her husband, Brandon, and their dog, Belli, who inspired the study. Photo courtesy of Tina Wang.

Dogs are an interesting animal to study, Ideker said. Given how closely they live with us, perhaps more than any other animal, a dogs environmental and chemical exposures are very similar to humans, and they receive nearly the same levels of health care. Its also important that we better understand their aging process, he said, as veterinarians frequently use the old 1:7 years ratio to determine a dogs age and use that information to guide diagnostic and treatment decisions.

What emerged from the study is a graph that can be used to match up the age of your dog with the comparable human age. The comparison is not a 1:7 ratio over time. Especially when dogs are young, they age rapidly compared to humans. A one-year-old dog is similar to a 30-year-old human. A four-year-old dog is similar to a 52-year-old human. Then by seven years old, dog aging slows.

This makes sense when you think about it after all, a nine-month-old dog can have puppies, so we already knew that the 1:7 ratio wasnt an accurate measure of age, Ideker said.

According to Ideker, one limitation of the new epigenetic clock is that it was developed using a single breed of dog, and some dog breeds are known to live longer than others. More research will be needed, but since its accurate for humans and mice as well as Labrador retrievers, he predicts the clock will apply to all dog breeds.

Next, the researchers plan to test other dog breeds, determine if the results hold up using saliva samples, and test mouse models to see what happens to their epigenetic markers when you try to prolong their lives with a variety of interventions.

Meanwhile, Ideker, like many other dog owners, is looking at his own canine companion a little differently now.

I have a six-year-old dog she still runs with me, but Im now realizing that shes not as young as I thought she was, Ideker said.

Co-authors of the study also include: Jianzhu Ma, Samson Fong, Katherine Licon, Brian Tsui, Jason F. Kreisberg, UC San Diego; Andrew N. Hogan, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health; Peter D. Adams, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute; and Anne-Ruxandra Carvunis, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Funding for this research came, in part, from the National Institutes of Health (grants ES014811, GM108865, GM008666, AG031862 and DE022532; NHGRI intramural program), California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), and Maxine Adler Endowed Chair Funds.

An earlier version of this paper was shared as a preprint on BioRxiv on November 19, 2019, prior to peer-review and publication in Cell Systems.

Disclosure: Trey Ideker is co-founder of Data4Cure, Inc., is on the Scientific Advisory Board, and has an equity interest. He is also on the Scientific Advisory Board of Ideaya BioSciences, Inc., has an equity interest, and receives sponsored research funding. The terms of these arrangements have been reviewed and approved by the University of California San Diego in accordance with its conflict of interest policies.

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How Old Is Your Dog in Human Years? Scientists Develop Better Method than 'Multiply by 7' - UC San Diego Health

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Dog years is just a myth: New research shows non-linear relationship between dog and human years – WITI FOX 6 Milwaukee

SAN DIEGO, Calif.How old is your dog in human years? Thats a question that most dog owners answer using the multiply by 7 rule. The adage suggests that a 5-year-old pooch is similar in physiological age to a 35-year-old human. But a new study suggests that the age-old method may actually be a myth.

Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine found a formula that more accurately measures the age of our furry friends. It turns out that, when looking at the different patterns of methyl groups in dog and human genomes, the two species do not age at the same rate.

The study, published on July 2 in theCell SystemsJournal, found that when dogs are young, they age rapidly compared to humans. A 1-year-old dog is similar to a 30-year-old human, and a 4-year-old dog is similar to a 52-year-old human. Dogs rapid aging slows down after they turn 7 years old, according to the study.

Using the novel methylation formula, the researchers found the canine epigenetic clock, a method for determining the age of a cell, tissue or organism based on its epigenetics, which are chemical modifications like methylation that can influence which genes turn on or off without changing the entire gene sequence.

While human epigenetic clocks are not a novel discovery, they were limited to specific individuals and could not translate to other species.

There are a lot of anti-aging products out there these days with wildly varying degrees of scientific support,saidsenior author Trey Ideker, Ph.D., professor at UC San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center. But how do you know if a product will truly extend your life without waiting 40 years or so?

What if you could instead measure your age-associated methylation patterns before, during and after the intervention to see if its doing anything?

Since humans have been a default subject in science, Ideker and his fellow researcher, Tina Wong, Ph.D., decided to study a more interesting and unique species: dogs.

Domesticated dogs are unique in that they live close to humans more than any other animal, and they, therefore, have very similar environmental and chemical exposures. They also experience similar levels of health observation and health care intervention as humans.

Despite extensive phenotype differences, all domestic breeds are members of the same species with a similar developmental, physiological and pathological trajectory as humans, the report reads.

One limitation that the researchers noted was that they only tested Labrador retrievers. Ideker and his team plan to test other dog breeds to see if their new model for measuring dog years is universally effective and accurate.

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Dog years is just a myth: New research shows non-linear relationship between dog and human years - WITI FOX 6 Milwaukee

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